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synthetic food colours

food colours, permitted and non permitted colours

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synthetic food colours

  1. 1. SYNTHETIC COLOURS IN FOOD Presented By Jr. Research Officer Regional Analytical Laboratory Calicut - 9
  2. 2. Synthetic colours are added to food materials to catch the attraction of the consumers Colour is one of the major indicator for the acceptance of food.
  3. 3.  Synthetic food Colour corrects the natural variations.  The problems of colour loss due to exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, moisture and storage condition are solved.  Make food more attractive and informative
  4. 4.  Generally synthetic colours gives Bright and uniform colours  Companies are prefer to use synthetic food colours because of they are cheaper, stable and long shelf life compare to natural colours
  5. 5.  Children are highly influenced by this coloured sweets 
  6. 6. FOOD COLOURS NATURAL Carotene & Carotenoids Chlorophyll Riboflavin ( Lactoflavin) Caramel Annatto Saffron Curcumin or turmeric SYNTHETIC Oil Soluble colours Coal tar colours
  7. 7. PERMITTED FOOD COLOURS NON-PERMITTED FOOD COLOURS Brilliant Blue Carmoisine Erythrosine Fast green Indigo carmine Ponceau 4R Sunset yellow Tartrazine Rhodamine B Amaranth Orange II Metanil yellow Malachite green Acid Magenta Orange G Butter yellow
  8. 8. No. COLOUR COMMON NAME COLOUR INDEX CHEMICAL CLASS 1. Red Ponceau 4R 16255 Azo Carmoisine 17420 Azo Erythrosine 45430 Xanthene 2. Yellow Tartrazine 19140 Pyrazolone Sunset Yellow FCF 15985 Azo 3. Blue Indigo Carmine 73015 Indigoid Brilliant Blue FCF 42090 Triarylmethane 4. Green Fast Green FCF 42053 Triarylmethane
  9. 9. OBJECTIVE  The objectives of the study is to identify the colours used in sugar based confectionary.  Estimate the colour concentrations quantitatively.  Create awareness in public for the safe use of colours in food. Vulnerability in children
  10. 10. Most Important & well studied side effect of artificial colours  Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)  Symptoms Lack of concentration, distractibility, excitability impulsiveness, anxiety, anti-social behavior, difficulties with coordination, disabilities of both cognitive and learning functions. J. Human Nutr,34:167-174,1980 Report on Colour Additives. FACT, 1987 J. Pediatrics. 61(6):811-7. 1978.
  11. 11.  Do artificial food colors promote hyperactivity in children with hyperactive syndromes? A meta- analysis. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 2004  The effects of artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children. Arch Dis Child. 2004  Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community. Lancet Vol. 370,No. 9598,p1521-1588, 2007
  12. 12.  A study was conducted by National Institute of Nutrition with school children consuming a particular brand of Aniseed (Saunf)exhibited of glossitis of tongue. Analysis revealed that the Aniseed (Saunf) had very high levels of Ponceau 4R  Ref: National institute of Nutrition, Annual report, Hydrabad P.72-1993-1994
  13. 13. They are more sensitive to carcinogens Immaturity of enzymatic detoxifying mechanism Incomplete excretory organs Partial development of physiological barriers (BBB) They are consume more synthetic food colours per unit of body weight than adults Young children serve as first victims of any contaminations in food
  14. 14. MATERIALS AND METHOD Fourteen different coloured sugar based confectioneries such as sweets, sugar candies, toffees, marsh mallows are randomly collected from different shops during January 2015 to March 2015.
