In Delhi , air pollution is one of the most critical problem beingfaced by the public and concerned authorities. According to World Health Organization, Delhi is thefourth most polluted city in the world in terms of SuspendedParticulate Matter (SPM) AIR POLLUTION IS HIGH DUE TO :--1. Phenomenal growth in the number of motor vehicles (65%).2. Coal based power generation unit and other industries (35%). Annual average maximum levels of SPM in Delhi’s air hasincreased from 7.6 times the permissible limit in 1987 to 16.7 timein 1995.
LOCATION WISE POLLUTION IN DELHI Air quality monitoring studies have been conducted using Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Mobile laboratory at 11 locations. It monitors with respect to Sulpher Oxide, Nitrogen Oxide, RSPM and CO. The data collected at these locations indicate high SPM367-462 mgm/cubic m against the standard of 140-368 mgm/cubic m.The society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) says thatcars with diesel have increased to 30% in 1 ½ years and is expectedto rise by 50% in 2010.About 3000 tones of air pollutant are emitted everyday in Delhi.
MAJOR POLLUTANTS AND THEIR SOURCE (Sector wise emission tones per day)POLLUTANTS TRANSPORT POWER INDUSTR DOMESTIC Total YCarbon 810 8 128 117 1063MonoxideSulpher 11 121 35 12 179DioxideParticle Matter 157 143 20 3 323NitrogenHydrocarbon 310 2 6 2 320Suspended 13 50 60 12 135Particles
Study by Centre for Science and environment reveals the reductionof SPM on the CNG use in Delhi :--Emission Benefits of Replacing Conventional Diesel withCNG in BusesFuel Pollution Parameter CO NOx PMDiesel 2.4 g/km 21 g/km 0.38 g/kmCNG 0.4 g/km 8.9 g/km 0.012 g/km% Reduction 84 58 97
In my locality (Officer’s Rest House, near Connaught Place) thenumber of cars are 8 and motorcycles, 2.Out of which threevehicles use CNG, two use petrol and five diesel.The ratio of vehicles using CNG to that of petrol or diesel is 3:8. In Delhi, during 1975 there were only 2.35 lacs of vehicles andthese have increased drastically to 46 lacs.It is expected that thenumber of vehicles will go upto 60 lacs by 2011.At present, about 45% of total vehicles are using CNG in place ofpetrol / diesel.
STEPS FOR POLLUTION CONTROL Delhi Government has introduced CNG buses, replacing the Conventional buses. Use of Lead, free diesel in vehicles has helped in the reduction of pollution. Large scale plantation in and around Delhi has made Delhi ‘go green’. Introduction of Mass Rapid Transport System i.e. metro railways.
SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR MEASURING AIR POLLUTANT Take a few microscope slides. Coat one side of slide with petroleum jelly. Put the slides in different areas – inside a classroom, outside the classroom, fried and label the location. Expose the slides for at least 6 hours. Place the slide on white paper with coated side up. Examine under strong light with magnifying glass . Record the observation ,compare them and draw the conclusions.