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VTS257: Lg Animal Diseases & Nursing

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  1. 1. Husbandry
  2. 2. Environment• Assessing surroundings help assess the care of the animals• Water sources should be clean with fresh water• Unclean water spreads disease and many animals will not drink it leading to chronic dehydration and impaction• Goats are especially sensitive to water quality
  3. 3. Clean• Barns may appear dirty to people who are not used to large animal facilities• Time and cost prohibit daily cleaning• Uneaten hay can be used as bedding, being put down in layers to cover manure while urine sinks to the bottom• These barns are cleaned out every 2-4 weeks depending on the number of animals
  4. 4. Clean cont’d• Neonates and young animals require more frequent cleaning of every 2-3 days to prevent disease• Layers of hay may pile up to high that animals can escape enclosures by jumping over• After cleaning, farmers put down a layer of lime to help kill bacteria and prevent mold, followed by wood chips and then the hay
  5. 5. Dry• Wet barns are breeding grounds for all kinds of pathogens, esp. coccidia• Coccidia loves moisture, warmth and darkness (cleaning more frequently in neonates helps prevent this disease in that population)• Wet, damp barns lead to pneumonias and all kinds of respiratory problems• Urine causes burning eyes, runny noses, coughing and irritated mucous membranes
  6. 6. Drafts• Cause huddling, crowding• Dust is blown around causing eye and respiratory problems• Animals get chilled and sick• Sheep seem to be more resistant to drafts
  7. 7. Ventilation• Poor ventilation is a major cause of respiratory disease in barn animals• Stagnant air causes respiratory disease in dairy animals• A herd of cows produces a lot of heat and humidity• Exhaust fans that blow from young to old are installed at either end of the barn to remove heat and humidity
  8. 8. Bedding• An important decision to control disease while adhering to cost considerations
  9. 9. Straw• Relatively cheap but stays wet from urine• Needs to be replaced frequently• Some animals will eat it and can lead to impaction• Used mostly with swine and horses
  10. 10. Old Hay• Worse than straw• Usually is full of mold which leads to respiratory problems if inhaled and digestive problems if eaten• Layers cover manure while urine soaks through
  11. 11. Wood Shavings• Best but expensive, in the long run it reduces disease• Pine chips are good for young stock and non milking animals• Soft pine chips can grow Klebsiella and E.coli that can enter the teat>>> mastitis• Dairy animals should have hard wood shavings like oak or maple over lime
  12. 12. Corn Husks• Similar to straw in how it is used• Can lead to digestive problems if eaten• Not very absorptive, stays wet
  13. 13. Commonly used bedding by speciesDairy Cattle- Concrete- Rubber mats- Sand- Straw/chopped hay- Shavings, sawdust ( green wood may contain bacteria that can lead to mastitis)- Slotted floors
  14. 14. Beef cattle, sheep and goats- Concrete- Straw- Sawdust- Sand- Wood chips
  15. 15. Horses- Wood chips- Clay- Concrete- Rubber mats- Wood shavings- Sawdust, wood pellets, newspaper pellets- Sawdust and straw
  16. 16. Hogs- Concrete- Slotted floors- Rubber mats- Wood chips for pets
  17. 17. Fencing• Must contain large animals• Some fencing is safe and effective for one species and not for another• Animals may learn to open gates• Large animals that are loose are a danger to themselves and others
  18. 18. Wood• Expensive but attractive• Horse farms have wood with electric wire to prevent chewing the wood (goats also)• Maintenance is expensive, treated wood is toxic• Many farms have switched to plastic fencing for lower maintenance costs and durability
  19. 19. Electric• Inexpensive and easy to install and move• Power boxes and electricity are stronger than solar• Electric provides a constant current while solar pulses• Will usually hold species in, utilized in many zoos• Test current daily as animals will sense when power is off
  20. 20. Wire Panels• Good for goats, sheep, calves and swine• Can be expensive but easily moved and installed• Come in heavy guaged wire• Should not use with horses as they can get their feet caught
