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Session 2 -_basic_nutrients

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Session 2 -_basic_nutrients

  1. 1. “a substance that must be consumed as part of the diet to provide a source of energy, material for growth, or substances to regulate growth or energy production.” - Bantam Medical Dictionary
  2. 2. “a raw or processed agricultural commodity or other nutrient source” - SACN, 5- SACN, 5thth Ed.Ed.
  3. 3.  Essential “Non-dispensable” Body cannot produce  Non-Essential “Dispensable” The body can produce  Conditionally Essential Required during certain physiologic or pathologic conditions
  4. 4. Supply energy Cofactors in metabolic chemical reactions Transport substances throughout body Regulate body temperature Impact food palatability Form structural components of the body
  5. 5.  WaterWater  CarbohydratesCarbohydrates  ProteinProtein  FatFat  MineralsMinerals  VitaminsVitamins  Antioxidants* Energy Producing Nutrients
  6. 6. Most important nutrient Body composition ~ 70% of fat-free body weight Functions:  Solvent  Transports materials  Chemical reactant (hydrolysis)  Supports blood volume and pressure  Regulates body temperature  Provides shape to body
  7. 7. How Water Gets Into an AnimalHow Water Gets Into an Animal MetabolizableMetabolizable IngestedIngested Breakdown ofBreakdown of carbohydrates, protein, fatcarbohydrates, protein, fat as used for energyas used for energy Free WaterFree Water Routes of Water LossRoutes of Water Loss Urine, Feces, Respiration, Perspiration, Milk,Urine, Feces, Respiration, Perspiration, Milk, * Loss of 15% results in death
  8. 8. Water Content Varies by NutrientWater Content Varies by Nutrient CarbohydratesCarbohydrates 0.6 grams of water per gram of0.6 grams of water per gram of carbohydratecarbohydrate ProteinProtein 0.4 grams of water per gram of0.4 grams of water per gram of proteinprotein FatFat 0.2 grams of water per gram of fat0.2 grams of water per gram of fat
  9. 9. What types of things influence the amount of water an animal needs?
  10. 10. Species Environment (climate, air movement, etc.) Food type and source Diet composition (high protein, fiber, mineral salts) Life stage and lifestyle Water quality
  11. 11. Total Dissolved Solids - Index for measuring water quality - More dissolved solids, decreased water quality - 6 most common minerals present in water are chloride, sodium, calcium, magnesium, sulfates and bicarbonate - Other factors: pesticides, pathogens, bacteria, algae, protozoa - < 2,500 mg/L dissolved solids desired
  12. 12. Energy: “the ability to do work” -SACN, p.26 Calorie: amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1°C. Kilocalorie = 1000 calories
  13. 13. All living cells require energy After water, energy is most critical requirement in nutrition Carbohydrates, Protein, Fat provide energy from the diet Not all of consumed energy is used
  14. 14. GROSS ENERGY (GE) DIGESTIBLE ENERGY (DE) METABOLIZABLE ENERGY (ME)
  15. 15. Gross Energy (GE) Total amount of heat produced when feed is burnt completely GE determines total energy content of a feed, but doesn’t equal amount of energy available to the animal GROSS ENERGY (GE)
  16. 16. Digestible Energy (DE)  the energy remaining after the energy lost in feces is subtracted from the gross energy  Measure of the energy absorbed from the feed after consumption  Not a true measure, some energy is from tissue sloughing from the GI tract DIGESTIBLE ENERGY (DE)
  17. 17. Digestible Energy DIGESTIBLE ENERGY = Gross Energy – Fecal energy losses Image source: Dr. Geneva Acor, Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc.
  18. 18. Metabolizable Energy (ME) Energy available to the animal after energy from feces, urine, and gases has been subtracted from the gross energy More accurate than DE for estimating amount of energy available to animal Expensive: feeding trials METABOLIZABLE ENERGY (ME)
  19. 19. Metabolizable Energy METABOLIZABLE ENERGYMETABOLIZABLE ENERGY = Gross Energy – Fecal, Urine, Gas= Gross Energy – Fecal, Urine, Gas losseslosses Gross Energy Digestible Energy Image source: Dr. Geneva Acor, Hill’s Pet Nutrition, Inc.
