Geothermal and Nuclear Energy

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Our planet is repleted with vast sum of energy hidden in coalmines,underneath the oceans, or maybe just through wind rolling aroung the atmosphere, springs and teachnology, which I call uranium generated fuel.You will gather knowledge about Geothermal and Nuclear Energy and how they have been a boon and curse to mankind and nature.

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Geothermal and Nuclear Energy

  1. 1. Geothermal and Nuclear Energy
  2. 2. Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy, sourced from hot springs, has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for heating during the Roman era. However, now it is now better known for electricity generation Worldwide, about 10,715 megawatts (MW) of geothermal power is online in 24 countries. An additional 28 Gigawatts of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating spas, industrial processes, desalination and agricultural applications
  3. 3. What exactly is geothermal energy? Geothermal energy is the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Earths geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%) Geothermal power plants use the heat obtained from the earth’s thermal energy Inside a geothermal plant, the heat energy is used to heat water into water vapour and that rotates turbines, thus generating electricity
  4. 4. Recent research in Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is increasingly contributing to the power supply world wide. Iceland is the world-leader in expanding development of geothermal utilization: in recent years the annual power supply here doubled to more than 500 MW alone in the supply of electricity. Alone in the region of Travale, in Italy, a team of European scientists have found geothermal reservoirs, holding a potential comparable to the effectiveness of 1000 wind power plants. In Germany also, development is taking place in the field of geothermal energy. Here,100 MW of power is currently being provided through geothermal energy.
  5. 5. Advantages and Disadvantages of Geothermal energy Advantages DisadvantagesGeothermal energy generally involves Geothermal sites can run out of steamlow running costs since it saves 80% over a period of time due to drop in costs over fossil fuels and no fuel is temperature or if too much water is used to generate the power. injected to cool the rocks. The main advantages of using Since this type of energy is not widelygeothermal energy is that it does not used, the unavailability of equipment,create any pollution. It has helped in staff, infrastructure, training pose reducing global warming and hindrance to the installation of pollution. geothermal plants across the globe.Governments of various countries are investing hugely in creation of Geothermal sites may contain somegeothermal energy which on the other poisonous gases which can escape hand has created more jobs for the deep within the earth, through the local people. holes drilled by the constructors.
  6. 6. Nuclear Power In 2007, the NuclearNuclear power is the IAEA reported there energy provides use of were 439 nuclear about 6% of the sustained nuclear power reactors in worlds energy and fission to generate operation in the 13–14% of theheat and electricity. world, operating in worlds electricity. 31 countries.
  7. 7. Nuclear reaction is the process in which two nuclei, or else anucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton,neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide toproduce products different from the initial particles. The energyreleased in the nuclear reaction is called nuclear energy or atomicenergy.Nuclear energy is produced naturally and in man-made operationsunder human control.Naturally: Some nuclear energy is produced naturally. For example,the Sun and other stars make heat and light by nuclear reactionsMan-Made: Nuclear energy can be man-made too. Machines callednuclear reactors, parts of nuclear power plants, provide electricity formany cities. Man-made nuclear reactions also occur in the explosionof atomic and hydrogen bombs.Nuclear energy is produced in two different ways, in one,large nuclei are split to release energy. In the other method,small nuclei are combined to release energy.
  8. 8. Nuclear Fission Nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts, often producing two or three free neutrons and photons and mass of original atom is converted into large amount of energy, and releasing a very large amount of energy, in accordance with the equation E = mc2 Nuclear fission produces energy for nuclear power and to drive the explosion of nuclear weapons. In a nuclear weapon, there is uncontrolled nuclear fission, while in a reactor, the fission is always monitored.
