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Impact of COVID-19 on
gender equality in research
and academia
Work-Family Interface, stress and Academic
productivity during the Covid-19 health
emergency
University of Cagliari
UniCA ...
Introduction
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is altering
dynamics in academia, and people juggling remote...
To better understand the impact of the pandemic on academic
careers, through the survey we tried to explore whether certai...
40%
22%
13%
10%
15%
Associated Professor
Full Professor
Researchers hired on temporary
contracts (A)
Researchers hired on ...
Scales: psychological dimensions
Perceived Stress Scale -PSS 10
(Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R., 1983; Mondo, M...
Statistical Analysis
Correlations
To verify associations between all
dimensions we used Pearson's correlation.
The results...
Correlations
Negative influence of work on family life
increase with the rising of
perception of negative stress and
workload
decrease ...
POSWF POSITIVE STRESS
Specifically, the results of the first regression
show that only the positive work-to-family
spillov...
We performed the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to determine if
there were significant differences between:
• ...
Fig. 5 Gender significant effect on Negative
Perceived Stress.
Multivariate analysis (MANOVA):
Gender
Fig. 6 Gender signif...
Fig. 7 Academic Position significant effect
on Negative Family-to-Work Spillover
Multivariate analysis (MANOVA):
Academic ...
Fig. 9 Presence/absence of children has
significant effect on the Negative Work-to-
Family Spillover
Multivariate analysis...
Fig. 10 Productivity Satisfaction has
significant effect on the Positive Work-to-
Family Spillover
Multivariate analysis (...
Fig. 12 Productivity Satisfaction has significant
effect on Positive Perceived Stress
Multivariate analysis (MANOVA):
Prod...
• Women feel more negative stress, even though at the same time they feel more supported by their
own organization.
• Full...
The SUPERA partners
SUPERA project has received funding from the European
Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme
under the gra...
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University of Cagliari - "Impact of COVID-19 on gender equality in research and academia"

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Presentation held by Barbara Barbieri (UNICA) during the online event "How COVID-19 impacted on gender equality in academia", organised by SUPERA on 9 June 2021.

More info about the event are available here: https://www.superaproject.eu/covid-19-impact-on-gender-equality-in-academia-on-9-06-an-online-event-to-present-the-surveys-results/

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University of Cagliari - "Impact of COVID-19 on gender equality in research and academia"

