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What is an Ecosystem
• An ecosystem is made up of
biotic as well as abiotic
factors.
• The interactions of living
organism...
Biotic Factors
Abiotic Factors
Abiotic factors affect living organisms in an ecosystem
Fires destroy forests, but can sometimes help a forest community b...
Biotic factors affect the abiotic
factors in an ecosystem
Lichens on rocks help break them
down into soil. Lichens are mad...
ECOLOGY
• ECOLOGY IS AN
SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF
THE INTERACTION
THAT DETERMINE THE
DISTRIBUTION AND
ABUNDANCE OF
ORGANISMS
Ecology—the scientific study of interactions
between different organisms and between
organisms and their environment or
su...
TYPE OF ECO SYSTEM
• NATURAL ECO SYSTEM
• ARTIFICIAL ECOSYSTEM
NATURAL
1.Terrestrial ecosystems (grasslands, forests, desert
ecosystems)
2.Aquatic ecosystem
a.Lentic (Stagnant water) l...
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OFSTRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF
ECOSYSTEMECOSYSTEM
• Two important aspects of the ecosystem are Archite...
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OFSTRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF
ECOSYSTEMECOSYSTEM
• Two important aspects of the ecosystem are working...
An ecosystem consists of two main components
Abiotic or Non-living components.
1. Inorganic substances
2. Organic compoun...
Structural aspects of ecosystem
ABIOTIC
• light
• Moisture
• Water
• Salinity
• Oxygen supply
• Soil
BIOTIC
• Trees
• Flow...
Biotic-living factors that influence an
ecosystem
Abiotic -non-living factors that influence an
ecosystem
Sunlight
Sunlight is the main energy source for life on
earth. Also called autotrophs
Use light or chemical
energy to make...
Photosynthesis-use light energy to convert carbon
dioxide and water into oxygen and carbohydrates
(Remember: 6CO2 + 6H2O 6...
Most energy comes
from the sun
• Plants, also called producers, convert energy from
the sun into food through a process ca...
MOISTURE
• The amount of moisture in environment
varies from desert areas to lakes and
oceans. All forms of life on earth ...
Water
• Three form of Water Solid, Liquid or gas.
• Large amount of heat is needed to change
the phases
Salinity• Ocean contains
3.5% of salts.
• The salt content
is the major
factor to
determine what
organisms will
be found t...
Fresh water
organisms both
plants and animals
have a salt
concentration in their
body fluids and inside
their cells higher...
Oceans
The ocean has many kinds of ecosystems. The
oceans are so large that the conditions in one
part of the ocean are ve...
Estuaries and Salt Marshes
Estuaries are places where rivers flow into the
ocean. Estuaries have water that is saltier tha...
Estuaries
Intermediate salt
concentration.
Salt and fresh
water meet
Dissolved gases: Oxygen
• Condition:
– Marine animals need
oxygen to survive
– Plants and animals
need oxygen for
respirat...
soil
Soil
HUMUS
Relationship to soil quality?
Deciduous Forests
• Deciduous forest ecosystems have trees such as oaks,
elms, and maples. These forests grow in moderatel...
Coniferous Forests
Coniferous forests are made up of mostly conifers,
trees that have cones. These forests are found
mostl...
Rainforests
Rain forests get large amounts of rain. Tropical
rain forests are warm all year. These conditions
enable large...
Grasslands
Grasslands are ecosystems in which grasses
are the main plant life. Grasslands have
fertile soil and have few t...
How do organisms interact and depend
on one another in an ecosystem?
A food chain shows how organisms get
their food. The ...
Consumers
A.Organisms that rely on other
organisms for their energy and food
supply
B. Also called heterotrophs
Herbivores-obtain energy
by eating only plants
Carnivores-eat only
animals
Omnivores-eat both plants and
animals
Decomposers—breaks down dead organic
matter
Feeding Interactions
A. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one
direction—from the sun or inorganic compounds to
autotrop...
B. Food Chain—series of steps in which organisms
transfer energy by eating and being eaten
1. Arrows go in the direction o...
C. Food Web-network of food chains within an
ecosystem
Hawks
Weasels Raccoons
Mice
Grass
D. Trophic Levels—each step in a food chain or food
web
1. Level 1—Producers (autotrophs)
2. Level 2—Primary Consumers (he...
Hawks
Weasels Raccoons
Mice
Grass
Food Webs
IV. Ecological Pyramids
A. Diagram that shows the relative amount of energy or
organisms contained within each trophic lev...
Energy
Pyramid
Biomass
Pyramid
100%
10%
1%
0.1%
Represents amount of energy
available at each level as well
as amount of living tissue—
both decrease with each
increasing...
