Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Chapter 11Crimes against Children                          Hess 11-1
Introduction• Throughout history, children have endured physical  violence• During the industrial, urban and machine ages,...
Maltreatment of Children: Neglect and Abuse  TYPES OF MALTREATMENT   •   Maltreatment means to treat roughly or abuse   • ...
Extent of the ProblemMALTREATMENT STATISTICS•   Birth to 1 year had highest rate of victimization•   Victimization was spl...
Children as Victims of Violent CrimeCHILD FATALITIES IN 2009•   Estimated 1,770 children died•   2.34 deaths per 100,000 c...
Effects of Child Abuse and NeglectRESULTING DAMAGE• Serious and permanent damage     Physical, mental and emotional• Futu...
Risk Factors for Child MaltreatmentINCREASED CHANCES•   Children younger than 4 years of age•   Special needs children•   ...
Child Abuse and Neglect LawsOVERVIEW• Typically child abuse and neglect laws have three  components:     Criminal definit...
Child Abuse and Neglect LawsFEDERAL LEGISLATION• Courts often determine punishment as reasonableSTATE LAWS• Every state ha...
Case ProcessingCHILD WELFARE•   Child protective services (CPS) agencies•   Acts on behalf of a child•   Parents are unabl...
Challenges in Investigating Child          Maltreatment CasesPROTECTING THE CHILD• Possibility of present or continued dan...
Challenges in Investigating Child           Maltreatment CasesDIFFICULTY IN INTERVIEWING CHILDREN• Consider child’s age• A...
The Initial ReportREPORT SUBMISSIONS• Most reports of child neglect or abuse are made by  third parties      Teachers   ...
The Police ResponseINTERVIEWING ABUSED CHILDREN• Requires special skills• Obtain background  information• Direct• Honest• ...
EvidenceOBSERVATIONS•   Surroundings•   Home conditions•   Clothing•   Bruises or other body injuries•   Medical examinati...
EvidenceINDICATORS•   Physical or behavioral or both•   Neglect•   Emotional abuse•   Physical abuse•   Sexual abuse      ...
The SuspectPARENT AS SUSPECT• Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen by proxy  syndrome• Osteogenesis imperfecta• Sudden infan...
The SuspectSEX CRIMES BY OTHER CHILDREN• Do not dismiss• Investigate thoroughlyTHE NONPARENT SUSPECT• Misoped• Hebephile• ...
The PedophileOVERVIEW•   No specific demographic for a child predator•   An expert in selecting and enticing young people•...
The PedophileCHILD SEXUAL ABUSE RINGS    • Solo sex rings    • Transition sex rings    • Syndicated sex ringsRITUALISTIC A...
The PedophileVICTIMOLOGY    • Positive offender-victim bondOFFENDER REACTIONS•     Complete denial•     Minimizing the act...
Commercial Sexual ExploitationCOMMERCE• Pornography• Child Protection Act (1984)• Internet sex crimes againstchildren• Mod...
Commercial Sexual Exploitation (Continued)COMMERCE•   Federal agencies working against child pornography•   International ...
Missing Children: Runaway or Abducted?OVERVIEW • Determining runaway or abduction is a challenge • Parental abduction is m...
Missing Children: Runaway or Abducted?AMBER ALERT PLAN • Voluntary partnership between law enforcement and   broadcasters ...
Children as Witnesses in CourtPROVIDING TESTIMONY•   Give preference on the docket•   Some courts permit videotaping•   Li...
Preventing Crimes against ChildrenCHILD ABUSERS•   Any race, age or occupation•   Someone close or a complete stranger•   ...
Summary• Crimes against children include:            Maltreatment (neglect and abuse)       Sexual exploitation (pornogr...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 11

