The Cardiovascular System
Learning Objectives <ul><li>List and describe the layers of the heart walls. </li></ul><ul><li>List the chambers of the he...
Composition of the Heart Walls <ul><li>Pericardium - outer layer of the heart  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer fibrous pericar...
Composition of the Heart Walls <ul><ul><li>Inner serous pericardium:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two layers  with a th...
Composition of the Heart Walls <ul><li>Myocardium  </li></ul><ul><li>Located inside the sac formed by the pericardium  </l...
Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>Veins collect deoxygenated blood from the tissues  </li></ul><ul><li>The vena cavae e...
Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>During systole, right ventricle constricts and tricuspid valve closes  </li></ul><ul>...
Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>From the pulmonary arteries, blood passes through branching vessels to the pulmonary ...
Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>Oxygenated blood flows through pulmonary capillary network; vessels begin to merge to...
Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>Blood flows from left atrium through left atrioventricular valve (mitral valve) into ...
Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>During systole, mitral valve snaps shut, left ventricle contracts, and blood enters c...
Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>From the aorta, blood travels through arterial branches to tissue capillaries  </li><...
Structures of the Heart: External Anatomy <ul><li>Auricles - largest and most visible parts of the atria </li></ul><ul><li...
Structures of the Heart: External Anatomy <ul><li>The borders of the ventricles are separated by interventricular sulci  <...
Structures of the Heart: External Anatomy <ul><li>Cranial and caudal vena cavae join together with the coronary sinus that...
Structures of the Heart: External Anatomy <ul><li>The pulmonary artery emerges from the right ventricle as the pulmonary t...
Structures of the Heart: External Anatomy <ul><li>The aorta is the largest artery in the body  </li></ul><ul><li>The walls...
Structures of the Heart: External Anatomy <ul><li>The aorta emerges from the left ventricle into the aortic arch </li></ul...
Structures of the Heart: Internal Anatomy <ul><li>Atrioventricular valve (tricuspid valve) - 3 flaps  </li></ul><ul><li>Fl...
Structures of the Heart: Internal Anatomy <ul><li>Chordae tendinae connect the free edges of the valvular flaps to the pap...
Structures of the Heart: Internal Anatomy <ul><li>Moderator band - tissue present in the right ventricle; originates at in...
Structures of the Heart: Internal Anatomy <ul><li>Left atrioventricular valve (mitral valve) </li></ul><ul><li>Has 2 flaps...
Structures of the Heart: Internal Anatomy <ul><li>Aortic valve and pulmonic valves - 3 flaps attached at their outer edges...
Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>Systole - heart muscle contracts; blood is ejected from the atria to the ventricles then from the ve...
Sinoatrial Node (SA node) <ul><li>Specialized area of cardiac muscle cells located in right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Gener...
Depolarization/Repolarization <ul><li>Depolarization: process of generating electrical impulse from the SA node </li></ul>...
Cardiac Cycle  <ul><li>Impulse generated at SA node travels from one muscle cell to the next </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wave pa...
Cardiac Cycle  <ul><li>Electrical impulse then spreads through the Bundle of His (fibers in the ventricles) </li></ul><ul>...
Cardiac Cycle  <ul><li>Atria begin diastole while the ventricles are still contracting. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure in the ...
Cardiac Cycle  <ul><li>Atria fill with blood.  </li></ul><ul><li>As the atria are becoming completely full, systole ends i...
Cardiac Cycle  <ul><li>Pressure in ventricles falls below the pressure in the full atria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AV valves a...
Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Bypasses in the fetal circulation keep most of the blood out of the pulmonary circulation.  </li...
Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Oxygenated blood flows from the placenta through the umbilical vein.  </li></ul><ul><li>Blood fr...
Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Blood from the caudal vena cava enters the right atrium.  </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the blood fr...
Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Blood from the caudal vena cava enters the right atrium.  </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the blood th...
Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Blood from the pulmonary artery flows into the lungs or through the ductus arteriousus directly ...
Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Deoxygenated blood is sent back to the placenta through the umbilical arteries. </li></ul><ul><l...
Normal Heart Sounds (“lub-dub”) <ul><li>“lub”: S 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves at the...
Normal Heart Sounds (“lub-dub”) <ul><li>Large animals - additional heart sounds </li></ul><ul><li>S 3  - Rapid ventricular...
Cardiac Output <ul><li>Cardiac output: amount of blood that leaves the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on </li></ul><ul><u...
Cardiac Output <ul><li>CO (Cardiac Output) =  </li></ul><ul><li>SV (Stroke Volume)  ×  HR (Heart Rate) </li></ul><ul><li>V...
Cardiac Output <ul><li>Starling’s Law - increased filling of the heart results in increased force of cardiac contraction a...
Cardiac Output <ul><li>Influence of autonomic nervous system:   </li></ul><ul><li>“ fight or flight” response - sympatheti...
Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) <ul><li>Electrocardiograph - instrument with graph paper that moves under a stylus  </li></ul...
Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) <ul><li>P wave - depolarization of the atria  </li></ul><ul><li>QRS complex - waves created b...
Vascular Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Blood in the systemic circulation is under higher pressure than blood in the pulmo...
Aorta <ul><li>Largest artery in the body - largest diameter and thickest vessel walls  </li></ul><ul><li>Artery wall layer...
Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Subclavian arteries branch off the aorta and travel toward the thoracic limbs </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Main trunk of the  aorta arches dorsally  then travels caudally  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous b...
Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Main trunk of the aorta splits at the hind limbs into the iliac arteries  </li></ul><ul><li>Coccy...
Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Smaller arteries continue to split into smaller and smaller vessels and then arterioles. </li></u...
Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Venous blood is under lower pressure than arterial blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Veins have thinner wa...
Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Veins in the foreleg merge into larger and larger vessels to form right and left brachycephalic v...
Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Smooth muscle in walls of most blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Constriction and relaxation allows...
Venipuncture <ul><li>Cephalic vein:  craniomedial aspect  of forelimb </li></ul><ul><li>Femoral vein: medial  aspect of hi...
Venipuncture <ul><li>Jugular Veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral aspect of each side of the neck in the jugular groove  </...
Venipuncture <ul><li>Caudal epigastric vein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral aspect of e...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

8. The Cardiovascular System

3,631 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
1 Comment
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,631
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
95
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Delete top half of figure.
  • Delete top half of figure.
  • Add top section of fig. 8-1 (from the previous slide.)
  • Delete italic as shown
  • Delete italic as shown
  • Change spacing. Make line longer.
  • Change spacing. Make line longer.
  • 8. The Cardiovascular System

    1. 1. The Cardiovascular System
    2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>List and describe the layers of the heart walls. </li></ul><ul><li>List the chambers of the heart; describe the path of blood flow through the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure and locations of the heart valves. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between systole and diastole. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the process of depolarization and repolarization of cardiac cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the pathway of the electrical impulse generated by the SA node. </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the unique anatomical features of fetal circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>List the events responsible for the heart sounds heard on auscultation. </li></ul><ul><li>List the factors that influence heart rate and cardiac output. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the relationship between cardiac output, heart rate, & stroke volume. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure of arteries, capillaries, and veins. </li></ul><ul><li>List the major arteries & veins that travel between the heart & systemic circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>List the names & locations of veins used for venipuncture in animals. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Composition of the Heart Walls <ul><li>Pericardium - outer layer of the heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer fibrous pericardium: fibrous connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protects the heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loosely attaches the heart to the diaphragm </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Composition of the Heart Walls <ul><ul><li>Inner serous pericardium: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two layers with a thin, fluid-filled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cavity between the layers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal layer : directly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adjacent to fibrous </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pericardium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Visceral layer : deep to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fibrous pericardium; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>also known as epicardium </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Composition of the Heart Walls <ul><li>Myocardium </li></ul><ul><li>Located inside the sac formed by the pericardium </li></ul><ul><li>Thickest layer of heart tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Endocardium </li></ul><ul><li>Membranous lining between myocardium and chambers of the heart </li></ul>
