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VTS257: Lg Animal Diseases & Nursing

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  1. 1. SheepOvine
  2. 2. Terminology• Ewe- female of reproductive age• Ram- intact male of reproductive age• Lamb- noun: young sheep of either sex- Verb: to give birth• Wether- neutered adult male• Mutton- meat derived from adult, aged sheep
  3. 3. Star Program• Management system of sheep that uses breeds of sheep that will breed out of season• System attempts to create three lambings from each eye in two years• Creates 5 miniflock lambing sessions to produce marketable lambs throughout the year, rather than spring alone• Additionally: estrus synchronization sometimes combined with hormonal stimulation of estrus to breed out of season
  4. 4. Sheep Breeds• Wool or ewe breeds1. Merino- White wool to eyes, horns on rams only2. Rambouillet- White wool to eyes, horns on rams only3. Corriedale- White wool to eyes, polled4. Columbia- White wool to eyes, polled
  5. 5. • Meat or ram breeds1. Suffolk- Black face with no wool on face, polled2. Hampshire- Black face with wool to eyes, polled3. Shropshire- Black wool to eyes, polled4. Dorset- White wool to eyes, polled, breeds out of season
  6. 6. • Multipurpose1. Southdown2. Romney3. Polypay4. Finnish landrace- white, many babies, more twins than usualTails- routinely docked, it is illegal in some statesnot to dock tails of sheep, considered inhumane
  7. 7. Sheep Production• Pasture throughout entire production cycle• Environmental factors impact profitability• Drought, fire, freezing, temperatures, snow, and predators• Behavior:- Wide angle vision, can see behind w/o turning head- Respect solid fencing, not as easily spooked- Move toward light and flock
  8. 8. Goat-Caprine terminology• Doe- female of reproductive age• Buck- intact male of reproductive age• Kid- noun- young goats of either sec- Verb- to give birth• Wether- neutered male of any age• Polyestrus fall/winter
  9. 9. Goat Breeds• Saanen- white to cream colored• Toggenburg- brown with white stripes on face, light colored legs• Nubian- black or brown with or without white marks, floppy ears• Alpine- white to black with spotting• Lamanchis- no pinna• Pigmy, fainting goats
  10. 10. Diseases of Goats• Johne’s disease- Not characterized by diarrhea like the disease in cattle- Seen as chronic wasting disease- More infective to young but can affect adults
  11. 11. • Enterotoxemia• Cause: Clostridium perfringens type D with sudden feed changes• Symptoms: frequently fatal, diarrhea and severe enterocolitis, very common in Dairy goats under stress• tx: fluids, bicarbonate, type C and D antitoxin and antibiotics and given the vaccination
  12. 12. • Foot rot• Cause: Fusobacterium necrophorum an Dichelobacter nodosus• Symptoms: inflammation of interdigital skin followed by undermining of sole at heels• tx: inspect all animals, trim all feet, run thru a foot bath of copper sulfate or zinc sulfate an separate into affected and unaffected,( Zn is less irritating)• Cull non healers ( goats also get this)
  13. 13. Pregnancy Toxemia of goats and sheep• Metabolic disease of carbohydrate metabolism• Associated with multiple pregnancies• During late gestation, caloric requirements exceeds calories consumed• Dam mobilizes body’s energy reserves ( fats) and ketones are produced• Symptoms: lethargic, recumbent, loss of appetite, fruity breath• Tx: oral glucose, corticosteroids
  14. 14. White Muscle Disease• Dietary deficiency of Vit E or Se• Symptoms: stiff legged lambs, weakness, post mortem pale muscle, white streaks through heart muscle• Prevention: supplement ewes with Vit E/Se, inject lambs at day 1 and 10 VitE/Se
  15. 15. Routine Management of Sheep• Tail docking• Castration• Vaccination• Deworming• Shearing/crutching out prior to lambing• Foot trim/foot bath
  16. 16. Routine Management of Goats• Vaccination• Deworming• Mastitis monitoring• Dehorning• Foot trimming/bath
  17. 17. • Tetanus• Cause: Clostridium tetani invades wounds and produces potent neurotoxing ( also after tail docking, castration, and dehorning)• Symptoms: progressive muscle tetany, stiff erect ears, rigid extension of limbs, prolapse of third eyelid, hyper responsive to noise, die of respiratory failure• Tx: remove bacteria by clean/debride wound, high doses of penicillin and tetanus antitoxin, supportive care
