Sky and SpaceSky and Space
Lecture Outline #3Lecture Outline #3
Moisture in the AtmosphereMoisture in the Atmosphere
Water in the AtmosphereWater in the Atmosphere
 HumidityHumidity
 CloudsClouds
 FogFog
 PrecipitationPrecipitation
Three Phases of WaterThree Phases of Water
HumidityHumidity
 How much water vapor is in theHow much water vapor is in the
atmosphere?atmosphere?
3 Ways to Express Humidity3 Ways to Express Humidity
 Absolute HumidityAbsolute Humidity
 Specific HumiditySpecific Humi...
Relative HumidityRelative Humidity
 WARM AIR HOLDS MORE WATERWARM AIR HOLDS MORE WATER
VAPOR THAN COLD AIRVAPOR THAN COLD...
Changes in HumidityChanges in Humidity
Relative Humidity after CoolingRelative Humidity after Cooling
Relative Humidity and TemperatureRelative Humidity and Temperature
 Warm Air is Capable of Holding More Water Vapor than ...
Dew PointDew Point
 When air is cooled, it can reach 100%When air is cooled, it can reach 100%
Relative Humidity (saturat...
Dew PointDew Point
 When air is cooled to a certain temperature,When air is cooled to a certain temperature,
it can reach...
Dew PointDew Point
 When air is cooled to a certain temperature,When air is cooled to a certain temperature,
it can reach...
Basics of Cloud FormationBasics of Cloud Formation
 Warm air contains more water vapor thanWarm air contains more water v...
Cloud FormationCloud Formation
Adiabatic CoolingAdiabatic Cooling
Rising Parcel cools quicker thanRising Parcel cools quicker than
surrounding airsurrounding air
Parcel remains warmer than theParcel remains warmer than the
surrounding airsurrounding air
Conditional InstabilityConditional Instability
 Rising parcel coolsRising parcel cools
quicker thanquicker than
surroundi...
What forces air to rise?What forces air to rise?
Lo 3-ss-moistureinatmosph
Lo 3-ss-moistureinatmosph
Lo 3-ss-moistureinatmosph
Lo 3-ss-moistureinatmosph
Lo 3-ss-moistureinatmosph
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Lo 3-ss-moistureinatmosph

  1. 1. Sky and SpaceSky and Space Lecture Outline #3Lecture Outline #3 Moisture in the AtmosphereMoisture in the Atmosphere
  2. 2. Water in the AtmosphereWater in the Atmosphere  HumidityHumidity  CloudsClouds  FogFog  PrecipitationPrecipitation
  3. 3. Three Phases of WaterThree Phases of Water
  4. 4. HumidityHumidity  How much water vapor is in theHow much water vapor is in the atmosphere?atmosphere?
  5. 5. 3 Ways to Express Humidity3 Ways to Express Humidity  Absolute HumidityAbsolute Humidity  Specific HumiditySpecific Humidity  Relative HumidityRelative Humidity
  6. 6. Relative HumidityRelative Humidity  WARM AIR HOLDS MORE WATERWARM AIR HOLDS MORE WATER VAPOR THAN COLD AIRVAPOR THAN COLD AIR
  7. 7. Changes in HumidityChanges in Humidity
  8. 8. Relative Humidity after CoolingRelative Humidity after Cooling
  9. 9. Relative Humidity and TemperatureRelative Humidity and Temperature  Warm Air is Capable of Holding More Water Vapor than ColdWarm Air is Capable of Holding More Water Vapor than Cold AirAir
  10. 10. Dew PointDew Point  When air is cooled, it can reach 100%When air is cooled, it can reach 100% Relative Humidity (saturation)Relative Humidity (saturation)
  11. 11. Dew PointDew Point  When air is cooled to a certain temperature,When air is cooled to a certain temperature, it can reach 100% Relative Humidityit can reach 100% Relative Humidity (saturation)(saturation)  There is more CondensationThere is more Condensation than evaporation after dew pointthan evaporation after dew point is reached.is reached.
  12. 12. Dew PointDew Point  When air is cooled to a certain temperature,When air is cooled to a certain temperature, it can reach 100% Relative Humidityit can reach 100% Relative Humidity (saturation)(saturation)  Condensation Occurs at this temperatureCondensation Occurs at this temperature  This is the Dew PointThis is the Dew Point TemperatureTemperature
  13. 13. Basics of Cloud FormationBasics of Cloud Formation  Warm air contains more water vapor thanWarm air contains more water vapor than cold aircold air  Hot fluids rise (convection)Hot fluids rise (convection)  In the troposphere, temperature decreasesIn the troposphere, temperature decreases with altitudewith altitude  When water vapor in the air cools, itWhen water vapor in the air cools, it condensescondenses  An air parcel can cool at a different rateAn air parcel can cool at a different rate than surrounding airthan surrounding air
  14. 14. Cloud FormationCloud Formation
  15. 15. Adiabatic CoolingAdiabatic Cooling
  16. 16. Rising Parcel cools quicker thanRising Parcel cools quicker than surrounding airsurrounding air
  17. 17. Parcel remains warmer than theParcel remains warmer than the surrounding airsurrounding air
  18. 18. Conditional InstabilityConditional Instability  Rising parcel coolsRising parcel cools quicker thanquicker than surrounding airsurrounding air  Reaches dew pointReaches dew point  Then cools slowerThen cools slower than surroundingthan surrounding airair
  19. 19. What forces air to rise?What forces air to rise?

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