  9. 9. FISSILE ISOTOPESFissile isotopes are isotopes of an elementthat can be split through fission. Onlycertain isotopes of certain elements arefissile. For example, 239Pu and 232Th.One isotope of uranium, 235U, is fissile,while another isotope, 238U, is not fissile. SPLITTING OF URANIUM Uranium is the principle element used in nuclear reactors and in certain types of atomic bombs. The specific isotope used is 235U. When a stray neutron strikes a 235U nucleus, it is at first absorbed into it. This creates 236U. 236U is unstable and this causes the atom to fission. The fissioning of 236U can produce over twenty different products. However, the products masses always add up to 236. The following two equations are examples of the different products that can be produced when 235U fissions: 235U + 1 neutron 2 neutrons + 92Kr + 142Ba + ENERGY 235U + 1 neutron 2 neutrons + 92Sr + 140Xe + ENERGY
  10. 10. Fusion is a nuclear process in which two light nucleicombine to form a single heavier nucleus.A large amount of energy is released in fusionreactions. However, though fusion is an energeticallyfavourable reaction, it does not occur under standardconditions here on Earth because of the large energyrequirement.Fusion reactions have been going on for billions ofyears in our universe. In fact, nuclear fusion reactionsare responsible for the energy output of most stars,including our own Sun.
  11. 11. CHAIN REACTION• A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place. In each of the above reactions, 1 neutron splits the atom. When the atom is split, 1 additional neutron is released. This is how a chain reaction works. If more 235U is present, those 2 neutrons can cause 2 more atoms to split. Each of those atoms releases 1 more neutron bringing the total neutrons to 4. Those 4 neutrons can strike 4 more 235U atoms, releasing even more neutrons. The chain reaction will continue until all the 235U fuel is spent. This is roughly what happens in an atomic bomb. It is called a runaway nuclear reaction. Chain reaction of thorium
  12. 12. Chain reaction of uranium
  13. 13. Nuclear Power in India(The above picture shows the nuclear reactors currently operational in India)
  14. 14. Nuclear Power in IndiaNuclear power is the fourth largest source of electricityin India after thermal, hydroelectric and renewable sources of electricity.As of 2010, India has 20 nuclear reactors in operation in six nuclearpower plants, generating 4,780 MW.Seven other reactors are under construction and are expected togenerate an additional 5,300 MW.
  15. 15. Advantages of Nuclear Energy• The Earth has limited supplies of coal and oil. Nuclear power plants could still produce electricity after coal and oil become scarce.• Nuclear power plants need less fuel than ones which burn fossil fuels. One ton of uranium produces more energy than is produced by several million tons of coal or several million barrels of oil.• Coal and oil burning plants pollute the air. Well-operated nuclear power plants do not release contaminants into the environment.
  16. 16. Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy• Nuclear explosions result in large amounts of radiation. The nuclear radiation harms the cells of the body which can make people sick or even kill them. Illness can strike people years after their exposure to nuclear radiation.• Reactors produce nuclear waste products which emit dangerous radiation. Since they can kill people who touch them, they cannot be thrown away like ordinary garbage.• In nuclear plants, there is a risk of a meltdown. During a meltdown, the fission reaction goes out of control, leading to a nuclear explosion and the emission of great amounts of radiation.
  17. 17. Major nuclear meltdownsThree Mile accident- The Three Mile Island accident was apartial nuclear meltdown which occurred at the Three MileIsland power plant in Pennsylvania. It resulted in a loss of coolantand partial core meltdown due to operator errors.Chernobyl Disaster- One of the worst nuclear accidents to date wasthe Chernobyl disaster which occurred in 1986 in Ukraine. Thisaccident killed 56 people directly, as well as damaging approximately$7 billion of property. Overheating, steam explosion, fire, andmeltdown, necessitating the evacuation of 300,000 people from Kievand dispersing radioactive material across Europe .Fukushima Daiichi-A tsunami flooded and damaged the 5 activereactor at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. Loss of backupelectrical power led to overheating, meltdowns, and evacuations. 3reactors underwent a complete meltdown..
  18. 18. Recent developments in Nuclear Energy  Although nuclear power is currently a significant source of global electricity supply, there is no consensus concerning its future role. While nuclear power stagnates in much of Europe and in North America, it continues as a strong option in some Asian countries  Although there is debate about its use, nuclear energy is eco friendly as decommissioning it does not involve environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.  A newly discovered form of uranium, uranium nitride, could lead to a nuclear power plant small enough to fit in your car and eventually even power it  India has also sought to build new nuclear plants, so as to meet its massive energy needs

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