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Focus on Gender Dimension in research at UniCA. State of the art and perspectives

Presentation held by Luigi Raffo (University of Cagliari), during the Workshop “Implementing gender strategies in research organizations”, Mediateca del Mediterraneo, Cagliari, 28 October 2019.

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Focus on Gender Dimension in research at UniCA. State of the art and perspectives
Focus on Gender Dimension
in research at UniCA.
State of the art and perspectives
Prof. Luigi RAFFO
UniCA coordinator of SUPERA project
Rector’s Delegate for International Research Projects
The areas of action of SUPERA
Gender imbalance in career progression: The underlying causes of the gender
imbalance in women’s career progression are numerous and complex. Several
dimensions interplay at different levels and contribute to the horizontal and vertical
segregation of female researchers. For example, at a macro‐level, society dictates
gender roles which influence and restrict women’s and men’s choices. At a meso‐level,
organisational cultures and procedures can be gender‐biased (or even blind) which
constrains women’s career progression. At a micro‐level, female researchers may lack
role models, as well as incentives to achieve their full potential.
Gender imbalance in decision‐making: Women are largely absent in senior positions in
academia. The reasons for the current over‐representation of men in power and
decision‐making are not only structural and multifaceted, but are also grounded in
traditional gender roles. The still very masculine image of science, the way in which
formal networks continue to function in selection processes and the fact that the bulk of
high‐level positions remain occupied by men are just some of the elements that convey
the message that there is no place for women at the top.
Gender dimension in R&I content: The way scientific knowledge is produced, applied
and translated to the society is not free from the global and structural system that
produces gender inequalities based on organizing men and women in hierarchical
different roles.
28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 3
http://www.here-research.it
The starting point
28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 4
The She Figures 2018 presents the latest available official statistics on the
footprint of women in the research landscape. The data follow the
‘chronological journey’ of researchers, from graduating from higher education
programmes to acquiring decision-making roles, while considering their
working conditions and intellectual outputs. She Figures, first released in 2003 is
updated every three years since then.
The SheFigure handbook serves as a reference document and provides users
with the methods needed to calculate the indicators, so as to increase the
quality and consistency of gender-related indicators across countries and time
periods. First edition In 2015, second edition (European Commission, 2019) has
been produced to accompany the She Figures 2018
SHE FIGURES
28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 5
Proportion (%) of men and women in a typical academic
career, students and academic staff, EU-28, 2013-2016
Source: SHE FIGURE 2018
28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 6
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Focus on Gender Dimension in research at UniCA. State of the art and perspectives

  • 2. Focus on Gender Dimension in research at UniCA. State of the art and perspectives Prof. Luigi RAFFO UniCA coordinator of SUPERA project Rector’s Delegate for International Research Projects
  • 3. The areas of action of SUPERA Gender imbalance in career progression: The underlying causes of the gender imbalance in women’s career progression are numerous and complex. Several dimensions interplay at different levels and contribute to the horizontal and vertical segregation of female researchers. For example, at a macro‐level, society dictates gender roles which influence and restrict women’s and men’s choices. At a meso‐level, organisational cultures and procedures can be gender‐biased (or even blind) which constrains women’s career progression. At a micro‐level, female researchers may lack role models, as well as incentives to achieve their full potential. Gender imbalance in decision‐making: Women are largely absent in senior positions in academia. The reasons for the current over‐representation of men in power and decision‐making are not only structural and multifaceted, but are also grounded in traditional gender roles. The still very masculine image of science, the way in which formal networks continue to function in selection processes and the fact that the bulk of high‐level positions remain occupied by men are just some of the elements that convey the message that there is no place for women at the top. Gender dimension in R&I content: The way scientific knowledge is produced, applied and translated to the society is not free from the global and structural system that produces gender inequalities based on organizing men and women in hierarchical different roles. 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 3
