Beef cattle


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VTS257: Lg Animal Diseases & Nursing

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Beef cattle

  1. 1. Beef Cattle
  2. 2. Beef Cattle BreedsLong Horn:- Original beef cattle- USA/Spanish extraction- Lean meat
  3. 3. Angus Aberdeen- 1930’s or earlier- Solid black, occasionally red- More fat in meat for a better taste- Polled: born without horns- Black, red becoming more popular
  4. 4. Hereford- More fatty meat, increases flavor- Red with a white face- Polled or horned- White on underline
  5. 5. Black Baldy- Not a breed, a hybrid of breeds- Hereford/angus cross- All black cow with a white face
  6. 6. Charolais- 1940- Leaner meat- Good conversion of fiber to meat- White/cream color- High carcass quality and good taste
  7. 7. Simmental- Brought from Canada- Red and white spotted- White face with yellow skin- Good conversion of fiber to grain,- High carcass value
  8. 8. Limousin- From France- Wheat or rust coloredChianina- Italy- White with black switch on tail- Largest of modern breeds, 4000 lb male, 2400 lb female
  9. 9. Brahma- India- Grey or red- Hump on shoulder, heat tolerantSanta Gertrudis- texas, cherry red- First north american cross breed
  10. 10. Beef Cattle Operations• Cow/Calf- Conditioning, weaned, introduce grain, vaccinated- Calves in spring, feb, mar, april- At 6 months, sold as 500 lb feeders
  11. 11. Cow Calf system• Replacement heifers• Calves to feed out or sell• Average birth weight 75-80lbs• Average weaning weight 400-500 lbs• Weaning weight: influenced by environment factors, sire and dam growth genetics, and dams milk production
  12. 12. Preconditioning• A vaccination, nutrition, and management program designed to prepare young cattle to withstand the stress of weaning and shipment
  13. 13. • Backgrounding- Also called stocker- Buy 6 mo old calves and switch gradually to hay
  14. 14. Backgrounding• Weaned cattle turned out on pasture/corn stalks• Average daily gain is 2 lbs• Move to feedlot at 800-900 lbs
  15. 15. • Finisher- Stock yard feeder- 1 year old on high concentrates for 6 months- 18 months at 1000 lbs for slaughter
  16. 16. Feeder Cattle• Purchased at 800-900 lbs• Exercise restricted an fed concentrates for 90- 120 days• Average daily gain is 3 lbs• Finished cattle average market weight is 1200 lbs
  17. 17. Beef Cattle ProcessingHandling- Movement of cattle at plant, stress diminishes quality of meat- Captive bolt renders animal unconsciousKosher- Processing is a religious ritual slaughter
  18. 18. Beef Grading• Quality- based on marbling, firmness and color1. Prime2. Choice3. Select4. Standard• Maturity- age of animal at slaughter
  19. 19. Cost Benefit Ration• If cost of medical care exceeds the potential return on investment then it is not a viable option• Production animal medicine requires an understanding of the fluidity of the animal production industry• Variable expenses: feed, livestock, labor, equipment, land, interest, meds, vaccines, veterinary care
  20. 20. Efficiency• Minimize infectious disease, parastism• Maximize rate of gain• Feed conversion ratios ( lb of feed/lb gain)- Beef cattle 8-10 lb feed /lb gain- Hogs 3-6 lb feed /lb gain- Poultry 2 lb feed/lb gain
  21. 21. Variable product value• Supply and demand• Public perception may determine value• Genetically engineered products banned in some areas• Mad cow disease rendered all british beef worthless