Chapter 18A Dual Threat: Drug-Related Crime       and Organized Crime                             Hess 18-1
Introduction• Drug gangs have turned many communities into virtual  war zones• Organized crime is heavily involved in the ...
The Threat of DrugsHISTORY•   Cocaine use was common by the 1880s•   Harrison Narcotics Act (1914)•   1970s marijuana usag...
Seriousness and Extent of the Drug Problem DRUG TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATIONS (DTOs)  •   Complex entities  •   Highly defined...
Legal DefinitionsTERMS AND LEGALITIES•   Narcotics•   Controlled substances•   Five schedules of controlled substances•   ...
Identification and Classification           of Controlled DrugsCLASSES•   Depressants•   Stimulants•   Narcotics•   Halluc...
Investigating Illegal Possession    or Use of Controlled SubstancesMAJOR LEGAL EVIDENCE• Physical evidence of possession o...
Investigating Illegal Sale and Distribution of Controlled SubstancesINVESTIGATIVE ACTIONS• Actual transfer of drugs is maj...
Clandestine Drug LaboratoriesCHALLENGES• Identifying• Entering• Processing• Cleanup of labs• Physical, chemicaland toxic h...
Indoor Marijuana Growing OperationsOVERVIEW•   Sinsemilla•   Excessive use of electricity•   Type and amount of traffic•  ...
Investigative AidsTOOLS•   DEA’s National Drug Pointer Index (NDPIX)•   K-9s and handlers•   High-accuracy laser rangefind...
Agency CooperationPRIMARY EMPHASIS• Requires cooperation at all levels• Federal Drug Enforcement Administration (FDEA)   ...
Drug Asset ForfeituresBENEFITS• Seize items used in that crime• Provides assets needed          Cash and property• Precis...
Preventing Problems with Illegal Drugs:      Community PartnershipsGROUPS AND AGENCIES•   Federal funding•   Businesses•  ...
National Drug Control StrategyAPPROACH• Addressing our nation’s drug problem• Three-pronged approach          Prevention ...
Organized Crime: An OverviewCHARACTERISTICS•   Definite organization and control•   High-profit and continued-profit crime...
Applicable Laws against Organized CrimeAREAS OF PROSECUTION • It is a prosecutable conspiracy to:              Acquire an...
Major Activities of Organized CrimeCRIMINAL ACTIVITIES•   Gambling and drugs•   Pornography and prostitution•   Fraud•   L...
Threat of Specific Organized Crime Groups INTERNATIONAL CRIME GROUPS •   Italian •   Asian •   Latino •   African •   Russ...
Organized Crime and CorruptionA GREAT THREAT•   Entire legal system•   Public officials•   Police officers•   Report bribe...
The Police ResponseEYES AND EARS• Daily observations• Report all suspicious activities• First line of defense in controlli...
Agencies Cooperating in       Investigating Organized CrimeMAJOR ORGANIZATIONS•   FBI•   Postal Inspection Service•   U.S....
Methods to Combat Organized CrimeINVESTIGATIVE AIDS• Electronic surveillance• Pen registers• Regional Information Sharing ...
The Decline of Organized Crime?TRUE DECLINE OR NOT•   Tougher legislation•   Improved investigative techniques•   Increase...
Summary• Harrison Narcotics Act (1914) made the sale or use of  certain drugs illegal• The Drug Enforcement Administration...
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Chapter 18