  20. 20. Most accurately predicts amount of energy available to the animal Has been determined on a few feedstuffs Used widely in formulating diets for ruminant species
  21. 21. Method for estimating energy content in a feed Food is fed and all dietary components are measured Amount of dietary components in feces is measured
  22. 22. Digestible crude protein + digestible crude fiber + digestible nitrogen free extract ( starches and sugars) + 2.25 X Digestible ether extract ( fat) TOTAL DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENTS
  23. 23. WHAT CHARACTERISTICS OF A FEED MIGHT AFFECT ITS DIGESTIBILITY?
  24. 24. Maturity of plant material- as plants mature, an undigestible material called lignin increases in plant cell walls
  25. 25. Energy producing nutrient Composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) – CH2O Includes sugars, glycogen, starch and cellulose Mainly in plants (~75% of solid plant material) Cell layer is cellulose; Starch is the energy source
  26. 26. Monosaccharides CH2O GLUCOSE Glucose & fructose most common Glucose is immediate source of energy for cellular reactions i.e. tissue repair, muscle contractions, nerve transmissions Body continually supplies glucose to blood from stored compounds in liver (glycogen) Extremely Important
  27. 27. Disaccharides (CH2O)2 Short chain of 2 CHO molecules Lactose (milk sugar); Sucrose (table sugar) Plants convert their stores of carbohydrates to sucrose for easy transport through the plant Proteins often have attached disaccharides
  28. 28. Polysaccharides (CH2O)3 Includes starches, glycogen and cellulose The most abundant of all carbohydrates
  29. 29. Starches- from plants, broken down into glucose subunits Glycogen- storage form of glucose in animal cells, stored in liver and muscle, broken down to release glucose Cellulose- comprises majority of plant cell wall, insoluble, digested by bacteria in the herbivore digestive tract
  30. 30. Energy producing nutrient Found in highest concentration of any nutrient except water in all living organisms Composed of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), and nitrogen (N) (and sometimes sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P)
  31. 31. WHAT FUNCTIONS DO PROTEINS PERFORM IN THE BODY?
  32. 32. Functions Tissue Building Hormones Growth Enzymes Immune System Blood cells
  33. 33. Made up of amino acid (AA) sub-units Definition: Small organic compound that consists of an amino group (NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (COOH) on other plus a special group that defines the individual amino acid AA are linked together by peptide bonds 2 linked bonds = dipeptide 3+ linked bonds = polypeptide
  34. 34. Synthesized by plants, rumen microorganisms Non-herbivores get AA in diet Absorbed in the anterior small intestine Most protein in plants and animals composed of only 20 amino acids 10 Essential Amino Acids (11 for cats)
  35. 35. Essential Amino AcidsEssential Amino Acids Phenylalanine Histidine Valine Arginine Tryptophan Lysine Threonine Leucine Isoleucine Methionine Taurine* Cats only
  36. 36. Requirement for monogastric and avian species is for amino acids High needs for:  young, rapidly growing  gestating and lactating animals  surgery or trauma  certain pathologic conditions
  37. 37. Protein Deficiency Poor growth rate in young; weight loss in adults Excess shedding High neonate mortality; reduced egg production, infertility Causes of Protein DeficiencyCauses of Protein Deficiency  Inadequate food intakeInadequate food intake  Poor quality proteinPoor quality protein  Maldigestion or malabsorptionMaldigestion or malabsorption  Protein losing enteropathy, NephropathyProtein losing enteropathy, Nephropathy  Common in catteries and kennelsCommon in catteries and kennels
  38. 38. Uncommon due to cost of feed Used for energy or stored as fat Chronic excess stresses kidneys Excretion of urea increases nitrogenous wastes that build up in bloodstream When urea or other non-protein sources are fed to ruminants, toxicity and death occur if diet has insufficient carbohydrates
  39. 39. Energy producing nutrient Insoluble in water Include fat, oils, complex sterols Comprised of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O)
  40. 40. Fat is solid at room temperature Oil is liquid at room temperature