633 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Chapter 11

  1. 1. Chapter 11Crimes against Children Hess 11-1
  2. 2. Introduction• Throughout history, children have endured physical violence• During the industrial, urban and machine ages, exploitation of child labor was common• Mistreating children was considered a family matter• Crimes against children include maltreatment, sexual exploitation, trafficking and abduction Hess 11-2
  3. 3. Maltreatment of Children: Neglect and Abuse TYPES OF MALTREATMENT • Maltreatment means to treat roughly or abuse • Neglect • Physical abuse • Emotional abuse • Sexual abuse Hess 11-3
  4. 4. Extent of the ProblemMALTREATMENT STATISTICS• Birth to 1 year had highest rate of victimization• Victimization was split between the sexes• More than 75 percent of victims suffered neglect• More than 15 percent of victims suffered physical abuse Hess 11-4
  5. 5. Children as Victims of Violent CrimeCHILD FATALITIES IN 2009• Estimated 1,770 children died• 2.34 deaths per 100,000 children• Four-fifths were younger than 4 years old• One-third attributed to neglect exclusively• One-third caused by multiple maltreatment types Hess 11-5
  6. 6. Effects of Child Abuse and NeglectRESULTING DAMAGE• Serious and permanent damage  Physical, mental and emotional• Future violent and criminal behavior• Intergenerational transmission of violence Hess 11-6
  7. 7. Risk Factors for Child MaltreatmentINCREASED CHANCES• Children younger than 4 years of age• Special needs children• History of child maltreatment in family• Substance abuse• Parental characteristics• Concentrated neighborhood disadvantage Hess 11-7
  8. 8. Child Abuse and Neglect LawsOVERVIEW• Typically child abuse and neglect laws have three components:  Criminal definitions and penalties  Mandate to report suspected cases  Civil process for removing the child from the abusive or neglectful environment Hess 11-8
  9. 9. Child Abuse and Neglect LawsFEDERAL LEGISLATION• Courts often determine punishment as reasonableSTATE LAWS• Every state has enacted child abuse and neglect laws• States offer a bit more protection to children• What is “reasonable” varies from state to state Hess 11-9
  10. 10. Case ProcessingCHILD WELFARE• Child protective services (CPS) agencies• Acts on behalf of a child• Parents are unable or unwilling to do so• Provides protective custody• Formal investigation is required frequently Hess 11-10
  11. 11. Challenges in Investigating Child Maltreatment CasesPROTECTING THE CHILD• Possibility of present or continued danger exists• Child must be removed into protective custodyNEED TO INVOLVE OTHER AGENCIES• Traditionally conducted separately• Multidisciplinary team (MDT) approach Hess 11-11
  12. 12. Challenges in Investigating Child Maltreatment CasesDIFFICULTY IN INTERVIEWING CHILDREN• Consider child’s age• Ability to describe event• Potential retaliation for “telling”CREDIBILITY CONCERNS• Must protect the innocent and falsely accused Hess 11-12
  13. 13. The Initial ReportREPORT SUBMISSIONS• Most reports of child neglect or abuse are made by third parties  Teachers  Physicians  Neighbors  Siblings or parents Hess 11-13
  14. 14. The Police ResponseINTERVIEWING ABUSED CHILDREN• Requires special skills• Obtain background information• Direct• Honest• Understanding• Professional Hess 11-14
  15. 15. EvidenceOBSERVATIONS• Surroundings• Home conditions• Clothing• Bruises or other body injuries• Medical examination report Hess 11-15
  16. 16. EvidenceINDICATORS• Physical or behavioral or both• Neglect• Emotional abuse• Physical abuse• Sexual abuse Hess 11-16
  17. 17. The SuspectPARENT AS SUSPECT• Munchausen syndrome and Munchausen by proxy syndrome• Osteogenesis imperfecta• Sudden infant death syndrome• Investigating child fatalities Hess 11-17
  18. 18. The SuspectSEX CRIMES BY OTHER CHILDREN• Do not dismiss• Investigate thoroughlyTHE NONPARENT SUSPECT• Misoped• Hebephile• Pedophile or chicken hawk Hess 9-18
  19. 19. The PedophileOVERVIEW• No specific demographic for a child predator• An expert in selecting and enticing young people• Most rarely use force• Involved in activities with easy access to children• Situational and preferential• Pedophilia is a sex offense in all states Hess 11-19
  20. 20. The PedophileCHILD SEXUAL ABUSE RINGS • Solo sex rings • Transition sex rings • Syndicated sex ringsRITUALISTIC ABUSE BY SATANIC CULTS• Certain cults involve sexual abuse of children Hess 11-20
  21. 21. The PedophileVICTIMOLOGY • Positive offender-victim bondOFFENDER REACTIONS• Complete denial• Minimizing the acts• Justifying the acts and blaming the victims• Claiming to be sick Hess 11-21
  22. 22. Commercial Sexual ExploitationCOMMERCE• Pornography• Child Protection Act (1984)• Internet sex crimes againstchildren• Models to combat exploitation  Special task forces  Strike forces and law enforcement networks Continued Hess 11-22
  23. 23. Commercial Sexual Exploitation (Continued)COMMERCE• Federal agencies working against child pornography• International initiatives• Prostitution of juveniles• Trafficking of children• Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) Hess 11-23
  24. 24. Missing Children: Runaway or Abducted?OVERVIEW • Determining runaway or abduction is a challenge • Parental abduction is most frequent • Runaway children  Insecure and depressed  Unhappy and impulsive • Abducted children  Often kidnapped Hess 11-24
  25. 25. Missing Children: Runaway or Abducted?AMBER ALERT PLAN • Voluntary partnership between law enforcement and broadcasters • Nationwide alert system for abducted children BEYOND AMBER ALERT AND ADDITIONAL RESOURCES • Child Abduction Response Team (CART) • Team HOPE Hess 11-25
  26. 26. Children as Witnesses in CourtPROVIDING TESTIMONY• Give preference on the docket• Some courts permit videotaping• Limiting privileges for repeat examinations• Some courts remove the accused from courtroom• Courtroom preparation techniques Hess 11-26
  27. 27. Preventing Crimes against ChildrenCHILD ABUSERS• Any race, age or occupation• Someone close or a complete stranger• Online predators• Children are unaware• Children need adequate information Hess 11-27
  28. 28. Summary• Crimes against children include:  Maltreatment (neglect and abuse)  Sexual exploitation (pornography and prostitution)  Trafficking and abduction• May be prevented by educating children about potential danger• Keeping the channels of communication open Hess 11-28

×