  • 5. The She Figures 2018 presents the latest available official statistics on the footprint of women in the research landscape. The data follow the ‘chronological journey’ of researchers, from graduating from higher education programmes to acquiring decision-making roles, while considering their working conditions and intellectual outputs. She Figures, first released in 2003 is updated every three years since then. The SheFigure handbook serves as a reference document and provides users with the methods needed to calculate the indicators, so as to increase the quality and consistency of gender-related indicators across countries and time periods. First edition In 2015, second edition (European Commission, 2019) has been produced to accompany the She Figures 2018 SHE FIGURES 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 5
  • 6. Proportion (%) of men and women in a typical academic career, students and academic staff, EU-28, 2013-2016 Source: SHE FIGURE 2018 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 6
  • 7. Source: SHE FIGURE 2018 Country Education Arts and humanities Social sciences, journalism and information Business, administration and law Natural sciences, mathematics and statistics Information and Communication Technologies Engineering, manufacturing and construction Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary Health and welfare Services EU-28 68 54 54 48 46 21 29 59 60 41 IT 81 58 60 51 53 25 37 59 64 - Proportion (%) of women among doctoral graduates, by broad field of study, 2016 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 7
  • 8. Proportion (%) M/W in a typical academic career in science and engineering, students and academic staff EU-28 Source: SHE FIGURE 2018 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 8
  • 10. <5 years 5-10 years >10 years <5 years 5-10 years >10 years <5 years 5-10 years >10 years <5 years 5-10 years >10 years <5 years 5-10 years >10 years <5 years 5-10 years >10 years WLD 0.9 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 EU-28 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 IT 0.9 0.7 0.7 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 Ratio of women to men average number of publications (all authorships), by field of R&D and seniority level, 2013-2017 Source: Computed by Elsevier using Scopus data. Natural Sciences Engineering and technology Medical sciences Agricultural sciences Social sciences Humanities and arts <5 years 5-10 years >10 years <5 years 5-10 years >10 years <5 years 5-10 years >10 years <5 years 5-10 years >10 years <5 years 5-10 years >10 years <5 years 5-10 years >10 years WLD 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 EU-28 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 IT 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.2 Ratio of women to men average FWCI of publications (all authorships), by field of R&D and seniority level, 2013-2017 Source: Computed by Elsevier using Scopus data. Natural Sciences Engineering and technology Medical sciences Agricultural sciences Social sciences Humanities and arts SHE FIGURES 2018 Number of publications and FWCI by field (W/M) 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 10
  • 11. Country 2008-12 2013-17 2008-12 2013-17 2008-12 2013-17 2008-12 2013-17 2008-12 2013-17 2008-12 2013-17 WLD 0.69 0.73 0.13 0.14 3.61 3.59 2.37 2.41 2.92 2.99 2.19 2.26 EU-28 0.76 0.80 0.14 0.15 3.79 3.69 2.41 2.46 3.02 2.97 2.31 2.18 IT 0.69 0.68 0.12 0.12 3.12 3.05 1.82 1.97 2.16 2.29 1.41 1.33 Percentage of a country's publications with a sex or gender dimension in their research content, by field of R&D, 2008-2012 and 2013-2017 Source: Computed by Elsevier using Scopus data. Natural Sciences Engineering and technology Medical sciences Agricultural sciences Social sciences Humanities and arts Publications with a sex or gender dimension in their research content, by field of R&D, 2008-2012 and 2013-2017 At UNICA 2.4% of the pubblications are gender-related, main area is Medicine. 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 11
  • 12. At UniCA gender-sensitive research is performed in several departments, but there is no specific department with a specialization in gender studies. The percentage of gender-related publications from UNICA is growing, and can be considered relevant (higher than the worldwide result) but not satisfactory, and not guided by a specific policy or support. The choice of gender-related topics lies with the researcher’s sensitivity. 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 12
  • 13. Distribution of the main research areas covered by worldwide gender-related publications in 2017 and 2018 Distribution of the main research areas covered by gender-related publications by researchers from UNICA in 2017 and 2018 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 13
  • 14. https://www.brighamandwomens.org/assets/BWH/womens-health/pdfs/ConnorsReportFINAL.pdf The science that informs medicine—including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease— routinely fails to consider the crucial impact of sex and gender. This happens in the earliest stages of research when females are excluded from animal and human studies or the sex of the animals isn’t stated in the published results. Once clinical trials begin, researchers frequently do not enroll adequate numbers of women or, when they do, fail to analyze or report data separately by sex. This hampers our ability to identify important differences that could benefit the health of all. 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 14
