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Determine four important     characteristics of your audience:• Who are your readers?• Why is your audience reading your  ...
Consider six factors about         your most important readers:• the reader’s education• the reader’s professional experie...
Classify your readers into three categories: • a primary audience of people who will use   your document in carrying out t...
Your readers have           attitudes and expectations:• attitudes toward you• attitudes toward the subject• expectations ...
Why and how will your         readers use your document?• Why is the reader reading your document?• How will the reader re...
Learn about your audience:• Determine what you already know about your  audience.• Interview people.• Read about your audi...
Understand seven cultural    variables that lie “on the surface”:• political• economic• social• religious• educational• te...
Understand six cultural variables     that lie “beneath the surface”:• focus on individuals or groups• distance between bu...
Consider four points aboutcultural variables “beneath the surface”:• Each variable represents a spectrum of  attitudes.• T...
Use these eight strategies when   writing for readers from other cultures:• Limit your vocabulary.• Keep sentences short.•...
Use these eight strategies when writing    for readers from other cultures (cont.):•   Avoid idioms and slang.•   Use the ...
Determine your purpose:Ask yourself:• What do I want this document to accomplish?• What do I want readers to know or belie...
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Ch05 slides

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Prof. Wozencraft
ENG227

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Ch05 slides

  1. 1. Determine four important characteristics of your audience:• Who are your readers?• Why is your audience reading your document?• What are your readers’ attitudes and expectations?• How will your readers use your document? Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 1
  2. 2. Consider six factors about your most important readers:• the reader’s education• the reader’s professional experience• the reader’s job responsibility• the reader’s personal characteristics• the reader’s personal preferences• the reader’s cultural characteristics Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 2
  3. 3. Classify your readers into three categories: • a primary audience of people who will use your document in carrying out their jobs • a secondary audience of people who need to stay aware of developments in the organization but who will not directly act on or respond to your document • a tertiary audience of people who might take an interest in the subject of the document Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 3
  4. 4. Your readers have attitudes and expectations:• attitudes toward you• attitudes toward the subject• expectations about the document Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 4
  5. 5. Why and how will your readers use your document?• Why is the reader reading your document?• How will the reader read your document?• What is the reader’s reading skill level?• What is the physical environment in which the reader will read your document? Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 5
  6. 6. Learn about your audience:• Determine what you already know about your audience.• Interview people.• Read about your audience online.• Search social media for documents your audience has written. Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 6
  7. 7. Understand seven cultural variables that lie “on the surface”:• political• economic• social• religious• educational• technological• linguistic Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 7
  8. 8. Understand six cultural variables that lie “beneath the surface”:• focus on individuals or groups• distance between business life and private life• distance between ranks• nature of truth• need to spell out details• attitudes toward uncertainty Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 8
  9. 9. Consider four points aboutcultural variables “beneath the surface”:• Each variable represents a spectrum of attitudes.• The six variables do not line up in a clear pattern.• Different organizations within the same culture can vary greatly.• An organization’s cultural attitudes are fluid, not static. Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 9
  10. 10. Use these eight strategies when writing for readers from other cultures:• Limit your vocabulary.• Keep sentences short.• Define abbreviations and acronyms in a glossary.• Avoid jargon unless you know your readers are familiar with it. Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 10
  11. 11. Use these eight strategies when writing for readers from other cultures (cont.):• Avoid idioms and slang.• Use the active voice whenever possible.• Be careful with graphics.• Be sure someone from the target culture reviews the document. Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins
  12. 12. Determine your purpose:Ask yourself:• What do I want this document to accomplish?• What do I want readers to know or believe?• What do I want readers to do? Chapter 5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose © 2012 by Bedford/St. Martins 12

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