Heavy metals
Ex: mercury
Pesticides
Ex: DDT
(dichlorodiphenyltrichloro
ethane)
Organochlorides:
Ex: PCBs
V. Ecological Interactions between organisms
A.Competition—when two organisms of the same
or different species attempt to ...
Monkeys compete
with each other and
other animals for
food.
Rams compete with
each other for
mates.
Until Americans introduced gray squirrels into parts of
England in the early 20th century, red squirrels had been the
only...
B. Niche-the ecological niche involves both the
place where an organism lives and the roles that an
organism has in its ha...
The ecological niche of an organism depends not
only on where it lives but also on what it does. By
analogy, it may be sai...
C. Predation—one organism captures and feeds
on another organism
1. Predator—one that does the killing
2. Prey—one that is...
D. Symbiosis—any relationship in which two
species live closely together
1. Mutualism—both species benefit (WIN-WIN)
a. Ex...
2. Commensalism-one member of the association
benefits and the other is neither
helped nor harmed.
(WIN-0)
Example: barnac...
Commensalism
The Remora fish attaches
to the shark and gets a free
ride.
Birds build nests in trees.
3. Parasitism-one organisms lives on or
inside another organism (host) and harms
it.
The parasite obtains all or part of i...
Parasitism
Wasp eggs on back
of caterpillar.
Mosquito biting a
human.
Sea lampreys feed
on fluids of other
fish.
Mutualism, Commensalism or Parasitism
Food
Chain
• A food chain describes
a single pathway that
energy and nutrients
may follow in an
ecosystem. There is one
or...
Secondary, tertiary, quaternary
consumers
• Secondary consumers are those that eat primary consumers, tertiary
consumer se...
Scavengers
• Scavengers are animals that do not
kill for a meal, but pick on “leftovers”
from other animals
• Hyenas, vult...
Decomposers
• Decomposers or detritivores are organisms that
degrade or decompose dead or organic material
in simpler mole...
FOOD
WEB
A combination of
different food chains is
called a food web.
Can you identify
all the different
organisms and
the...
The first level always
has autotrophs
The second level has
primary consumers –
heterotrophs, herbivores.
The last level co...
Matter Cycles
Pyramid of Biomass or
Numbers
Just like energy, biomass decreases at each level, because there is only
enough energy at th...
Predator - Prey
• Lions and zebras, for example
• One hunts and kills, the other gets killed and eaten
Parasite - Host
• Fleas and dogs for example
• The parasite harms the host
and benefits from the
relationship. The host is...
Pathogen - Host
• A pathogen is a disease-causing agent, like a
bacterium or a virus
E.coli H.I.V.
Mutualism
• A symbiotic relationship where
two organisms are in a
mutually beneficial relationship
• Examples: Lichens are...
Commensalism
• In this relationship, one organism benefits but
the other is neither harmed nor benefited
• Examples: Shark...
More unusual examples of animal symbiosis
How nutrients cycle
• Nitrogen cycle
• Carbon cycle
• Water Cycle
These are some of the various nutrient
cycles on Earth.
Nitrogen Cycle
Carbon cycle
Limiting Factors
• Any abiotic factor that
limits the survivability of
organisms in a particular
ecosystem is called a
lim...
Food Webs
Food Chains
In this picture, how does
the coyote depend on the
sun?
Life Depends on the Sun
• Photosynthesis is the process by which
plants, algae, and some bacteria use
sunlight, carbon dio...
B. Energy Pyramid shows relative amount of energy available at
each trophic level
1. Organisms in a trophic level use the ...
ECOSYSTEM
ECOSYSTEM
ECOSYSTEM
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ECOSYSTEM

ECOLOGY,BHARATHIYAR UNIVERSITY GENERAL PAPER

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ECOSYSTEM

  1. 1. What is an Ecosystem • An ecosystem is made up of biotic as well as abiotic factors. • The interactions of living organisms with their physical environment builds up the ecosystem and is designated as the bioshphere or ecosphere • Examples: a pond, a forest, an estuary, a grassland
  2. 2. Biotic Factors
  3. 3. Abiotic Factors
  4. 4. Abiotic factors affect living organisms in an ecosystem Fires destroy forests, but can sometimes help a forest community by allowing new organisms to thrive Early or unexpected frost can kill plants and an entire food chain. Wind can affect the way an organism grows
  5. 5. Biotic factors affect the abiotic factors in an ecosystem Lichens on rocks help break them down into soil. Lichens are made up of algae and fungi. Dead organisms and animal waste contribute to soil nutrients (with the help of decomposers, of course)
  6. 6. ECOLOGY • ECOLOGY IS AN SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE INTERACTION THAT DETERMINE THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF ORGANISMS
  7. 7. Ecology—the scientific study of interactions between different organisms and between organisms and their environment or surroundings
  8. 8. TYPE OF ECO SYSTEM • NATURAL ECO SYSTEM • ARTIFICIAL ECOSYSTEM
  9. 9. NATURAL 1.Terrestrial ecosystems (grasslands, forests, desert ecosystems) 2.Aquatic ecosystem a.Lentic (Stagnant water) like lake, ponds etc. b.Lotic (Flowing water) like river, ocean, sea, etc. ARTIFICIAL 1.A crop land, garden, aquarium, park, kitchen garden.