    6. 6. Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>Veins collect deoxygenated blood from the tissues </li></ul><ul><li>The vena cavae empty into right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Blood passes through right atrioventricular valve (tricuspid valve) into right ventricle of the heart </li></ul>
    7. 7. Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>During systole, right ventricle constricts and tricuspid valve closes </li></ul><ul><li>Blood is ejected from the right ventricle through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary arteries </li></ul>
    8. 8. Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>From the pulmonary arteries, blood passes through branching vessels to the pulmonary capillaries of the alveoli, where oxygen exchange takes place </li></ul>
    9. 9. Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>Oxygenated blood flows through pulmonary capillary network; vessels begin to merge together and increase in diameter, eventually becoming the pulmonary veins </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary veins bring blood into left atrium </li></ul>
    10. 10. Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>Blood flows from left atrium through left atrioventricular valve (mitral valve) into left ventricle </li></ul>
    11. 11. Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>During systole, mitral valve snaps shut, left ventricle contracts, and blood enters coronary arteries and aorta through aortic valve </li></ul>
    12. 12. Blood Flow Through the Heart <ul><li>From the aorta, blood travels through arterial branches to tissue capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen and nutrient exchange occur </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxygenated blood travels back to the heart </li></ul>
    13. 13. Structures of the Heart: External Anatomy <ul><li>Auricles - largest and most visible parts of the atria </li></ul><ul><li>Left ventricle - long and narrow, thick-walled, terminates at apex of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Right ventricle - broader surface area; wraps around left ventricle </li></ul>
    14. 14. Structures of the Heart: External Anatomy <ul><li>The borders of the ventricles are separated by interventricular sulci </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain fat and blood vessels that are part of the coronary circulation of the heart </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Structures of the Heart: External Anatomy <ul><li>Cranial and caudal vena cavae join together with the coronary sinus that collects blood from coronary circulation </li></ul>
    16. 16. Structures of the Heart: External Anatomy <ul><li>The pulmonary artery emerges from the right ventricle as the pulmonary trunk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quickly divides into right and left pulmonary arteries traveling to each lung </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulmonary trunk is larger and more curved than the vena cavae </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Structures of the Heart: External Anatomy <ul><li>The aorta is the largest artery in the body </li></ul><ul><li>The walls of the aorta are the thickest of any blood vessel </li></ul>
    18. 18. Structures of the Heart: External Anatomy <ul><li>The aorta emerges from the left ventricle into the aortic arch </li></ul><ul><li>The brachycephalic trunk and left subclavian artery branch off the aorta just after aortic valve </li></ul>
    19. 19. Structures of the Heart: Internal Anatomy <ul><li>Atrioventricular valve (tricuspid valve) - 3 flaps </li></ul><ul><li>Flaps originate from a fibrous ring of the valve </li></ul><ul><li>Increased blood pressure in the atrium during contraction forces flaps to open </li></ul><ul><li>The flaps are prevented from bending back into the atrium by the chordae tendinae. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Structures of the Heart: Internal Anatomy <ul><li>Chordae tendinae connect the free edges of the valvular flaps to the papillary muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Papillary muscles attach to the interventricular septum </li></ul>
    21. 21. Structures of the Heart: Internal Anatomy <ul><li>Moderator band - tissue present in the right ventricle; originates at interventricular septum </li></ul><ul><li>Not attached to flaps of tricuspid valve </li></ul><ul><li>Provides additional structural support to the wall of the right ventricle </li></ul>
    22. 22. Structures of the Heart: Internal Anatomy <ul><li>Left atrioventricular valve (mitral valve) </li></ul><ul><li>Has 2 flaps or leaflets </li></ul><ul><li>Outer edges of flaps attached to the fibrous ring; inner edges attached to papillary muscles by chordae tendinae </li></ul><ul><li>No moderator band in right ventricle </li></ul>
    23. 23. Structures of the Heart: Internal Anatomy <ul><li>Aortic valve and pulmonic valves - 3 flaps attached at their outer edges to a fibrous ring </li></ul><ul><li>Aortic and pulmonic valves are both called semilunar valves. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>Systole - heart muscle contracts; blood is ejected from the atria to the ventricles then from the ventricles to the arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Diastole - heart relaxes and refills with blood to be ejected during the next systolic contraction </li></ul>
