Bovine diseases

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VTS257: Lg Animal Diseases & Nursing

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  • Where can i find detailed photos of bovine skin infections and diseases and treatments for animals in centralamerica?
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Bovine diseases

  1. 1. Bovine Diseases
  2. 2. Shipping Fever Complex• IBR- Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis ( rednose)• P13- Parainfluenza Type 3• BSRV- Bovine Syncytial Respiratory Virus• +/- Pastuerella multocida ( bacterial infection secondary to viral infection)
  3. 3. • Symptoms- Fever 103-105, duration 3-5 days- Loss of appetite- Dry hacking cough ( +/- tracheal reaction with palpation)- Serous nasal/ocular discharge- +/- rhinitis/conjunctivitis
  4. 4. • Treatment- In uncomplicated cases, treatment is rarely necessary• Transmission- aerosol, morbidity directly related tomanagement techniques
  5. 5. • Prevention- vaccination, preconditioning program• Note: recovery from natural infection with IBR/P13/BRSV results in lifelong immunity• Economic impact- Weight loss, decreased rate of gain/carcassdevaluation
  6. 6. • Epidemiology- High ( 80%) rate of exposure/antibody production- Morbidity 50-70%- Mortality <5%
  7. 7. Bovine Viral Diarrhea BVD• Infection can result in immunosuppression, may be factor in susceptibility to other diseases• Symptoms- mild, transient diarrhea, many subclinical- 80% of cattle >1yr have antibodies to BVD- High morbidity( 100%) low mortality (0%)- 1-2 % viremic for life, resevoirs of infection
  8. 8. BVD Mucosal disease• Low morbidity (5-10%), high mortality ( 95- 100%)• Symptoms:- Excessive salivation/oral erosion- Oral mucosa has cooked appearance- Watery diarrhea with blood/mucus/sloughed intestinal mucosa- Smells like parvo diarrhea
  9. 9. BVD continued• Treatment – fluid replacement +/- antibiotics• Prevention- vaccination
  10. 10. Rotavirus/coronavirus• Virus is ONLY in the intestinal tract, does not enter body• Symptoms- profuse watery/yellow diarrhea +/- flecks of blood• Treatment- fluid, electrolyte replacement
  11. 11. Rotavirus/coronavirus cont’• Prevention- Sanitation at calving- Maternal vaccination pre-calving- Protection is dependent on the presence of colostral antibodies in the lumen of the intestine. Serum antibodies are of no benefit as virus does not leave GI tract- Stimulate calf’s immunity with oral vaccine at birth
  12. 12. Fluid management of diarrhea in calves• Colostrum requirement 1 pint per 20 lbs of body weight within 1 hour of birth and repeat within 12 hours• Maintenance milk requirement 10% of the calf’s body weight in milk or milk replacer/day• Maintain 2 hour interval between milk feedings and oral electrolyte replacement requirements
  13. 13. Dehydration• 5% dehydration: dehydration, no other clinical signs, calf nursing normally• 7% dehydration: eyes slightly sunken, skin losing elasticity• 9% dehydration: eyes sunken, gums tacky, calf depressed• 12% dehydration: skin tents, calf recumbent, non-responsive
  14. 14. Dehydration cont’• Multiply percentage of dehydration by weight of calf( in Kg ) to determine the number of liters of electrolyte solution required for replacement• NOTE: replacement fluids are administered in addition to the calf’s maintenance requirement for milk
  15. 15. Infectious Bovine Keratitis Pinkeye• Bacteria: Moraxella bovis• Transmission- Flying insects- Solar radiation and environmental conditions (dust) exacerbating factors• Symptoms- tearing, blepharospasm, photophobia- Corneal opacity
  16. 16. Pinkeye cont’• Duration of symptoms- 3-5 weeks- Note: weaning weight may be decreased by 10% as a result of pinkeye infection• Treatment- Subconjunctival penicillin and dexamethasone- Eye patch
  17. 17. Pinkeye cont’• Prevention- Insect control- Natural infection confers immunity for 12 months- Vaccine is available but of questionable efficacy
  18. 18. Esophageal obstruction Choke• Symptoms- excessive salivation (loss of bicarbonate>acidosis) dehydration• Treatment- Relieve obstruction, sedation- Head position is critical to avoid aspiration pneumonia- Lavage/probing ( has corkscrew end to try and snag obstruction)- Fluid/electrolyte replacement as necessary- Warning: symptoms of choke may resemble those of rabies, always assume rabies first
  19. 19. Urethral Calculi water belly• Symptoms- Straining to urinate, urine dribbling- Ventral subcu edema/fluid accumulation ( post urethral rupture)• Causes- early castration reduces urethral diameter, stress at weaning, inadequate conditioning, environmental factors lack of water, frozen water tanks• Treatment- urethrostomy at location of calculi
  20. 20. Squamous Cell Carcinoma• Cause- solar radiation and unpigmented skin like in Hereford cattle• Treatment- enucleation• Economic impact- cost of veterinary care and carcass devaluation