  41. 41. Functions Insulation Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins Hormone synthesis Structure to cell membrane Moisture to skin Palatability
  42. 42.  Accounts for most of body’s stored energy “Fat reserves”  Fat provides twice as much energy as CHO and protein  Source of essential fatty acids  Hydrophilic, absorbs water and takes up more space in the body
  43. 43. Definition: A chemical unit that occurs naturally, either singly or combined, and consists of strongly linked carbon and hydrogen atoms in a chain-like structure Important for lipid-protein structure of cell membrane Linoleic acid and Linolenic acid are essential for mammalian species. (Both are Omega 6 fatty acids) Arachadonic acid is required in cats
  44. 44. Important to brain development Iam’s - “How to Grow Smart Puppies”™ Beneficial in inflammatory conditions Common sources found in feeds: Flaxseed, linseed, menhaden fish, animal fat, evening primrose oil, black currant oil
  45. 45. Signs of EFA Deficiency Signs of deficiency: scaly skin, necrosis of tail, reduced reproduction, edema, hemorrhaging, poor feathering in chickens - Seen in pigs, chickens, calves, dogs, mice and guinea pigs - Rare in ruminants, despite a fat-free diet, because the microbes produce adequate amounts of EFA
  46. 46. 1. Neutral fats 2. Phospholipids 3. Sterols 4. Carotenoids 5. waxes
  47. 47. Most abundant fat in living things Includes saturated fats and unsaturated fats Saturated-have no shared carbon bonds Unsaturated- one shared bond between carbons Polyunsaturated-two or more shared bonds between carbons
  48. 48. Form cell membranes- one hydrophilic end and one hydrophobic end Fatty acid portion ( tail) is hydrophobic and not water soluble
  49. 49. Lipids that have no fatty acids Occur in cell membranes Include sex hormone ( estrogen, testosterone) Cholesterol, bile salts and sterols, ( biologically important) 1. cholesterol- most common sterol in animal cell tissues 2. Bile salts- role in fat digestion in small intestine
  50. 50. Red and yellow pigment cells of all plants Classified as lipids because of insolubility in water and oily consistency Vitamin A comes from splitting pigment
  51. 51. Long chain fatty acids tightly packed Firm consistency: repel water Help form the cuticle on plants and leaves Keeps feathers of water fowl clean and dry
  52. 52. Monogastrics 1. Primary site is small intestine 2. Bile and pancreatic lipase 3. If large amount of fat is mobilized for energy, ketones form and excessive amounts are dumped into urine, milk and lungs Ruminants- microbes convert unsaturated fats to saturated fats
  53. 53. Small, organic compounds required by body for normal function Cofactors in ezymatic reactions Classified as fat solublefat soluble or water solublewater soluble - Absorbed through variety of ways Important in milk – especially colostrumcolostrum
  54. 54. Different for each vitamin  Vision  Blood clotting factors  Immune defense  Epithelial tissue  Bone mineralization and resorption  Neural transmission
  55. 55. Vitamin A Vitamin C Potassium Zinc Vitamin E Iron Magnesium Calcium Vitamin K Selenium Vegetable Oil Tuna, red meat Citrus, green peppers Carrots, pumpkin Beef, Brazil nuts Sardines, milk Yogurt, lentils Soybeans Nuts, bananas Cauliflower, broccoli
  56. 56. Vitamins A, D, E, K Higher potential for toxicity than water soluble vitamins Require fat and bile salts to be absorbed
  57. 57. Important part of visual proteins Key for epithelial tissues (skin, lining of body cavities) Beneficial to immune system Signs of deficiency: poor coat, retarded growth, anorexia Signs of toxicity: anorexia, “Cervical spondylosis” in cats
  58. 58. Calcium/Phosphorus balance Key in bone resorption and mineralization Absorbed as ergosterol, converted to calciferol (D2) in skin Kidneys convert D2 to different compound used for calcium absorption Signs of deficiency: Rickets, posterior paralysis Signs of excess: anorexia, kidney stone, FORLs
  59. 59. Antioxidant “Tocopherol” Alpha tocopherol: active in body Mixed tocopherol: active in food Protects cell membranes Signs of deficiency: sterility in males, steatitis in cats, immunodeficiency Signs of toxicity: Increased clotting time
  60. 60. Vital to blood clotting proteins Synthesized by microbes in ruminant gut Deficiency is rare in all species except poultry Signs of deficiency: increased clotting time, hemorrhaging Sign of excess: minimally toxic
