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Pg tp-class9, atmosphere


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Pg tp-class9, atmosphere

  1. 1. Physical GeographyPhysical Geography Class 9 –Class 9 – Earth’s AtmosphereEarth’s Atmosphere Structure and CompositionStructure and Composition
  2. 2. Outline: AtmosphereOutline: Atmosphere Definition, sizeDefinition, size Changes in pressure, what is pressureChanges in pressure, what is pressure Temperature layersTemperature layers Components of clean, dry airComponents of clean, dry air Variable ComponentsVariable Components
  3. 3. QuestionsQuestions What is “air”?What is “air”? Why does air stay where it is?Why does air stay where it is? Is air always the same stuff no matterIs air always the same stuff no matter where you go on Earth? Up inwhere you go on Earth? Up in atmosphere?atmosphere? What aspects/characteristics of air changeWhat aspects/characteristics of air change on a daily basis? From place to place?on a daily basis? From place to place?
  4. 4. AtmosphereAtmosphere Layer of gases that envelope the EarthLayer of gases that envelope the Earth
  5. 5. How big is the atmosphere?How big is the atmosphere? Extends to 32,000 km (20,000 mi) fromExtends to 32,000 km (20,000 mi) from surfacesurface Thermopause is at 480 km (300 mi)—topThermopause is at 480 km (300 mi)—top of the principal atmosphereof the principal atmosphere 100 km??100 km??
  6. 6. AtmosphericAtmospheric PressurePressure Figure 3.3
  7. 7. LayersLayers of theof the AtmosAtmos pherephere
  8. 8. Atmospheric TemperatureAtmospheric Temperature TroposphereTroposphere – Surface to 18 km (11 mi)Surface to 18 km (11 mi) – 90% mass of atmosphere90% mass of atmosphere – Weather, most cloudsWeather, most clouds
  9. 9. Atmospheric TemperatureAtmospheric Temperature TroposphereTroposphere – Normal environmental lapse rate – averageNormal environmental lapse rate – average cooling at rate of 6.4 C°/km (3.5 F°/1000 ft)cooling at rate of 6.4 C°/km (3.5 F°/1000 ft) – Environmental lapse rate – actual local lapseEnvironmental lapse rate – actual local lapse raterate – Weather, most cloudsWeather, most clouds
  10. 10. Normal Environmental Lapse Rate inNormal Environmental Lapse Rate in TroposphereTroposphere
  11. 11. Atmospheric TemperatureAtmospheric Temperature StratosphereStratosphere – 18 to 50 km (11 to 31 mi)18 to 50 km (11 to 31 mi) – Temperature risesTemperature rises – High, thin, ice crystal cloudsHigh, thin, ice crystal clouds – Ozone layerOzone layer
  12. 12. Atmospheric TemperatureAtmospheric Temperature MesosphereMesosphere – 50 to 80 km (30 to 50 mi)50 to 80 km (30 to 50 mi) – Temperature fallsTemperature falls – Shooting “stars”Shooting “stars”
  13. 13. Atmospheric TemperatureAtmospheric Temperature ThermosphereThermosphere – 80 km (50 mi) outward80 km (50 mi) outward – Temperature risesTemperature rises
  14. 14. Composition of AirComposition of Air
  15. 15. Variable Atmospheric ComponentsVariable Atmospheric Components Impurities and Pollutants in TroposphereImpurities and Pollutants in Troposphere Harmful Gases and Other ChemicalsHarmful Gases and Other Chemicals VirusesViruses Water VaporWater Vapor Carbon DioxideCarbon Dioxide Aerosols/ParticulatesAerosols/Particulates
  16. 16. Aerosols and ParticulatesAerosols and Particulates
  17. 17. Where do small particles ofWhere do small particles of liquid and solids come from?liquid and solids come from?
  18. 18. Sources of AerosolsSources of Aerosols
  19. 19. Southern California WildfiresSouthern California Wildfires Figure 3.8
  20. 20. USGSUSGS
  21. 21. Water VaporWater Vapor Can you see this invisible gas?Can you see this invisible gas?
  22. 22. Variations in AtmosphericVariations in Atmospheric CompositionComposition IonosphereIonosphere – Absorbs cosmic rays, gamma rays, X-rays,Absorbs cosmic rays, gamma rays, X-rays, some UV rayssome UV rays Ozonosphere (ozone layer)Ozonosphere (ozone layer) – Part of stratospherePart of stratosphere – Ozone (OOzone (O33) absorbs UV energy and converts it) absorbs UV energy and converts it to heat energyto heat energy
  23. 23. AtmosphericAtmospheric PressurePressure Figure 3.3
  24. 24. The endThe end