At first glance…• What do you notice as you reflect on Jared’s reading sample?
Preliminary Reading Analysis Patterns Strengths Needsholds book draws meaning letter/soundcorrectly from pictures recognition huge vocabularyturns pages on his base more concepts ofown print beginning stages oftells the story using concepts of printthe picture
What must learners understand about concepts of prinT as they begin to read & write?• Print carries meaning; it conveys a message.• Spoken words can be written & preserved.• Written words can be spoken (read aloud).• In English, words are read from left to right, top to bottom.• In English & other alphabetic languages, speech stream can be divided into sounds & these sounds are represented by letters or groups of letters (alphabetic principle).• Speech has a linear sequence in time that tends to correspond to the linear sequence of written language• Sound/symbol correspondences are consistent, but in English there are many exceptions.
Additional Preliminary FindingsConventions of print: Jared understands how to holdbook, recognizes book cover, knows to start on first pageto read story, turned pages on his own, understands thatpages link the story together.Understands that book carries meaning:Jaredunderstands that the book tells a story with picturesPrint carries meaning: Jared does not yet understandthat the words on the page carry meaning, did not followor point to words while “reading” – did not acknowledgethat words were there.
What must learners understand about story elements?• Beginning middle end;• Control of punctuation, lower/upper case letters;• Punctuation to define units (e.g., like periods after a sentence, but not after every word);• Conflict or problem (in story);• Detailed descriptions;• Character development;• Setting, setting development & its influence re: characters & story.
Use of Language Systems in ReadingSemantics (meaning): expects book/story to makesense, uses pictures to support meaningSyntax (structure): Not at point of reading a sentenceand figuring out unknown word based on sentencestructureGrapho-phonetic (visual): Not at point of recognizingletters or understanding that letters carry meaning. Whenshown letters [letter identification], Jared could notidentify any letters – upper or lower case.Pragmatics: Not at a point of understanding types oftexts, genre, purpose for reading, etc. (other thanenjoyment). When Jared was done “reading” the book,he asked if he could read some more.
Developmental Stages of ReadingStage 0: Pre-reading (birth to age 6)Stage 1: Initial reading or decoding stage (grades 1-2, ages 6-7)Stage 2: Confirmation, Fluency, Ungluing from Print(Grades 2-3, ages 7-8)Stage 3: Reading for Learning New Information(grades vary, ages vary)Stage 4: Reading for Multiple view points (highschool, ages 14-18)Stage 5: Reading to construct and reconstruct – aworld view (college, age 18 and above) (Chall, 1996 as cited in Harp & Brewer)
At first glance…• What do you notice as you reflect on Jared’s writing sample?
Preliminary Writing Analysis Patterns Strengths Needsuses pictures to draws pictures to Letter formationconvey meaning show meaningcopies with someaccuracy symbols pencil grip is closeand lines to what is needed to form letters correctly
Additional Preliminary FindingsNo concept of writing yet: After reviewing the written samples given byJared, it is noted that Jared has no concept of written language yet. Much ofthis analysis comes from observations made while Jared was writing anddrawing.Pictures convey meaning: He understands that pictures can convey ameaning, as when he was prompted to describe his favorite people he drewpictures instead of trying to write words. See link to reading – later – this is alsoevident in his reading.Copying letters (random letter stage of writing/spelling): When askedto copy symbols and lines, Jared was able to copy the lines quite easily; howeverthe symbols gave him difficulty.Fine motor skills – holding pencil in hand: Jared holds pen with an extendedfingers grasp, which is a simplistic handwriting grasp.Awareness of writing with letters: Jared is aware that adults do not onlydraw pictures to convey meaning, but they also write down letters. He hasstated that he is excited to go to school to learn what “Sissy does at school”.
Patterns Strengths Needs Strategies used- Understands - use of basic Pronunciation: -humor that language English syntax - acquire “ed” is for morpheme communicating - confident pronunciation and sharing speaker for simple past ideas tense- has a sense of English syntax (subject, verb, object; adjective-verb [cholat pudding, orange wing, little bite]- uses his imagination
Patterns Strengths Needs Strategies- Understands that - use of basic English Pronunciation: -humor language is for syntax - acquire “ed” -enthusiasm communicating and morpheme sharing ideas - confident speaker pronunciation for- simple past tense- has a sense of English - loves conveying - syntax (subject, verb, thoughts and ideas - acquire /θ/ and /ð/ object; adjective-verb phonemes, and the [cholat pudding, orange - able to answer wing] questions that focus - acquire the /s/- on current phoneme related to- uses his imagination conversation & “to be” verb, 3rd- referents person singular,- pronounces “ed” as contractions “ded” for simple past - uses imagination - tense (playded, watchded) - understands- pragmatics related to- reduces pronunciation social-contextual of “ing” as “in” (bein, expectation for pudding) saying “thank you”
Language Patterns of Strengths Errors (# and/or type) Strategies System (# &/or type) evidentPhonology - Able to pronounce most - Uses “d” for “th” (word(pronunciation) phonemes in -English initial, middle & word final) when he communicates? ( 16 errors out of 16 times - understands rising used) intonation for questions (See? A Debra? I done?) - Reduces “ing” phoneme to “in” (pudding, pretend, being) ( 5 out of 5 times)Syntax - Has an understanding of - deletes “to be” verb when(grammar) basic English syntax it is needed (telegraphic - Can use simple language) (I done, It orange) attributive adjectives to (6 errors out of 9 times) describe nounsLexicon - Uses simple vocabulary(vocabulary) for daily activities (play, watch TV or movie, eat, dinner, dessert, bath, stories) - Uses simple vocabulary for child play (home animals, zoo animals, trucks, colors, pretending, dragon, animal sounds)