    25. 25. Sinoatrial Node (SA node) <ul><li>Specialized area of cardiac muscle cells located in right atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Generates electrical impulses that trigger repeated beating of the heart </li></ul>
    26. 26. Depolarization/Repolarization <ul><li>Depolarization: process of generating electrical impulse from the SA node </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from movement of cations (Na + ,K + ,Ca ++ ) into SA node cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systole </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polarization: cations are pumped out of the cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in the outside of the cell having a more positive charge than the inside of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diastole </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>Impulse generated at SA node travels from one muscle cell to the next </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wave pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially causes both atria to contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood pushed through AV valves into ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impulse also travels quickly down the muscle fibers to the atrioventricular node (AV node) </li></ul>
    28. 28. Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>Electrical impulse then spreads through the Bundle of His (fibers in the ventricles) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travels down the interventricular septum to the bottom of the ventricles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purkinje fibers carry impulses from the Bundle of His up into the ventricular myocardium. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>Atria begin diastole while the ventricles are still contracting. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure in the ventricles is higher than the pressure in the atria. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AV valves snap shut. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>Atria fill with blood. </li></ul><ul><li>As the atria are becoming completely full, systole ends in the ventricles. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aortic and pulmonary valves snap shut </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Cardiac Cycle <ul><li>Pressure in ventricles falls below the pressure in the full atria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AV valves are opened. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventricles fill with blood. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SA node depolarizes again. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes atria to contract and re-start the cycle </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Bypasses in the fetal circulation keep most of the blood out of the pulmonary circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>The fetus receives oxygen from the mother through the placenta. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Oxygenated blood flows from the placenta through the umbilical vein. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood from the umbilical vein flows through the liver and the ductus venosus into the caudal vena cava.ss </li></ul>
    34. 34. Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Blood from the caudal vena cava enters the right atrium. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the blood from the right atrium flows directly into the left atrium through the foramen ovale. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Blood from the caudal vena cava enters the right atrium. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the blood then flows directly into the left atrium through the foramen ovale. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some blood flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and then to the pulmonary artery. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Blood from the pulmonary artery flows into the lungs or through the ductus arteriousus directly into the aorta. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood travels through the fetal aorta to the fetal systemic circulation. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Fetal Circulation <ul><li>Deoxygenated blood is sent back to the placenta through the umbilical arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>After birth, the ductus venosus constricts, and the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus close. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Normal Heart Sounds (“lub-dub”) <ul><li>“lub”: S 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves at the beginning of ventricular systole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitral valve is loudest on the left side of the chest; tricuspid valve is best heard on the right </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“dub”: S 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closure of the semilunar valves at the beginning of ventricular diastole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easiest to hear on the left side of the chest </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Normal Heart Sounds (“lub-dub”) <ul><li>Large animals - additional heart sounds </li></ul><ul><li>S 3 - Rapid ventricular filling </li></ul><ul><li>S 4 - Contraction of the atria </li></ul>
    40. 40. Cardiac Output <ul><li>Cardiac output: amount of blood that leaves the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroke volume - amount of blood ejected with each cardiac contraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate - frequency of heart contractions </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Cardiac Output <ul><li>CO (Cardiac Output) = </li></ul><ul><li>SV (Stroke Volume) × HR (Heart Rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Vigorous exercise results in increased contractility, increased stroke volume, and increased heart rate </li></ul>