  61. 61. B-Vitamins, Vitamin C Minimally toxic, due to excretion from the body in urine Key as cofactors in enzymatic reactions
  62. 62. Thiamin (BThiamin (B11 )) Pyroxidine (BPyroxidine (B66 )) Riboflavin (BRiboflavin (B22 )) Biotin (BBiotin (B77 )) Niacin (BNiacin (B33 )) Folic Acid (BFolic Acid (B99 )) Pantothenic acidPantothenic acid (B(B55 )) Cobalamin (BCobalamin (B1212 ))
  63. 63. Functions varied among forms of Vitamin B No single food source has enough vitamin B - must be gained from multiple sources Riboflavin deficiency is rare Niacin deficiency results in pellagra with dermatitis; dementia
  64. 64. Antioxidant Collagen synthesis Important in Carnitine synthesis Signs of deficiency: scurvy Signs of toxicity: rare
  65. 65. Natural component of animal cells Most carnitine (~98%) in body lives in skeletal and cardiac muscle Helps transport fatty acids into cells Helps build lean tissue
  66. 66. In nutrition, mineral means all inorganic elements in a food Major portion of body fluids (electrolytes) Important in enzymatic reactions “Ash”
  67. 67. Macro MineralsMacro Minerals CalciumCalcium PhosphorusPhosphorus SodiumSodium MagnesiumMagnesium PotassiumPotassium ChlorideChloride SulfurSulfur Micro MineralsMicro Minerals ChromiumChromium CobaltCobalt CopperCopper FluorineFluorine IronIron IodineIodine ManganeseManganese MolybdenuMolybdenu mm NickelNickel SeleniumSelenium SiliconSilicon ZincZinc
  68. 68. Largest amounts found in skeletal system Provide structural rigidity Some functions: Iron is essential part of hemoglobin Iodine is component of thyroid hormone Sodium is key to body’s pH level Of total minerals in animal’s body… Ca = 46% and P = 29%
  69. 69. Absorbed from the GI tract Fat sometimes chelates certain minerals, thereby reducing their availability to animal Young are more efficient than old at absorbing minerals Requirements vary by species
  70. 70. Definition: “an especially reactive atom or group of atoms that has one or more unpaired electrons; produced in the body by natural biological processes or introduced from an outside source (as tobacco smoke, toxins, or pollutants) and that can damage cells, proteins, and DNA by altering their chemical structure.” - Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  71. 71. Free Radicals DNA Mitochondria  Attack cell membranes,Attack cell membranes, DNA & MitochondriaDNA & Mitochondria  mutations in DNAmutations in DNA  changes fluidity ofchanges fluidity of cell membranecell membrane  CauseCause oxidative stressoxidative stress in the bodyin the body
  72. 72. Free Radicals
  73. 73. Creates DNA damage Damage accumulates over course of animal’s life Injures cells Responsible for lots of chronic illnesses Cancer, Kidney disease, Cardiovascular disease, Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome, etc
  74. 74. Free Radical Damage
  75. 75. Pollution Radiation Metabolism Chemicals Food Additives
  76. 76. Metabolism of the body produces the most consistent source of free radicals Metabolism generates free radicals inside our body. With every breath we take, 2% of unburned oxygen would be generated as free radicals. Stress and poor diets, including some preservatives increase the formation of free radicals in our bodies
  77. 77. Mitochondria “Powerhouse of the Cell” Damaged Mitochondria Body’s Defense s Body’s Defense s Body’s Defense s Body’s Defense sX X X X
  78. 78. Definition: “a substance that inhibits oxidation or reactions promoted by … free radicals” -Merriam-Webster Dictionary
  79. 79. Inactivate free radicals Improve cellular efficiency Work best in conjunction with other antioxidants (help to regenerate each other) Some are active in food; some are active in the body
  80. 80. Fights oxidation in the food Carotenoids & Flavonoids (from Vitamin A) Mixed Tocopherols (form of Vitamin E) Vitamin C Ethoxyquin Commonly marketedCommonly marketed in dog and cat foodin dog and cat food
  81. 81. Fight oxidation in the animal’s cells Alpha tocopherols (form of Vitamin E) Ascorbic Acid Selenium Lipoic Acid Beta Carotene Carotenoids Flavanoids “Cowboy”
  82. 82. SMALL ANIMAL NUTRITION: ENERGY CALCULATIONS & LIFE STAGE/LIFE STYLE NUTRITION

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