  10. 10. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OFSTRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ECOSYSTEMECOSYSTEM • Two important aspects of the ecosystem are ArchitecturalTwo important aspects of the ecosystem are Architectural (Structural)(Structural) • 1.The composition of biological community including1.The composition of biological community including species numbers, biomass, life history and distribution inspecies numbers, biomass, life history and distribution in spacespace • 2.The quantity and distribution of nonliving materials like2.The quantity and distribution of nonliving materials like nutrients, water.nutrients, water. • 3.The condition of existence such as temperature, light3.The condition of existence such as temperature, light etc.etc.
  11. 11. STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OFSTRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF ECOSYSTEMECOSYSTEM • Two important aspects of the ecosystem are workingTwo important aspects of the ecosystem are working processprocess • 1.The production and respiration rates of the community1.The production and respiration rates of the community • 2.The rate of material (nutrient) cycles2.The rate of material (nutrient) cycles • 3.Biological regulation including both regulations of3.Biological regulation including both regulations of organisms by environment (Photoperiodism) andorganisms by environment (Photoperiodism) and regulation of environment by the organisms (Nitrogenregulation of environment by the organisms (Nitrogen fixing organisms)fixing organisms)
  12. 12. An ecosystem consists of two main components Abiotic or Non-living components. 1. Inorganic substances 2. Organic compounds 3. Climatic factors Biotic or Living components. 1. Autotrophs or Producers 2. Heterotrophs or Consumers 3. Decomposers or Saprotrophs
  13. 13. Structural aspects of ecosystem ABIOTIC • light • Moisture • Water • Salinity • Oxygen supply • Soil BIOTIC • Trees • Flowers • Cats • Dogs • you
  14. 14. Biotic-living factors that influence an ecosystem Abiotic -non-living factors that influence an ecosystem
  15. 15. Sunlight Sunlight is the main energy source for life on earth. Also called autotrophs Use light or chemical energy to make food 1. Plants 2. plant-like protists (algae) 3. Bacteria
  16. 16. Photosynthesis-use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and carbohydrates (Remember: 6CO2 + 6H2O 6O2 + C6H12O6) Chemosynthesis—performed by bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates Light Energy
  17. 17. Most energy comes from the sun • Plants, also called producers, convert energy from the sun into food through a process called photosynthesis. • Photosynthesis is a process which uses water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight energy to make sugars. Plants do this in special cells called chloroplasts. These are usually green because of a pigment called chlorophyll. Most photosynthesis happens in a plant's leaves, which is why they are green. • When an animal eats a plant, some of the energy gets passed from the plant to the animal. A food web shows this passage of energy, by showing what animals can eat what, and who gets eaten by who
  18. 18. MOISTURE • The amount of moisture in environment varies from desert areas to lakes and oceans. All forms of life on earth requires water to live . • In land environment the amount of available moisture is a function of precipitation, humidity and the evaporation rate • In water environment the types of communities depends of water
  19. 19. Water • Three form of Water Solid, Liquid or gas. • Large amount of heat is needed to change the phases
  20. 20. Salinity• Ocean contains 3.5% of salts. • The salt content is the major factor to determine what organisms will be found there Figure 12-1
  21. 21. Fresh water organisms both plants and animals have a salt concentration in their body fluids and inside their cells higher than that of the water in which they live. Some salt water organisms have salt concentration in their bodies or cells almost identical to that of ocean water
  22. 22. Oceans The ocean has many kinds of ecosystems. The oceans are so large that the conditions in one part of the ocean are very different from the conditions in another part of the ocean. Some ocean ecosystems are close to land and receive more sunlight. In the deep sea, sunlight cannot reach the ocean floor and the ecosystems are quite different. The deep-sea anglerfish has a body that glows in the dark. It has a rod that glows and dangles in front of its mouth which attracts prey.