  15. 15. The colours are qualitatively identified by paper chromatographic techniques PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES
  16. 16. The colours are quantitatively estimated by the UV-Visible spectrophotometer
  17. 17. Sl No Name of Colour Absorption maxima(nm) 1 Carmosine 516 2 Ponceau 4 R 507 3 Erythrosine 527 4 Green FCF 624 5 Indigo Carmine 609 6 Brilliant Blue FCF 630 7 Tartrazine 427 8 Sunset yellow FCF 482
  18. 18. RESULTS
  19. 19. Tartrazine -19140 Sunset yellow - 15985 Indigo carmine -73015 Fast green FCF - 42053 180 220 160 110 0 50 100 150 200 250 Cocentration(ppm) Synthetic colours Tartrazine Sunset yellow Indigocarmine Fast green CUMIN SEED SWEET
  20. 20. Cumin Sweet  In cumine sweets no natural colours were found.  Four type of synthetic food colours were found in the samples. They are individual colours and mixed colours.  All the synthetic colours having concentration more than 100ppm.  Sunset yellow have more than 200ppm and Fast green have least concentration and all other colour  The Colour Concentrations are above the FSSA prescribed level.
  21. 21. Peanut Sweet Ponceau 4R - 16255 Tartrazine - 19140 5 210 160 0 50 100 150 200 250 Concentration(ppm) Synthetic colours Tartrazine Ponceau 4R
  22. 22. Peanut sweet  Two types of synthetic colours were identified in Peanut sweets.  Its identified as Ponceau4R and tartrazine. Both colours are more than 100ppm.
  23. 23. Lemon sweet Tartrazine-19140 Sunset yellow-15985 160 180 150 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 Concentration(ppm) Synthetic colours Tartrazine Sunsetyellow
  24. 24.  Only two colours were found in lemon sweets.  The colours are identified as Tartrazine and Sunset yellow. Sunset yellow is present in more than 180ppm and tartrazine having the concentration 160ppm.  No mixed colours and natural colours were identified in these samples.
  25. 25. Jellies Ponceau 4R-16255 Tartrazine-19140 Sunset yellow-15985 Brilliant blue FCF-42090 210 180 200 130 0 50 100 150 200 250 Concentration(ppm) Synthetic colours Tartrazine Sunsetyellow Ponceau 4R Brilliant blue
  26. 26. Jellies  In all jelly sweets individual colour and mixed colours were found in samples.  No natural colour or non permitted colours were found in the samples.  Ponceau 4R Present in higher concentration (210ppm) than other permitted synthetic food colours after that Sunset yellow is present in high level and brilliant blue is in lesser amount  All the colours exceeds the prescribed standard level.
  27. 27. Gems Indigo carmine-73015 Brilliant Blue FCF-42090 Carmoisine -14720 Erythrosine-45430 Ponceau 4R-16255 100 99 85 100 100 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 Concentration(ppm) Synthetic colours Indigo carmine Brilliant blue Carmoisine Erythrosine
  28. 28. Lolly Pop Sunset yellow-15985 230 0 50 100 150 200 250 Concentration(ppm) Synthetic colours sunset yellow
  29. 29. Lolly pop  The local Lolly pope sample collected having red in colour. Only single colour identified as sunset yellow. The Colour present in higher concentration 230ppm.
  30. 30. Local sweets Red Green Yellow Rose pink White Sunset yellow-15985 Tartrazine-19140 Ponceau 4R-16255 Carmoisine-14720 Erythrosine-45430 250 300 100 200 150 Local sweets Green Violet Red Rose Yellow Tartrazine -19140 Sunset yellow-15985 Ponceau 4R-16255 Carmoisine-14720 Erythrosine-45430 Amaranth 160 200 100 180 120 160 Local sweets Yellow Red Green Tartrazine-19140 Ponceau 4R-16255 Sunset yellow-15985 Fast Green- 42053 200 180 160 140 Local sweets Red Yellow Green Fast green Brilliant blue Sunset yellow Tartrazine 210 100 280 310
  31. 31. Local marshmallow Rose Pale green Yellow White Amaranth Tartrazine-19140 120 75 Local sweets Green Yellow Red Sunset yellow-15985 Fast green- 42053 Brilliant blue FCF Tartrazine-19140 Amaranth Rhodamine B 90 65 90 180 95 120 Local sweets Orange Yellow White Tartrazine-19140 Ponceau 4R-16255 Sunset yellow-15985 190 230 180
  32. 32. Discussion  Most of the sugar based confectionary products sold in the market were coloured and very few find without synthetic food colours.  Of the fourteen samples analysed  97% having permitted colours,  3% having a combination of permitted and non- pepermitted colours  No sweets having only non-permitted colour.  .