  18. 18. • White Muscle Disease• Cause- occurs in young born to dams on Se deficient diet• Symptoms: muscular weakness, stiffness, sudden death if heart is involved, necropsy shows pale, white or streaked muscle• Tx: early cases inject Vit E and Se, prevent by making sure diet is correct
  19. 19. • Caseous lymphadenitis• Cause: Cornybacterium pseudotuberculosis• Symptoms: highly contagious, lymph node abcesses, carcass condemnation, spread to other animals by pus, can be endemic in herd• Tx: aggressive culling, surgical removal of abcess, flushing wound and long term antibiotics in valuable animals
  20. 20. • Pseudopregnancy- Can occur in doe w/wo exposure to buck- Accumulation of fluid in uterus, one or more corpus luteums on ovary- Tx: injection of prostaglandins F2alpha to lyse corpus luteum
  21. 21. • Mastitis- Blue bag mastitis ( gangrenous mastitis)- Cause: Staphylococcus aureus #1, or Pasteurella Hemolytica- May progress rapidly and cause death- Tx: antimicrobial therapy, NSAIDS, fluid therapy, teat amputation but is usually not rewarding
  22. 22. • Urolithiasis- Goats that are obstructed tend to vocalize due to pain- Usually at the urethral process or the sigmoid flexure- Usually occurs in males- Tx: remove obstruction using cystotomy is the treatment of choice
  23. 23. • Caprine arthritis-encephalitis• Cause: RNA virus• Symptoms: polyarthritis, CNS disease, and pneumonia is possible• Trans: through milk of infected dams• Tx: eliminate it from herd through testing of dams
  24. 24. • Pregnancy toxemia – ketosis of goats late in gestation• Symptoms: neurologic signs, anorexia, motor weakness leading to death, usually in does in their 2nd or 3rd pregnancy ( ketones in urine)• Tx: propylene glycol ( 100 ml PO, BID) IV dextrose or glucose every 5-7 hours, insulin, B vitamins• Prevention is the key to eradication, through body scoring and correct feeding in gestation
  25. 25. • Pinkeye• Cause: Mycoplasma conjunctivae• Symptoms: blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, photophobia, corneal edema• Tx: self limiting but tetracycline topically is recommended to reduce spread of disease and speed healing
  26. 26. • Orf/soremouth, contagious ecthyma• Cause: common viral disease• Symptoms: crusty, proliferative lesions around mouth, nose of young and teat/udder of mother• Tx: self limiting in 4-6 weeks• ZOONOTIC- can affect humand so take care when handling animals
  27. 27. Goat Behavior• Flock in extended family groups with strong hiercharchy• Males and females establish dominance by head butting ( make sure to dehorn)• Threatened goats sneeze at you• Orally investigate environment, excellent climbers, gate openers• Browse lines• Seasonally polyestrus, primarily in fall, strong odor to bucks• Wide angle vision, move to light, respect solid fence
  28. 28. Sheep and Goat diseases Viral• Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis ( big knee)• Prepatent: up to several years• Asymptomatic carrier state exists, virus is latent in bone marrow• Stress precipitates viremia> leads to ability to infect others• Adult symptoms- mild to severe lameness, joint enlargement• Kids- neurologic disease, incoordination, hindlimb weakness• Tx: none• Prevention: serologic testing and culling of infected animals
  29. 29. • Bluetongue• Prepatent period- 2-4 days• Trans: biting insects, mechanical vectors• Symptoms: fever, edema of lips, muzzle, eyelids, tongue swollen and purple, incoordination/lameness, respiratory distress, death by suffocation• Prevention: vaccination and insect control, killing frost halts outbreaks
  30. 30. Sheep and Goat bacterial diseases• Clostridial diseases• Cl. Perfringens Type D- pulpy kidney• Cl. Perfringens Type C- enterotoxemia/hemorrhagic enteritis• Cl. Tetani- tetanus• Tx; none• Prevention: vaccination
  31. 31. • Caseous lymphadenitis (pseudotuberculosis)• Agent: Cornebacterium pseudotuberculosis• Symptoms: abscessation of lymph nodes• Trans; exudates from lymph nodes is infectious, asymptomatic carrier state exists• Dx: symptoms, culture, serology and culling of infected animals
  32. 32. • Campylobacter ( vibrio0• Agent: Campylobacter fetus• Trans: oral contact with aborted fetus, membranes and reproductive tract fluids• Symptoms: abortions, stillbirths, birth of weak and fading lambs• Prevention: vaccination
  33. 33. • Enzootic abortion of ewes ( EAE)• Agent: Chlamydia psittaci- rickettsia• Symptoms: abortion, conjunctivitis, arthritis, epididymitis• Trans: arthropod vector, all rickettsial diseases require arthropod vector for transmission• Tx: none• Prevention: vaccination