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Air pollution final


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Air pollution final

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Pollution is the effect of undesirable changes in our surroundings that have harmful effects on plants, animals and human beings.
  3. 3. 3 Solid Waste Air Water Pollution What kinds of pollution are ther Oil pollution Soil pollution Noise pollution THERMAL NUCLEAR
  4. 4. Pollution What does it look like? 4
  5. 5. 5 Industry- Water pollution
  6. 6. 6 Chimney- Steam and smoke- Air pollution
  7. 7. Solid Waste Pollution 7
  8. 8. 8 The Argo Merchant A boat ran aground near Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Oil Spill—Water Pollution
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10 Stop polluting the air! Leave us alone!
  11. 11. Natural:forest fires, pollen, dust storm Unnatural: man-made; coal, wood and other fuels used in cars, homes, and factories for energy when only short-term economic gains are made at the cost of the long-term ecological benefits for humanity. No natural phenomenon has led to greater ecological changes than have been made by mankind. During the last few decades we have contaminated our air, water and land on which life itself depends with a variety of waste products.
  12. 12. Pollutants include solid, liquid or gaseous substances present in greater than natural abundance produced due to human activity, which have a detrimental effect on our environment. The nature and concentration of a pollutant determines the severity of detrimental effects on human health. An average human requires about 12 kg of air each day, which is nearly 12 to15 times greater than the amount of food we eat. Thus even a small concentration of pollutants in the air becomes more significant in comparison to the similar levels present in food. Pollutants that enter water have the ability to spread to distant places especially in the marine ecosystem.
  13. 13. Ecological point of view Pollutants may be classified as Degradable or non-persistent pollutants: These can be rapidly broken down by natural processes. Eg: domestic sewage, discarded vegetables, etc.
  14. 14. Ecological point of view Pollutants may be classified as Slow dégradable or persistent pollutants: Pollutants that remain in the environment for many years in an unchanged condition and take decades or longer to degrade. Eg: DDT and most plastics.
  15. 15. Ecological point of view Pollutants may be classified as Non-degradable pollutants: These cannot be degraded by natural processes. Once they are released into the environment they are difficult to eradicate and continue to accumulate. Eg:toxic elements like lead or mercury.
  16. 16. 16 AIR POLLUTION
  18. 18. 18 LONDON SMOG IN 1952 MORE THAN 4000 DEATH
  19. 19. 19 PEPPERED MOTH
  20. 20. Carbon Monoxide •colorless, odorless •produced when carbon does not burn in fossil fuels •present in car exhaust •deprives body of O2 causing headaches, fatigue, and impaired vision
  21. 21. Sulfur Dioxide •produced when coal and fuel oil are burned •present in power plant exhaust •narrows the airway, causing wheezing and shortness of breath, especially in those with asthma
  22. 22. Nitrogen Dioxide •reddish, brown gas •produced when nitric oxide combines with oxygen in the atmosphere •present in car exhaust and power plants •affects lungs and causes wheezing; increases chance of respiratory infection
  23. 23. Particulate Matter •particles of different sizes and structures that are released into the atmosphere •present in many sources including fossil fuels, dust, smoke, fog, etc. •can build up in respiratory system •aggravates heart and lung disease; increases risk of respiratory infection
  24. 24. Ground Level Ozone •at upper level, ozone shields Earth from sun’s harmful UV rays •at ground level, ozone is harmful pollutants •formed from car, power and chemical plant exhaust •irritate respiratory system and asthma; reduces lung function by inflaming and damaging lining of lungs
  25. 25. •Combination of gases with water vapor and dust •Combination of words smoke and fog •Forms when heat and sunlight react gases (photochemical smog) •Occurs often with heavy traffic, high temperatures, and calm winds
  26. 26. ORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS Acrylonitrile Benzene Butadiene Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane Formaldehyde Polycycli aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans(PCDDs/PCDFs) Styrene Tetrachloroethylene Toluene Trichlorethylene vinylchloride
  27. 27. INORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS Arsenic Asbestos Cadmium Chromium Fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Platinum Vanadium
  28. 28. CLASSICALAIR POLLUTANTS Nitrogen dioxide Ozone and other photochemical oxidants Particulate matter Sulfur dioxide
  29. 29. •1st smog related deaths were in London in 1873; death toll 500 people; can you imagine how much worse the atmosphere is now?! •Limits visibility •Decreases UV radiation •Yellow/black color over cities •Causes respiratory problems and bronchial related deaths