  1. 1. Impact of COVID-19 on gender equality in research and academia
  2. 2. Work-Family Interface, stress and Academic productivity during the Covid-19 health emergency University of Cagliari UniCA Results Presentation
  3. 3. Introduction The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is altering dynamics in academia, and people juggling remote work and domestic demands – including childcare – have felt impacts on their productivity (Staniscuaski et al., 2021). Literature suggests that gender and parenthood are associated with scientific productivity (Bianchi et al., 2012; Gupta et al., 2005; Jolly et al., 2014).
  4. 4. To better understand the impact of the pandemic on academic careers, through the survey we tried to explore whether certain psychological dimensions could contributed to explaining scientific productivity, satisfaction with scientific productivity and stress during the pandemic. In addition, we set out to explore the role of the work-family interface, both in terms of spillover and enrichment, in influencing productivity, satisfaction with one's productivity and stress. Finally, we analyzed the possible differences in the dimensions mentioned above in relation to gender, academic position and the presence / absence of children. Aims
  5. 5. 40% 22% 13% 10% 15% Associated Professor Full Professor Researchers hired on temporary contracts (A) Researchers hired on temporary contracts (B) Researchers hired with permanent contracts 50% 50% Female Male Sample The survey was administered between September and October 2020, with 243 answers. The response rate was approximately 25%. The sample is made up of men and women aged 30 to 70 years, with following Academic position: Full Professors, Associate Professors or Researchers Respondents are childless (44%), or they have 1 child (27%), 2 children (22%), 3+ (7%) 44% 27% 22% 7% No child One child Two children Three children and more
  6. 6. Scales: psychological dimensions Perceived Stress Scale -PSS 10 (Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R., 1983; Mondo, M., Sechi, C., & Cabras, C., 2019) • Positive Perceived Stress (pss_POS) • Negative Perceived Stress (pss_NEG) Work-Family Interface Scale (Kinnunen, U., Feldt, T., Geurts, S., & Pulkkinen, L.,2006; De Simone et al., 2018) • negative work-to-family spillover (NEG_WF) • negative family-to-work spillover (NEG_FW) • positive work-to-family spillover (POS_WF) • positive family-to-work spillover (POS_FW) Workload (Spector PE, Jex SM, 1998) Perceived Organizational Support (Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D., 1986; Battistelli, A., & Mariani, M. G., 2011) Work Engagement Scale - UWES-9 (Schaufeli, W. B., Bakker, A. B., & Salanova, M., 2006; Simbula et al., 2013) • Vigor • Dedication • Absorption Workplace Social Isolation (Marshall, G. W., Michaels, C. E., & Mulki, J. P., 2007) • Isol_Colleagues • Isol_Company
  7. 7. Statistical Analysis Correlations To verify associations between all dimensions we used Pearson's correlation. The results of the correlation analysis show significant relationships between almost all measured dimensions (Table 1). Regression model In order to test the role of the different dimensions of the work-family interface, workload and perceived organizational support on positive and negative perceived stress, productivity and productivity satisfaction, four regressions were conducted. The regression models considered as dependent variables respectively: positive stress, negative stress, scientific productivity and satisfaction productivity; while as independent variables they have been inserted in two blocks: workload and perceived organizational support, the four work-family Interface dimensions. Three models were significant, instead the regression model of the scientific productivity variable did not show significant results. Multivariate analysis Also, we performed the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to determine if there were significant differences between gender, academic position, presence/absence of children, scientific productivity and productivity satisfaction on the variables studied. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) had age as a covariate.
  8. 8. Correlations
  9. 9. Negative influence of work on family life increase with the rising of perception of negative stress and workload decrease with the rising of perception of organizational support Negative influence that family life brings to work increase with the rising of the perceived negative stress, isolation from colleagues and the company and the workload decrease with the rising of the perceived positive stress, work engagement in its three sub-dimensions (vigor, dedication, absorption), and perceived organizational support Enrichment that work brings to the family increase with the rising of the perceived positive stress, the three sub-dimensions of Work Engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and perceived organizational support decrease with the rising of perception of negative stress, isolation from both colleagues and the company and workload Enrichment from family to work increase with the rising of the three sub-dimensions of Work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and perceived organizational support decrease with the rising of isolation from colleagues and companies and workload Correlations
  10. 10. POSWF POSITIVE STRESS Specifically, the results of the first regression show that only the positive work-to-family spillover is predictive of the positive perceived stress ( =.859). POSWF NEGWF NEGATIVE STRESS AGE POSWF NEGWF PRODUCTIVITY SATISFACTION The results of the second regression show three predictors with a significant influence on the negative perceived stress: age ( =-.112), positive work-to- family spillover ( =-.999), negative work-to-family spillover ( =.899) Finally, there are two predictors for the productivity satisfaction dimension: positive work-to- family spillover ( =.396) and negative family-to-work spillover ( =-.336) Regression Model
  11. 11. We performed the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to determine if there were significant differences between: • gender, • academic position, • presence/absence of children, • scientific productivity • productivity satisfaction on the variables studied. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) use age as a covariate. The following results show a significant effect regarding gender, academic position, presence/absence of children, productivity satisfaction. No significant effect was found on scientific productivity. Multivariate analysis (MANOVA):
  12. 12. Fig. 5 Gender significant effect on Negative Perceived Stress. Multivariate analysis (MANOVA): Gender Fig. 6 Gender significant effect on Perceived Organizational Support
  13. 13. Fig. 7 Academic Position significant effect on Negative Family-to-Work Spillover Multivariate analysis (MANOVA): Academic Position Fig. 8 Academic Position significant effect on Workload Ass. Full RTDA RTDB Researcher Prof. Prof Ass. Full RTDA RTDB Researcher Prof. Prof
  14. 14. Fig. 9 Presence/absence of children has significant effect on the Negative Work-to- Family Spillover Multivariate analysis (MANOVA): Presence/absence of children
  15. 15. Fig. 10 Productivity Satisfaction has significant effect on the Positive Work-to- Family Spillover Multivariate analysis (MANOVA): Fig. 11 Productivity Satisfaction has significant effect on the Negative Family-to-Work Spillover Multivariate analysis (MANOVA): Productivity satisfaction
  16. 16. Fig. 12 Productivity Satisfaction has significant effect on Positive Perceived Stress Multivariate analysis (MANOVA): Productivity satisfaction Fig. 13 Productivity Satisfaction has significant effect on Perceived Organizational Support
  17. 17. • Women feel more negative stress, even though at the same time they feel more supported by their own organization. • Full professors and associate professors are those who perceive the most workload and who perceive a conflict between the family and work domains with the family that negatively interfere with work. • Parents than non-parents experience more negative stress, but they feel more supported by the organization, and experience more negative work-to-family and family-to-work spillover. • People who are more satisfied with their scientific productivity than those less satisfied experienced more positive work-to-family and family-to-work spillover, more positive stress and feel more supported by the organization, while those less satisfied than those more • Positive stress is more associated with positive work-to-family spillover. • Negative stress is more associated with age (with increasing age, negative stress decreases), positive and negative work-to-family spillover. • Satisfaction with scientific productivity is mostly associated with a positive work-to-family spillover and negative family-to-work spillover. • Scientific productivity is not explained by the dimensions analyzed in this study. Summary
  18. 18. The SUPERA partners
  19. 19. SUPERA project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the grant agreement No. 787829. www.superaproject.eu info@superaproject.eu

Presentation held by Barbara Barbieri (UNICA) during the online event "How COVID-19 impacted on gender equality in academia", organised by SUPERA on 9 June 2021. More info about the event are available here: https://www.superaproject.eu/covid-19-impact-on-gender-equality-in-academia-on-9-06-an-online-event-to-present-the-surveys-results/

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