  21. 21. Traumatic reticulitis/pericarditis Hardware disease• Incidence- cattle eating hay made from or grazing on field containing old rusting fences, baling wire, or in vicinity of a building that was torn down• Symptoms- sharp drop in milk production, arched back, grunting when pressure is exerted on the xiphoid process
  22. 22. Hardware disease• Treatment- rumen magnets, traumatic pericarditis may require surgery, rib resection and pericardial drainage• Prevention- monitor quality of feeds and pasture
  23. 23. Rumenal tympany Bloat• Incidence-- cattle turned out on lush pasture, frothy bloat- Cattle fed a diet with low roughages to concentrate ratio, gas bloat• Symptoms- Distension of left flank, dyspnea, collapse, sudden death- If untreated, death occurs within 3-4 hours of onset of symptoms
  24. 24. Bloat• Treatment- Surfactants administered via stomach tube- Trocharization of rumen- Rumenotomy• Prevention- Restrict access to new pasture- Feed hay before turning cattle out on new pasture- Prophylactic use of antifoaming agents
  25. 25. Clostridial diseases• Anaerobic bacteria- Gas producing, toxin producing, spore producing- Sensitive to penicillin- Unbiquitous in environment- Speciation variation in susceptibility
  26. 26. Clostridial diseases of cattle• Cl chauvei- blackleg• Cl. Septicum- malignant edema• Cl. Novyi- Blacks disease• Cl. Hemolyticum- Redwater disease• Cl. Perfringen Type C- Hemorrhagic enteritisPrevention- vaccination
  27. 27. Leptospirosis• Agent- spirochete• Transmission- organisms in urine of affected animals, may be asymptomatic• Symptoms- Chronic infection, abortions, stillbirths, weak calves- Acute infection, jaundice, fever, death
  28. 28. Lepto con’t• Treatment- Acute infection, antibodies- Chronic infection, no treatment• Prevention- vaccination
  29. 29. Post parturient paresis Milk Fever• Incidence- Usually within 72 hours of calving• Symptoms- unsteadiness, sternal recumbency with head displaced to the side, intestinal stasis, loss of anal tone and death
  30. 30. Milk Fever Con’t• Diagnosis- symptoms, interval post calving- Blood calcium levels 3-7 mg/dl ( normal 10 mg/dl)• Treatment – IV calcium• Prevention- Dry period nutrition- Calcium supplementation,
  31. 31. Displace Abomassum• Abomassum becomes distended with gas and or fluid and shifts to an abnormal position between the rumen and left abdominal wall• Incidence- occurs withing 2 weeks of calving, associated with high concentrate level in diet during dry period• Diagnosis- abdominal percussion, ping sound• Treatment- roll cow, surgery
  32. 32. Ketosis• Symptoms- inappetance, constipation, mucus covered feces, decreased milk production, breath has acetone odor• Incidence- usually secondary to other disease• Diagnosis- ketonuria, ketonemia, ketones in milk• Treatment- glucocorticoids, address precipitating conditions
  33. 33. Brucellosis Bang’s disease• Brucella abortus• Symptoms- abortion, infertility, birth of weak calves, enlarged, arthritic joints• Transmission- bacteria shed in milk, aborted fetus, placenta or reproductive tract discharges
  34. 34. Brucellosis Control• Brucellosis Eradication Program• Surveillance- Bulk milk tank screening with Brucellosis Ring Test- Non milk producing animals tested at market or slaughter with Brucellosis Card Test
  35. 35. Eradication program con’t• Disease identification- Herd quarantined, movement to slaughter only• Prevention- vaccination, strain 19, Strain RB51- Test all replacement animals, quarantine before admission to general population
  36. 36. Johne’s disease• Mycobacterium paratuberculosis• Symptoms- Chronic diarrhea- Weight loss, unthriftiness, emaciation• Transmission- Oral bacteria excreted in feces and milkincluding colostrum
  37. 37. Johnes Control• Avoid feeding raw, unpasteurized milk• Do not permit offspring to nurse off infected dam• Maintain colostrum from Johne’s negative females• Do not pool colostrum from multiple animals• Avoid manure contamination of feed bunks/water troughs• Premise disinfection, chemicl tuberculoid• NOTE: will take 5+ years to eliminate Johne’s
  38. 38. Actinobacillosis Wooden Tongue• Normal inhabitant of the bovine mouth an rumen that Actinobacillosis lignieresii that enters wound in the mouth, especially the tongue• Symptoms- inability to prehend food, excessive salivation, anorexia, tongue protrudes ( make sure not rabies)• Treatment- sodium iodide 70 mg/kg IV repeat in 1 week
  39. 39. Actinomyces Lumpy Jaw• Caused by Actinomyces bovis which is a normal inhabitant of the bovine mouth which enters a wound• Symptoms- hard immoveable painless mass on mandible and may cause loose teeth• Treatment- sodium iodide 70 mg/kg IV or penicillin 10,000 U/kg in valuable animals BID, treat any fistulas tracts that develop

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