    42. 42. Cardiac Output <ul><li>Starling’s Law - increased filling of the heart results in increased force of cardiac contraction and increased stroke volume </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced blood pressure (e.g., shock) - less pressure to fill the heart, decreased stroke volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate increases to compensate for decreased stroke volume </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Cardiac Output <ul><li>Influence of autonomic nervous system: </li></ul><ul><li>“ fight or flight” response - sympathetic nervous system releases epinephrine; stroke volume and heart rate increase </li></ul><ul><li>General anesthesia - parasympathetic nervous system releases acetylcholine; stroke volume and heart rate decrease </li></ul>
    44. 44. Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) <ul><li>Electrocardiograph - instrument with graph paper that moves under a stylus </li></ul><ul><li>Electric currents cause the stylus to move up or down as the paper unrolls beneath it. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Electrocardiogram (ECG, EKG) <ul><li>P wave - depolarization of the atria </li></ul><ul><li>QRS complex - waves created by ventricular depolarization </li></ul><ul><li>T wave - repolarization of the ventricles </li></ul>
    46. 46. Vascular Anatomy and Physiology <ul><li>Blood in the systemic circulation is under higher pressure than blood in the pulmonary or coronary circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>More pressure is needed to carry blood throughout the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood in systemic circulation encounters more resistance to flow. </li></ul>
    47. 47. Aorta <ul><li>Largest artery in the body - largest diameter and thickest vessel walls </li></ul><ul><li>Artery wall layers are similar to the walls of the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Aorta and pulmonary arteries - middle layer contains more elastic fibers than muscle fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows vessels to stretch slightly as they receive high-pressure blood from the ventricles </li></ul></ul>
    48. 48. Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Subclavian arteries branch off the aorta and travel toward the thoracic limbs </li></ul><ul><li>Carotid arteries branch off one or both subclavian arteries </li></ul>
    49. 49. Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Main trunk of the aorta arches dorsally then travels caudally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numerous branches emerge in the thoracic and lumbar areas </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Main trunk of the aorta splits at the hind limbs into the iliac arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Coccygeal artery emerges at the caudal aorta </li></ul>
    51. 51. Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Smaller arteries continue to split into smaller and smaller vessels and then arterioles. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood flows through arterioles into tiny, thin-walled capillaries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capillaries have no muscle layer in their walls. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood travels back to the heart through small venules which merge to form veins. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Venous blood is under lower pressure than arterial blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Veins have thinner walls than arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>Valves in veins ensure that blood travels only in the direction of the heart. </li></ul>
    53. 53. Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Veins in the foreleg merge into larger and larger vessels to form right and left brachycephalic veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These carry blood to the cranial vena cava then back into the heart . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Veins in the hind limbs merge into right and left iliac veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These carry blood to the caudal vena cava. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caudal vena cava travels to the right atrium </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Vascular Anatomy <ul><li>Smooth muscle in walls of most blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>Constriction and relaxation allows the vascular system to direct blood to different regions of the body under different circumstances. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Venipuncture <ul><li>Cephalic vein: craniomedial aspect of forelimb </li></ul><ul><li>Femoral vein: medial aspect of hind limb </li></ul><ul><li>Saphenous: lateral aspect of hind limb </li></ul>
    56. 56. Venipuncture <ul><li>Jugular Veins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral aspect of each side of the neck in the jugular groove </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close to the carotid arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Care must be taken to avoid accidental injection into the carotid artery </li></ul></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Venipuncture <ul><li>Caudal epigastric vein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk vein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral aspect of each side of the abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin-walled, superficial, prone to hematoma formation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coccygeal vein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral midline of the tail </li></ul></ul>

    ×