Chapter 12 Robbery             Hess 12-1
Introduction• Robbery has plagued the human race throughout  history• Robbery is one of the three most violent crimes agai...
Robbery: An OverviewDEFINITION• Felonious taking of another’s property• Either directly from the person or in that person’...
ClassificationCATEGORIES•   Residential•   Commercial•   Street•   Vehicle-driver                                      Hes...
ClassificationRESIDENTIAL•   Less frequent than the other types•   Tends to involve entire families•   Home invaders usual...
ClassificationCOMMERCIAL•   Occurs most frequently toward the end of the week•   Committed by individuals with criminal re...
ClassificationSTREET• Most frequently committed on public streets,  sidewalks, in alleys and in parking lots• Most are com...
ClassificationVEHICLE-DRIVER•   Delivery and messenger vehicles•   Armored trucks and personal cars•   Taxis•   Buses•   T...
ClassificationCARJACKING• Taking of a motor vehicle by force or threat of force• Some stage accidentsBANK ROBBERY• Jurisdi...
Elements of the Crime: RobberyOVERVIEW• In most state statutes, common elements exist: The wrongful taking of personal pr...
Responding to a Robbery-in-Progress CallALL-UNITS RESPONSE •   Proceed rapidly, but use caution •   Assume robbers at scen...
Hostage SituationsOVERVIEW• Average length is approximately 12 hours• Special weapons and tactics (SWAT) teams and crisis ...
Preliminary Investigation           and Special ChallengesCHALLENGES FOR INVESTIGATORS•   Lag time in reporting a robbery•...
Proving the Elements of the OffenseELEMENTS OF ROBBERY• Taking of property• Who is the legal owner?• Was property taken or...
The Complete InvestigationIDENTIFYING THE SUSPECT•   General appearance•   Clothing•   Disguises•   Weapon•   Vehicle     ...
The Complete InvestigationESTABLISHING MODUS OPERANDI•   Type of robbery and time•   Method of attack and weapon•   Number...
The Complete InvestigationPHYSICAL EVIDENCE• Minimal at robbery scene• Surveillance camerasMAPPING ROBBERY• Inherently ser...
False Robbery ReportsINDICATORS•   Unusual delay in reporting•   Amount of the loss not fitting victim’s financial status•...
Summary• Robbery is the felonious taking of another’s property• Robberies are classified as either residential,  commercia...
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Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Robbery Hess 12-1
  2. 2. Introduction• Robbery has plagued the human race throughout history• Robbery is one of the three most violent crimes against the person• Most robberies were committed on streets or highways• Firearms were used in 42.6 percent of robberies• This crime poses a definite hazard to law enforcement officers Hess 12-2
  3. 3. Robbery: An OverviewDEFINITION• Felonious taking of another’s property• Either directly from the person or in that person’s presence• Through force or intimidation  Oral demand  Note Hess 12-3
  4. 4. ClassificationCATEGORIES• Residential• Commercial• Street• Vehicle-driver Hess 12-4
  5. 5. ClassificationRESIDENTIAL• Less frequent than the other types• Tends to involve entire families• Home invaders usually target a resident• Home-invading robberies are increasing in rural areas Hess 12-5
  6. 6. ClassificationCOMMERCIAL• Occurs most frequently toward the end of the week• Committed by individuals with criminal records• MOs should be compared with those of past robberies• Convenience stores that are robbed once are likely to be robbed again Hess 12-6
  7. 7. ClassificationSTREET• Most frequently committed on public streets, sidewalks, in alleys and in parking lots• Most are committed with a weapon• Both the victim and the robber are usually on foot• Speed and surprise typify street robberies Hess 12-7
  8. 8. ClassificationVEHICLE-DRIVER• Delivery and messenger vehicles• Armored trucks and personal cars• Taxis• Buses• Trucks Hess 12-8
  9. 9. ClassificationCARJACKING• Taking of a motor vehicle by force or threat of force• Some stage accidentsBANK ROBBERY• Jurisdiction of the FBI• Professional versus amateur• Robberies at ATM machines Hess 12-9
  10. 10. Elements of the Crime: RobberyOVERVIEW• In most state statutes, common elements exist: The wrongful taking of personal property From the person or in the person’s presence Against the person’s will by force or threat of force Hess 12-10
  11. 11. Responding to a Robbery-in-Progress CallALL-UNITS RESPONSE • Proceed rapidly, but use caution • Assume robbers at scene • Be prepared for gunfire • Look for/immobilize getaway vehicle • Avoid hostage situation if possible • Make immediate arrest if possible Hess 12-11
  12. 12. Hostage SituationsOVERVIEW• Average length is approximately 12 hours• Special weapons and tactics (SWAT) teams and crisis negotiation teams (CNTs)• Main priority is to preserve life• Stockholm syndrome Hess 12-12
  13. 13. Preliminary Investigation and Special ChallengesCHALLENGES FOR INVESTIGATORS• Lag time in reporting a robbery• Speed of its occurrence• Traumatizing effect on victims and witnesses• Nature of stolen items Hess 12-13
  14. 14. Proving the Elements of the OffenseELEMENTS OF ROBBERY• Taking of property• Who is the legal owner?• Was property taken or intended to be taken? From the person or in the presence of the person By force or the threat of force Hess 12-14
  15. 15. The Complete InvestigationIDENTIFYING THE SUSPECT• General appearance• Clothing• Disguises• Weapon• Vehicle Hess 12-15
  16. 16. The Complete InvestigationESTABLISHING MODUS OPERANDI• Type of robbery and time• Method of attack and weapon• Number of robbers• Voice and words• Vehicles used• Peculiarities and objects sought Hess 12-16
  17. 17. The Complete InvestigationPHYSICAL EVIDENCE• Minimal at robbery scene• Surveillance camerasMAPPING ROBBERY• Inherently serial• Global Information Software (GIS) mapping capabilities Hess 12-17
  18. 18. False Robbery ReportsINDICATORS• Unusual delay in reporting• Amount of the loss not fitting victim’s financial status• Lack of correspondence with the physical evidence• Improbable events• Exceptionally detailed or vague description of offender• Lack of cooperation Hess 12-18
  19. 19. Summary• Robbery is the felonious taking of another’s property• Robberies are classified as either residential, commercial, street or vehicle-driver• Bank robberies are within the jurisdiction of the FBI• Prove each element of robbery separately• Obtain information about the suspect’s general appearance, clothing, disguises and vehicle Hess 12-19

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