  • 15. Joy Buolamwini – MIT - Boston We evaluate 3 commercial classification systems using our dataset and show that darker-skinned females are the most misclassified group (with error rates of up to 34.7%). The maximum error rate for lighter-skinned males is 0.8%. Artificial intelligence 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 15
  • 16. Research Projects 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 16
  • 17. Research funding success rate differences between women and men, by field of R&D, 2017 Country Natural sciences Engineering and technology Medical sciences Agricultural sciences Social sciences Humanities and arts Multi - disciplinary IT 0.6 -4.8 5.7 25.0 18.5 6.3 : Difference in success rate Source: WiS (Women in Science) Research funding Research funding success rate differences between women and men, 2017 Country Funding rate(W) Funding rate(M) Difference (M-W) Reference year EU-28 32.2 35.2 3.0 IT 16.8 21.1 4.3 2016 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 17
  • 18. Number of projects by type of funding, sex and ERC field of the person in charge at UNICA 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 18
  • 19. • Analysis of a female presence among the coordinators of research projects shows a clear unbalance in favor of the male component at UniCA. Such data are certainly affected by the unbalance in the gender of researchers in areas more involved in research projects. • The huge gap is also confirmed by a third figure, related to the female presence in the teams of research projects with industrial partners, at least according to the most recent data for the past 3 years, showing that out of a sample of 97 projects the principal investigator is male in 84% of cases. 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 19
  • 20. Technology Transfer 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 20
  • 21. Country Female alone Females- only team Team with at least 60% of females Mixed team Team with at least 60% of males Males-only team Male alone EU-28 1.67 0.69 1.62 5.15 10.99 47.20 32.68 IT 2.44 0.57 1.85 4.49 7.99 37.84 44.83 Distribution of patent application by sex composition of the inventors’ team (%), 2013–2016 Inventors’ team Men only Women only UNICASHE FIGURES Considering the number of inventors of patents registered since 2000 at UNICA 119 are males and 47 females (28%). 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 21
  • 22. • The number of female researchers in university spin- off and startup teams is very low since the participants of UNICA spin-off teams are 76 males and 16 females (17%). • In startup teams founded within the Contamination Lab, where 41 team members are males and only 15 females (23% despite the inclusive rule concerning the initial team formation); Spin-off/Startups 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 22
  • 23. Next steps and conclusions 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 23
  • 24. The start point for any action is to have reference data always updated. At the moment this is not the case. At European and Italian level there is a big effort to build automatic instruments to help in gender analysis (e.g. Elsevier) and standard (e.g. Italian CRUI Gender Balance) FORESEEN ACTION Setup of a database/dashboard to keep the UniCA gender «picture» always updated. Database/Dashboard 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 24
  • 25. The number of research publications of UniCA with a gender dimension is in line with the rest of Italy and Europe, but not satisfactory. FORESEEN ACTION Training measures encouraging research staff to use tools and theoretical frameworks adding a gender perspective in their analyses. Gender Dimension 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 25
  • 26. Research projects Female presence, the number of publications and projects with a gender dimension, the success rate in research projects at UniCA are not different from the rest of Italy and in line with numbers in Europe, but not satisfactory. FORESEEN ACTION Incentives for research projects including a gender dimension (to be discussed with RAS and all stakeholders). 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 26
  • 27. Areas of action of SUPERA are nested and it is very difficult to classify causes and effects. For this reason, it is difficult to implement strategies to solve the problem. Some causes are outside of the university and research and are difficult to be influenced. This topic is at the top of all political agendas in Europe and it is now discussed with reliable numbers at hand. We are here today to work together to make real steps forward. Conclusions 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 27
  • 28. SUPERA UniCA core team Paola CARBONI Direzione per la Ricerca e il Territorio Francesco MOLA Dip. Sci. Economiche e Aziendali Presidente CUG, Prorettore vicario Luigi RAFFO Dip. Ing. Elettrica Elettronica Delegato Prog. Ric. Internazionali Simona SCALAS Direzione per la Ricerca e il Territorio Settore Supporto Progetti EU/USA Silvia BALIA Dip. Scienze Economiche e Aziendali Cristina CABRAS Dip. Pedagogia, Psicologia, Filosofia Giovanni SULIS Dip. Scienze Economiche e Aziendali Paola FADDA Dip.Scienze Biomediche CUG- Comitato Unico di Garanzia Barbara BARBIERI Dip. Scienze Sociali e delle Istituzioni Ester COIS Dip. Scienze Sociali e delle Istituzioni 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 28
  • 29. www.superaproject.eu info@superaproject.eu @superaproject #SuperaH2020 This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 787829. 28/10/2019 Luigi Raffo - raffo@unica.it 29