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Chapter 18

  1. 1. Chapter 18A Dual Threat: Drug-Related Crime and Organized Crime Hess 18-1
  2. 2. Introduction• Drug gangs have turned many communities into virtual war zones• Organized crime is heavily involved in the drug trade• Be aware of the response and involvement of different jurisdictional levels• In most cases, local law enforcement detects these problems and opens the cases Hess 18-2
  3. 3. The Threat of DrugsHISTORY• Cocaine use was common by the 1880s• Harrison Narcotics Act (1914)• 1970s marijuana usage• 1980s “Just say no to drugs” Hess 18-3
  4. 4. Seriousness and Extent of the Drug Problem DRUG TRAFFICKING ORGANIZATIONS (DTOs) • Complex entities • Highly defined command-and-control structures • Produce, transport and distribute • Mexican DTOs • Asian DTOs • Cuban DTOs Hess 18-4
  5. 5. Legal DefinitionsTERMS AND LEGALITIES• Narcotics• Controlled substances• Five schedules of controlled substances• Illegal to sell or distribute without a license• Illegal to possess or use without a prescription Hess 18-5
  6. 6. Identification and Classification of Controlled DrugsCLASSES• Depressants• Stimulants• Narcotics• Hallucinogens• Cannabis• Inhalants Hess 18-6
  7. 7. Investigating Illegal Possession or Use of Controlled SubstancesMAJOR LEGAL EVIDENCE• Physical evidence of possession or use of controlled substances includes  The actual drugs  Apparatus associated with their use  Suspect’s appearance and behavior  Urine and blood tests Hess 18-7
  8. 8. Investigating Illegal Sale and Distribution of Controlled SubstancesINVESTIGATIVE ACTIONS• Actual transfer of drugs is major legal evidence• Warrantless arrest  Observing what appears to be a drug buy• Undercover drug buys  Make two or more buys  Avoid entrapment Hess 18-8
  9. 9. Clandestine Drug LaboratoriesCHALLENGES• Identifying• Entering• Processing• Cleanup of labs• Physical, chemicaland toxic hazards Hess 18-9
  10. 10. Indoor Marijuana Growing OperationsOVERVIEW• Sinsemilla• Excessive use of electricity• Type and amount of traffic• Inherent dangers with high energy needs• High-humidity environment Hess 18-10
  11. 11. Investigative AidsTOOLS• DEA’s National Drug Pointer Index (NDPIX)• K-9s and handlers• High-accuracy laser rangefinder• Flying drones Hess 18-11
  12. 12. Agency CooperationPRIMARY EMPHASIS• Requires cooperation at all levels• Federal Drug Enforcement Administration (FDEA)  Unified leadership  Narcotics trafficking and drug abuse  Emphasis on source and distribution Hess 18-12
  13. 13. Drug Asset ForfeituresBENEFITS• Seize items used in that crime• Provides assets needed  Cash and property• Precise recording necessary• Forfeiture program Hess 18-13
  14. 14. Preventing Problems with Illegal Drugs: Community PartnershipsGROUPS AND AGENCIES• Federal funding• Businesses• Schools• Public health departments• Individual citizens• Operation Weed and Seed• OTC drugs Hess 18-14
  15. 15. National Drug Control StrategyAPPROACH• Addressing our nation’s drug problem• Three-pronged approach  Prevention  Treatment  Law enforcement Hess 18-15
  16. 16. Organized Crime: An OverviewCHARACTERISTICS• Definite organization and control• High-profit and continued-profit crimes• Singular control through force and threats• Protection through corruption Hess 18-16
  17. 17. Applicable Laws against Organized CrimeAREAS OF PROSECUTION • It is a prosecutable conspiracy to:  Acquire any enterprise with money obtained from illegal activity  Acquire, maintain or control any enterprise by illegal means  Use any enterprise to conduct illegal activity Hess 18-17
  18. 18. Major Activities of Organized CrimeCRIMINAL ACTIVITIES• Gambling and drugs• Pornography and prostitution• Fraud• Loan-sharking• Money laundering• Infiltration of legitimate businesses Hess 18-18
  19. 19. Threat of Specific Organized Crime Groups INTERNATIONAL CRIME GROUPS • Italian • Asian • Latino • African • Russian Hess 18-19
  20. 20. Organized Crime and CorruptionA GREAT THREAT• Entire legal system• Public officials• Police officers• Report bribes immediately• Attempt to make arrest Hess 18-20
  21. 21. The Police ResponseEYES AND EARS• Daily observations• Report all suspicious activities• First line of defense in controlling all crime• Law enforcement officers seldom break into these hierarchies• Check out new businesses in your area Hess 18-21
  22. 22. Agencies Cooperating in Investigating Organized CrimeMAJOR ORGANIZATIONS• FBI• Postal Inspection Service• U.S. Secret Service• Department of Labor• Securities and Exchange Commission• Internal Revenue Service Hess 18-22
  23. 23. Methods to Combat Organized CrimeINVESTIGATIVE AIDS• Electronic surveillance• Pen registers• Regional Information Sharing System (RISS)ASSET FORFEITURE• Seize funds and property Hess 18-23
  24. 24. The Decline of Organized Crime?TRUE DECLINE OR NOT• Tougher legislation• Improved investigative techniques• Increased use of tools• Decline of traditional organized crime• New criminal enterprises emerging Hess 18-24
  25. 25. Summary• Harrison Narcotics Act (1914) made the sale or use of certain drugs illegal• The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) provides unified leadership in attacking narcotics trafficking and drug abuse• Distinctive characteristics of organized crime include definite organization and control• Daily observations of local law enforcement officers provide vital information Hess 18-25

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