Chapter 19


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Chapter 19

  1. 1. Chapter 19 Criminal Activities of Gangsand Other Dangerous Groups Hess 19-1
  2. 2. Introduction• Actual events reflecting reality of gangs, hate crime, and ritualistic crimes in the United States  Minneapolis  Jasper, Texas  Wisconsin  Rancho Santa Fe, California  Tavares, Florida Hess 19-2
  3. 3. Threat of Gangs: An OverviewINTEREST AND CONCERN• Existed for most of the country’s history• Belonging to a gang is not illegal• Many activities that gangs engage in are illegal• Gangs now exist in almost every community Hess 19-3
  4. 4. Gangs DefinedCOMMON DEFINITION• Group of individuals• Recognized name and symbol• Form an allegiance for a common purpose• Engage in continuous unlawful activity• Many states have their own definitions Hess 19-4
  5. 5. Extent of GangsSCOPE OF GANGS• Number of gangs and gang members has remained relatively stable• Serious concern for law enforcement• Gang violence has become increasingly lethal• Gang migration  Not restricted to metropolitan areas Hess 19-5
  6. 6. Why People Join GangsREASONS• Provide protection to youth from violent peers• Sense of acceptance• Way to obtain money, power and drugs• Come from a gang-involved family• Lack of parental attachment Hess 19-6
  7. 7. Types of GangsCATEGORIES AND THEIR PRESENCE• Outlaw motorcycle gangs (OMGs)• Gangs members in the military• Female gang members• Street gangs• Prison gangs Hess 19-7
  8. 8. Gang Culture, Membership and Organization AFFILIATION • Symbols  Clothing  Hand signals • Turf and graffiti • Tattoos Hess 19-8
  9. 9. Gang ActivitiesADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES• Engage in antisocial or criminal behavior• Wide variety of illegal activities• Gangs and crime• Gangs and drugs• Gangs and violence Hess 19-9
  10. 10. Recognizing a Gang ProblemACKNOWLEDGMENT• Graffiti• Obvious colors of clothing• Tattoos• Initiations• Hand signals or handshakes• Uncommon terms or phrases Hess 19-10
  11. 11. Identifying Gang MembersCRITERIA• Names• Symbols (clothing and tattoos)• Communication styles• Graffiti• Sign language Hess 19-11
  12. 12. Records to KeepFILES TO KEEP ON RECORD• Gangs• Gang members• Monikers• Photographs• Vehicles and illegal activities• Be able to cross-reference the records Hess 19-12
  13. 13. Investigating Illegal Gang ActivityCHALLENGES• Multitude of suspects• Unreliability of witnesses• Fear of witnesses• Reading and responding to graffiti  Documenting graffiti Hess 19-13
  14. 14. Approaches to the Gang ProblemSTRATEGIES• Three-pronged strategy  Prevention  Intervention  Suppression• Civil gang injunctions (CGIs) and ordinances  Legal tools used with urban gangs Hess 19-14
  15. 15. Collaborative Efforts: Gang Task ForcesCOLLABORATION• Enhances efforts to cope with the gang problem• Partnerships with the community• Parents and schools• OJJDP’s Comprehensive Gang Model Hess 19-15
  16. 16. Prosecuting Gang-Related CrimesTACTICS• Defense strategies  Diminished capacity  Self-defense• Prosecution  Apply federal charges  No parole offered Hess 19-16
  17. 17. Federal Efforts to Combat the Gang Problem RESOURCES • National Gang Intelligence Center (NGIC) • National Gang Targeting, Enforcement and Coordination Center (GangTECC) • National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) • GANGINFO Hess 19-17
  18. 18. Bias and Hate Crime: An OverviewCOMPLEX SUBJECT• Divided into two categories  Rational and irrational• Bias or hate crime  Due to someone’s actual or perceived membership in a particular group Hess 19-18
  19. 19. Motivation for Hate CrimeREASONS• Motivated by bigotry• Hatred against a specific group of people• Race is usually the primary motivation• African Americans are most often the victims Hess 19-19
  20. 20. Hate GroupsMAIN GROUPS• Skinheads• Christian identity groups• Ku Klux Klan (KKK)• Black separatists• White supremacists• Neo-Nazis Hess 19-20
  21. 21. The Police ResponseOVERVIEW• Respond promptly• Reduce the victims’ fears• Determine the exact type of prejudice involved• Determine if hate or bias motivated• Always provide follow-up information Hess 19-21
  22. 22. Efforts to Combat Bias and Hate CrimesENDEAVORS• Celebrating diversity• Legislation  Enhanced penalties  Criminal penalties for vandalism of religious institutions  Collection of data Hess 19-22
  23. 23. Ritualistic Crime: An OverviewCULT GROUPS• Refers to those who practice such beliefs• System of religious beliefs and rituals• Less negative term is new religious movement (NRM)• NRMs normally have a charismatic leader• Leaders use fear and mysticism Hess 19-23
  24. 24. Terminology and Symbols of CultsCOMMON TERMS• Antichrist and Beelzebub• Coven and hand of glory• Incantation and magick• Occult and ritual• Sabbat Hess 19-24
  25. 25. Nature of Ritualistic CrimesOVERVIEW• Unlawful act committed within the context of a ceremony• Three levels of activity • Dabbling • Serious involvement • Criminal involvement Hess 19-25
  26. 26. Who Commits Ritualistic Crime?PROFILE• Creative• Imaginative• Curious• Daring• Intelligent and well educated• Frequently underachievers Hess 19-26
  27. 27. Investigating Ritualistic CrimesOVERVIEW• Signs of cult-related activity• Indicators of ritualistic crimes• Investigating animal deaths• Investigating homicides• Investigating satanic serial killings• Investigating youth suicides Hess 19-27
  28. 28. Special Challenges in Ritualistic Crime InvestigationsDIFFICULTIES• Separating the belief system from the illegal acts• Sensationalism• Abnormal personalities• Less than credible testimony to some• Appearance not normal Hess 19-28
  29. 29. Summary• Belonging to a gang is not illegal in this country• Activities of gang members frequently are illegal• Investigating bias or hate crimes and ritualistic crimes is challenging• Ritualistic crimes are often associated with the occult• Investigate the crime—not the belief system Hess 19-29