  33. 33. Discussion  All the labelled samples are within the FSSA prescribed level.  The Home made sweets and small scale food industries using synthetic food colours higher than the specifications prescribed under the FSS Act.   It was interesting to note that FSSA permits eight colours to be added to specific foods but only six colours were commonly used.
  34. 34.  Among the permitted colours, tartrazine was the most widely used colour followed by sunset yellow.  Tartrazine in blend with sunset yellow is the most widely used colour  Brilliant blue FCF was mostly used in blends with tartrazine to give a green shade to sugar based confectionary products.
  35. 35. NON- PERMITTED COLOURS  It is found that Amaranth, Rhodamine B are commonly used non-permitted colours.  Orange G, Fast red, and Metanil yellow, Acid Magenta were not found in any sugar based confectionary tested.
  36. 36. CONCLUSION  From the present investigation, It can be concluded that the prevalent use of non-permitted colours has been considerably reduced.  The study found that the use of non-permitted colours in sugar based confectionary products was considerably less as it was detected in only 3 %  This could be due to the awareness of the manufacturers to the hazards of non-permitted colours and the actions taken by the regulatory authorities.
  37. 37. CONCLUSION  More awareness is necessary in the non-industrial sector.  Relentless campaign needs to be undertaken to improve the awareness amongst consumers of the unscrupulous use of synthetic food colours particularly concerning vulnerable consumers such as children.
  39. 39. THANK YOU To the Commissioner of food safety- Kerala The Deputy Director (PFA) The Chief Government Analyst Government Analyst Lab-TVM The Government Analyst Regional analytical lab Calicut -9 FASEELA P.M Unity Womens College, Manjeri,Malappuram Dist
  40. 40. NO FOOD ITEMS 1 Ice-cream, milk lollies, frozen dessert, flavoured milk, yoghurt, ice-cream mix powder 2 Non-alcoholic carbonated and non-carbonated ready-to-serve synthetic beverages including syrups, sherbets, fruit bar, fruit beverages, fruit drinks, synthetic soft drink concentrates 3 Biscuits, including biscuit wafer, pastries, cakes, confectionery, thread candies, sweets, savouries (dal moth, mongio, phulgulab, sago papad, dal biji) 4 Peas, strawberries and cherries in hermatically sealed containers, reserved or processed papaya, canned tomato juice, fruit syrup, fruit squash, fruit cordial, jellies, jam, marmalade, candied crystallised or glazed fruits
  41. 41. PIGMENT SOURCES COLOUR SHADE Curcumin Turmeric Rhizome (roots) Bright lemon yellow Lutein Tagetas Erecta (marigold) and Alfalfa Golden yellow Natural mixed Carotenes Palm oil, D.salina (algae Golden yellow to orange Bixin/norbixin Bixa Orellana bush seeds- South America Orange Capsanthin/ Capsorubin Paprika Capsicum annum L. Reddy orange Lycopene Tomatoes Orangy red. Carminic acid Cochineal insect (female)- Peru Orange to red Carmine Cochineal insect(female) – Peru Pink to red Betanin Red table beetroot Pink to red Anthocyanin Black grapeskin, elderberries, black carrots, red cabbage. Pink/red to mauve/blue Chlorophyll (in) Grass, lucerne and nettle Olive green Copperchlorophyll(in) Grass, lucerneand nettle Bluish green Carbon black Vegetable Material Grey to black Crocin Saffron/ Gardenia fruit Yellow Titanium dioxide Anatase White