  23. 23. Estuaries and Salt Marshes Estuaries are places where rivers flow into the ocean. Estuaries have water that is saltier than a river, but not as salty as the ocean. Salt marshes are grassy wetlands at the edges of estuaries. South Carolina has many estuaries and salt marshes and is home to many living things such as fish, blue crabs, shrimp, and oysters.
  24. 24. Estuaries Intermediate salt concentration. Salt and fresh water meet
  25. 25. Dissolved gases: Oxygen • Condition: – Marine animals need oxygen to survive – Plants and animals need oxygen for respiration • Respiration is a complex biochemical reaction. • Glucose broken down by biological catalyst called enzymes The energy released is utilized by the cells. If oxygen is available the material is fully broken down to CO2,H20 and Energy
  26. 26. soil
  27. 27. Soil HUMUS
  28. 28. Relationship to soil quality?
  29. 29. Deciduous Forests • Deciduous forest ecosystems have trees such as oaks, elms, and maples. These forests grow in moderately warm places where there is a lot of rain. • The trees lose their leaves in the fall. Food and shelter are hard to find in the winter so, some animals hibernate.
  30. 30. Coniferous Forests Coniferous forests are made up of mostly conifers, trees that have cones. These forests are found mostly in the northern part of the Northern Hemisphere. Trees include spruces, hemlocks, pines, and firs. Animals include moose, deer, caribou, wolves, bears, and elk.
  31. 31. Rainforests Rain forests get large amounts of rain. Tropical rain forests are warm all year. These conditions enable large populations of many kinds of organisms to live there. Hawaii is the only state with tropical rain forests.
  32. 32. Grasslands Grasslands are ecosystems in which grasses are the main plant life. Grasslands have fertile soil and have few trees. These ecosystems do not receive much rain during the year, so trees do not grow well.
  33. 33. How do organisms interact and depend on one another in an ecosystem? A food chain shows how organisms get their food. The first organism in a food chain is a producer; consumers or decomposers follow Producer consumer decomposer
  34. 34. Consumers A.Organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply B. Also called heterotrophs
  35. 35. Herbivores-obtain energy by eating only plants Carnivores-eat only animals
  36. 36. Omnivores-eat both plants and animals Decomposers—breaks down dead organic matter
  37. 37. Feeding Interactions A. Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction—from the sun or inorganic compounds to autotrophs (producers) and then to heterotrophs (consumers)
  38. 38. B. Food Chain—series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten 1. Arrows go in the direction of how energy is transferred 2. Start with producer and end with top consumer or carnivore Ex: grass cricket frog raccoon
  39. 39. C. Food Web-network of food chains within an ecosystem Hawks Weasels Raccoons Mice Grass
  40. 40. D. Trophic Levels—each step in a food chain or food web 1. Level 1—Producers (autotrophs) 2. Level 2—Primary Consumers (herbivores) 3. Level 3—Secondary Consumers (carnivores or omnivores) 4. Level 4—Tertiary Consumers (carnivore—usually top carnivore)
  41. 41. Hawks Weasels Raccoons Mice Grass Food Webs
  42. 42. IV. Ecological Pyramids A. Diagram that shows the relative amount of energy or organisms contained within each trophic level of a food chain or web
  43. 43. Energy Pyramid Biomass Pyramid 100% 10% 1% 0.1%
  44. 44. Represents amount of energy available at each level as well as amount of living tissue— both decrease with each increasing trophic level Energy and Biomass Pyramid (together)
  45. 45. Heavy metals Ex: mercury Pesticides Ex: DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloro ethane) Organochlorides: Ex: PCBs
  46. 46. V. Ecological Interactions between organisms A.Competition—when two organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same time. Ex: food, water, shelter
  47. 47. Monkeys compete with each other and other animals for food. Rams compete with each other for mates.
  48. 48. Until Americans introduced gray squirrels into parts of England in the early 20th century, red squirrels had been the only species of squirrel in the country. The gray squirrels were larger and bred faster and successfully competed for resources. Within a couple years of overlap in an area, the red squirrels disappeared.
  49. 49. B. Niche-the ecological niche involves both the place where an organism lives and the roles that an organism has in its habitat. Example: The ecological niche of a sunflower growing in the backyard includes absorbing light, water and nutrients (for photosynthesis), providing shelter and food for other organisms (e.g. bees, ants, etc.), and giving off oxygen into the atmosphere.