  21. 21. Barbed Wire• Seen around dairy farms, dangerous• Rusted wire can cause tetanus• Never use around horses• Many animals get severe lacerations with barbed wire
  22. 22. FeedersWater- Many farms have automatic waterers with heating elements- Make sure they are in working order and clean- Make sure electricity is not shocking animals when they are using the waterers
  23. 23. Bowls- Rubber bowls used for horses or small groups of large animals- Animals will step in them and get it dirty leading to spoilage of feed
  24. 24. Troughs- Good for feeding multiple animals- Feed stays cleaner- Goats will jump in troughs and soil feed- Need to clean frequently because mold will grow on wet feed leading to GI upsets if ingested
  25. 25. Hay Racks- Keeps hay clean but animals can get caught in them- Horses should not be fed where the head is elevated. Keeping their heads low allows fluids to run out of their lungs and not accumulate leading to respiratory problems
  26. 26. Structures• Depend on species, environment and economics
  27. 27. Sheds- 3 sided or lean tos are good for all species- Keeps them out of the wind and bad weather- Good ventilation and no moisture build up- Reduces parasites as well
  28. 28. Barns- Stanchion- Free stall- Tie stallCalf hutchesCreep feeders
  29. 29. Housing Goals• Increase productivity/yield• Natural habitat expensive but difficult to maintain• Bring feed to animals not animals to feed• Minimize losses- Predators- Disease and parasite control- Lightning, blizzard, drought
  30. 30. ConstructionMaterials-cost, availability, durability, maintenanceFacility design- Land, water availability- Industry goals- Environmental considerations- Animals socialization needs, maximize gains and minimize losses
  31. 31. Housing Examples• Feedlot• Dairy stanchions• Swine confinement units• Horse stables- Loose box- Tie stall
  32. 32. Socialization• Herd animals are social animals• Excessive animal density can be as serious as lack of socialization• Both can lead to vices- Cribbing- Wind sucking- Weaving and stall walking- Self mutilation- Human injury and other animal injury
  33. 33. Sanitation• Insect and vermin control• Noxious/toxic gases- Lead to respiratory tract inflammation/susceptibility to disease- Methane, ammonia, carbon sulfide
  34. 34. Parasite control- Slotted floors- Spreading manure on pastures can seed environment with intestinal parasites ova and larvae- Reduce crowding- Use of 3 sided sheds
  35. 35. Environmental impact- Ground water- Air quality- noise
  36. 36. BiocontainmentSterilization- eliminate or kill microbesDisinfection- inhibition or prevention of growth of microbes on inanimate objectsAntisepsis- inhibition or prevention of growth of microbes on living tissuesSanitation- reduction of the number of microbes to a safe levelPathogen control- must remove organic debris first, cleansers ineffective on feces, urine, pus, mucus etc
  37. 37. Fixed SurfacesBarns, stalls, fences, pastures, pens- Pressure washer- Rotate facilities to reduce spread of disease
  38. 38. Mobile surfaces• Buckets, feed tubs, shovels, pitchforks, water hoses/nozzles, milking equipment• Veterinary equipment, dental floats, stomach tubes, endoscopes• Human hands, clothes, feet• Vehicles• Use sanitary precautions to prevent spread of disease
  39. 39. Animals• Identification/isolation of sick animals• Identification of pathogens• Prompt removal of carcasses
  40. 40. Drug residuesImplications in human consumption/exposure- Antibiotic resistance- Allergic reactions- Neoplasia (growth hormones)- toxicosis
  41. 41. Implications in performance animals• Alters performance• Sources1. Feed additives- Antibiotics- Hormones/growth promoters
  42. 42. 2. Drug administration- Drug withdrawal times for meat/milk- Non FDA approved medications- Off label use- Compounded medications
  43. 43. 3. Environmental contamination- Pesticides- Heavy metals- Toxic waste- Pasture contamination with extraneous plants- Substance abuse by caretakers- Human foodstuffs, chocolate, caffeine, poppyseeds- Feed mill contamination, bulk milk contamination