  30. 30. SOx and NOx pollution
  31. 31. Air Pollution: The Dirty Truth ©2009
  32. 32. Air pollution is the addition of gases, chemicals, and particle matter into the atmosphere. Air pollution primarily comes from burning fossil fuels such as natural gas, petroleum, and coal. A study has listed air pollution as the cause of four percent of the deaths in the United States. ©2009
  33. 33. Humans are the main cause of air pollution. Industry, including factories and power plants, burn large quantities of fuel. Burning coal and petroleum releases sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxide into the air. Airplanes, boats, and cars burn petroleum, releasing carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. ©2009
  34. 34. The waste in landfills releases methane. Sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and methane all have a very negative effect on air quality. These pollutants can also contribute to the greenhouse effect. ©2009
  35. 35. Some air pollution is not directly caused by humans: for example, animals emit carbon dioxide when they breathe, and volcanoes release sulfur oxide. However, most air pollution is linked directly or indirectly to human activity. This means that air pollution can be best controlled by modifying human activity to burn a smaller quantity of fossil fuels. ©2009
  36. 36. ©2009  Acute air pollution disaster may occur whenever atmospheric conditions prevent rapid dispersal of the pollutant
  37. 37. 1. A high population density with a high concentration of combustion process 2. Seasonal influence 3. Stagnant air situation and temperature inversion for several days to week ©2009
  38. 38. ©2009
  39. 39. Aggravated air pollution - industry
  40. 40. Aggravated air pollution – industry II
  41. 41. Transportation related causes of air pollution
  42. 42. Smog over Los Angeles
  43. 43. Smog over the Sea of Japan
  44. 44. Aerial spraying
  45. 45. Natural sources
  46. 46. Silent polluters
  47. 47. Climate change
  48. 48. Overindulgence
  49. 49. 65 WHAT ARE WE GOING TO DO?
  50. 50. •Ride your bike •Tell your friends and family about pollution •Make sure your parents get pollution checks on their cars •Ride the school bus
  51. 51. •Learn more; stay up to date •Join a group to stop pollution •Encourage your parents to carpool to work •Switch off lights, fan, heat, etc. when you leave the room
  52. 52.  Encourage your family to walk more  Take the school bus  Reduce the amount of spray bottles  Do not burn leaves in your yard- put them in a compost  Keep your family cars in tune  Put catalytic converters on cars  Share your room with others when the air conditioner is on  Take care of your trees 68 Air Pollution Solutions
  53. 53. Under indulgence?
  55. 55. 71 Our health and future are at risk!
  56. 56. Effects of Air Pollution  Health problems  Damage to the environment  Damage to property  Thinning of the protective ozone layer of the atmosphere which is leading to climate changes 72
  57. 57. 73
  58. 58. What is air pollution?  contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health  Air pollution only occurs outdoors
  59. 59. Sources of Outside Air Pollution  Combustion of gasoline and other hydrocarbon fuels in cars, trucks, and airplanes  Burning of fossil fuels (oil, coal, and dinosaur bones)  Insecticides  Herbicides  Everyday radioactive fallouts  Dust from fertilizers  Mining operations  Livestock feedlots
  60. 60.  A major form of air pollution is emissions given off by vehicles.  The number of cars in EU has doubled between 1970 and 1994 – 3% per year
  61. 61. What’s in smog  particulates (especially lead)  nitrous oxides  potassium  Carbon monoxide  Other toxic chemicals
  62. 62. Sources of Indoor pollution  Efficient insulation  Bacteria  Molds and mildews  Viruses  animal dander and cat saliva  plants  house dust  Mites  Cockroaches  pollen
  63. 63. Effects on the environment  Acid rain  Ozone depletion  Global warming  In human population- respiratory problems, allergies, strengthens lugs, and a risk for cancer
  64. 64. Acid rain  contains high levels of sulfuric or nitric acids  contaminate drinking water and vegetation  damage aquatic life  erode buildings  Alters the chemical equilibrium of some soils
  65. 65. Strategies Air Quality Management Plan  Development of new technology- electric cars, cleaner fuels, low nitrogen oxide boilers and water healers, zero polluting paints, less polluting BBQ lighter fluids  Use of natural gas  Carpooling  Follow the laws enacted
  66. 66. Urban Emissions •There are small emissions of NOx from industrial processes •The main emissions are from combustion. •There is negligible nitrogen in gasoline or diesel fuels so the nitrogen oxides arise from the N2 and O2 in the air. •Sulphur dioxides arise from the sulphur present in most fuels. •Particulate matter describes matter below 10μm aerodynamic diameter.