  50. 50. The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does. By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism’s “address”, and the niche is its “profession”, biologically speaking. Worm’s Niche “Address”—Soil, Ground, etc. “Profession”– Mix-up soil
  51. 51. C. Predation—one organism captures and feeds on another organism 1. Predator—one that does the killing 2. Prey—one that is the food
  52. 52. D. Symbiosis—any relationship in which two species live closely together 1. Mutualism—both species benefit (WIN-WIN) a. Ex: insects and flowers
  53. 53. 2. Commensalism-one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. (WIN-0) Example: barnacles on a whale
  54. 54. Commensalism The Remora fish attaches to the shark and gets a free ride. Birds build nests in trees.
  55. 55. 3. Parasitism-one organisms lives on or inside another organism (host) and harms it. The parasite obtains all or part of its nutritional needs from the host. (WIN- LOSE) Example: fleas on a dog
  56. 56. Parasitism Wasp eggs on back of caterpillar. Mosquito biting a human. Sea lampreys feed on fluids of other fish.
  57. 57. Mutualism, Commensalism or Parasitism
  58. 58. Food Chain • A food chain describes a single pathway that energy and nutrients may follow in an ecosystem. There is one organism per trophic level, and trophic levels are therefore easily defined. They usually start with a primary producer and end with a top predator. • Here is an example of a food chain: phytoplankton → zooplankton → fish → squid → seal → Orca (Killer whale)
  59. 59. Secondary, tertiary, quaternary consumers • Secondary consumers are those that eat primary consumers, tertiary consumer secondary and so on… • These consumers are either carnivores (sometimes insectivores or egg eaters), or ominvores The extinct oviraptor (egg thief)
  60. 60. Scavengers • Scavengers are animals that do not kill for a meal, but pick on “leftovers” from other animals • Hyenas, vultures, crows, racoons, and some bears are scavengers
  61. 61. Decomposers • Decomposers or detritivores are organisms that degrade or decompose dead or organic material in simpler molecules • Fungi and bacteria are decomposers
  62. 62. FOOD WEB A combination of different food chains is called a food web. Can you identify all the different organisms and their levels?
  63. 63. The first level always has autotrophs The second level has primary consumers – heterotrophs, herbivores. The last level contains secondary, tertiary consumers – heterotrophs, carnivores, omnivores 10% of the energy from the 1st trophic level is available to the 2nd trophic level 90% of the energy at any given trophic level is used for growth and reproduction, and is eventually lost as heat. Energy is eventually lost as heat on the top of the pyramid
  64. 64. Matter Cycles
  65. 65. Pyramid of Biomass or Numbers Just like energy, biomass decreases at each level, because there is only enough energy at that level to support the biomass found there.
  66. 66. Predator - Prey • Lions and zebras, for example • One hunts and kills, the other gets killed and eaten
  67. 67. Parasite - Host • Fleas and dogs for example • The parasite harms the host and benefits from the relationship. The host is harmed, but not usually killed
  68. 68. Pathogen - Host • A pathogen is a disease-causing agent, like a bacterium or a virus E.coli H.I.V.
  69. 69. Mutualism • A symbiotic relationship where two organisms are in a mutually beneficial relationship • Examples: Lichens are not one organism but two – an algae and a fungus living as one. The algae provides the fungus with glucose in return for moisture from the fungus. Clown Fish are protected from predator fish by the stinging tentacles of the anemone. The anemone receives protection from polyp-eating fish, like Butterfly Fish, which the Clown Fish chases away. The anemone also gets fertilizer from the feces of the Clown Fish.
  70. 70. Commensalism • In this relationship, one organism benefits but the other is neither harmed nor benefited • Examples: Shark and remora,
  71. 71. More unusual examples of animal symbiosis
  72. 72. How nutrients cycle • Nitrogen cycle • Carbon cycle • Water Cycle These are some of the various nutrient cycles on Earth.
  73. 73. Nitrogen Cycle
  74. 74. Carbon cycle
  75. 75. Limiting Factors • Any abiotic factor that limits the survivability of organisms in a particular ecosystem is called a limiting factor • Examples: Water in a desert, light in the deepest parts of the ocean (abyssal and benthic zones), etc.
  76. 76. Food Webs
  77. 77. Food Chains
  78. 78. In this picture, how does the coyote depend on the sun?
  79. 79. Life Depends on the Sun • Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen.
  80. 80. B. Energy Pyramid shows relative amount of energy available at each trophic level 1. Organisms in a trophic level use the available energy for life processes (such as growth, photosynthesis, cellular respiration, metabolism, etc.)and release some energy as heat Remember: Every chemical process that happens in your body releases heat as a byproduct (ex: burning calories). 2. Rule of 10—only about 10% of the available energy within a trophic level is transferred to the next higher trophic level C. Biomass Pyramid—represents the amount of living organic matter at each trophic level

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