9 atmosphere

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9 atmosphere

  1. 1. Physical Geography Class 9 – Earth’s Atmosphere Structure and Composition
  2. 2. How big is the atmosphere? <ul><li>Atmosphere extends to 32,000 km (20,000 mi) from surface </li></ul><ul><li>Thermopause is at 480 km (300 mi)—top of the principal atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>100 km?? </li></ul>
  3. 4. Atmospheric Pressure Figure 3.3
  4. 5. Layers of the Atmosphere
  5. 6. Atmospheric Temperature <ul><li>Troposphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface to 18 km (11 mi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% mass of atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal lapse rate – average cooling at rate of 6.4 C°/km (3.5 F°/1000 ft) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental lapse rate – actual local lapse rate </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Atmospheric Temperature <ul><li>Thermosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly same as heterosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80 km (50 mi) outward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature rises </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Atmospheric Temperature <ul><li>Mesosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 to 80 km (30 to 50 mi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature falls </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Atmospheric Temperature <ul><li>Stratosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 to 50 km (11 to 31 mi) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature rises </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Composition of Air
  10. 12. Variable Atmospheric Components   <ul><li>Impurities and Pollutants in Troposphere </li></ul><ul><li>Harmful Gases and Other Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Water Vapor </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Aerosols/Particulates </li></ul>
  11. 13. Particulates
  12. 14. Sources of Aerosols
  13. 16. Southern California Wildfires Figure 3.8
  14. 17. <ul><li>USGS </li></ul>
  15. 19. Water Vapor <ul><li>Can you see this invisible gas? </li></ul>
  16. 21. Variations in Atmospheric Composition <ul><li>Ionosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs cosmic rays, gamma rays, X-rays, some UV rays </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ozonosphere (ozone layer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of stratosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone (O 3 ) absorbs UV energy and converts it to heat energy </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. Atmospheric Pressure Figure 3.3
  18. 23. <ul><li>The end </li></ul>
  19. 24. Normal Lapse Rate

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