  67. 67. Role of Engines and Fuel  Different engines and fuel combinations give out different emissions in different quantities.  Some engines have catalysts which effectively remove part of the harmful gases.
  68. 68. Catalytic Converters and Particle Traps  Catalytic converters can be fitted to cars to reduce NOx emissions. CO + HC + NOx H2O + N2 + CO2 Platinum Honeycomb  Particle traps can be used to reduce PM10 and NOx, but the effectiveness is severely reduced if the fuel the vehicle burns has a high sulphur content.  The major target in the battle for cleaner cities is diesel.
  69. 69. STRATEGIE The Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) approach:  Based on scientific knowledge  Using best available, quality-controlled real-world data  With close involvement of stakeholders: 1. Project future emissions and air quality resulting from full implementation of current EU legislation 2. Explore scope and costs for further measures 3. Analyze cost-effective policy scenarios 4. Estimate benefits of policy scenarios
  70. 70. Particulate Matter (PM ) Pollution - Traffic emissions including diesel engines - Small combustion sources burnng coal and wood - Reductions of SO2, N0x, NH3 and VOC
  71. 71. Ground level ozone - VOC control to reduce ozone in cities - N0x reduction from traffic - Control of N0x emissions from ships - Methane reduction
  72. 72. Multi-pollutant/multi-effect analysis for identifying cost-effective policy scenarios SO2 NOx VOCNH3PM Health AcidificationEutrophication Ozone RAINS computer model CAFE policy targets for 2020
  73. 73. Une pincée de NOx et quelques photons pour faire un peu d’ozone (l < 430 nm)NO + ONO2 + hn O + O2 O3 Mais pas trop de NOx ce qui détruit une partie de l'ozone formé, Ni trop de COV ce qui en produit de trop ! NO2 + O2 O3 + NO RO2 + NO La cuisine photochimique : mais c’est très simple !
  74. 74. LES COV 40 BTX automatiques 50 Campagnes COV/an (tubes à diffusion, canisters, …) CPG automatiques (31 composés) Monitoring of NOX - COV LES NOX 505 NO2 automatiques en sites fixes
  75. 75. Dépassements du seuil d’information et de recommandation de la population 180µg/m3/h – été 2003 Durées cumulées des dépassementsNb d’évènements de dépassement • 86 % des sites ont connu au moins 1 dépassement du seuil 180 • Durée moyenne des dépassements : 34h par capteur, • Principales régions concernées : Alsace, Centre, Ile de France, PACA, Rhône Alpes • Les zones habituellement épargnées du littoral Atlantique ont été touchées
  76. 76. Echantillons d’aérosols prélevés chaque semaine au Pic du Midi (3000m )depuis Juin 2002 (LA, LMTG, LGGE, LSCE) Source : C. Liousse et al. 2004 - CNRS L’été 2003 s’est également caractérisé par des niveaux élevés de <NO2 et de particules en raison d’une forte activité photochimique Eté 2002 Eté 2003 filtres du 1-8 Août et Du 8-15 Août Effet canicule ? Été 2002