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Smart Enabling Technologies for Automated Driving

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Dr. Martin Duncan's presentation at the 2016 edition of Connected Automobiles, October 17-18 in ACI SARA Safe Driving Centre (Lainate, Milan – Italy).

Published in: Automotive
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Smart Enabling Technologies for Automated Driving

  1. 1. Smart Enabling Technologies for Automated Driving Dr. Martin Duncan
  2. 2. • Introduction • Cameras and the path towards autonomous driving • The communication technology driven safety revolution • Conclusions 2
  3. 3. ADAS Driving Forces Product • The development of New Car Assessment Programmes help drive the growth of ADAS • Consumers consider the star ratings of the worldwide NCAP organisations • Constructors move from providing ADAS on all cars and not just premium models Standards ADAS adoption is being driven by safety standards and the move to automated driving Product • New entrants to the traditional vehicle manufacturing market target assisted / autonomous driving • Consumers expectation rising that autonomous driving will make cars safer • Advantages for new mobility models and fleet management Automated Driving 3
  4. 4. Crash Avoidance Technologies and Effectiveness % Incidence Automatic brake (camera/radar) Lane departure (camera) Blind spot (camera/radar) Headlight (camera) Rear end (29%) Crossing (24%) Off road (19%) Lane (12%) Animal 6%) Wrong sense (2%) Reversing (2%) Ped/cyclist (2%) Source: NHTSA 4
  5. 5. ADAS Adoption rates in U.S. Market 0 5 10 15 20 25 Blind Spot ACC LDW % Fit Rate MY13 MY14 MY15 Source : Wards Auto 5 ACC = Automatic Cruise Control LDW = Lane Departure Warning
  6. 6. Benefits of Collision Avoidance 6 LDW = Lane Departure Warning, AEB = Autonomous Emergency Braking, FCW = Forward Collision Warning, LKA = Lane Keeping Assist Source : IIHS -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 % Change with same vehicle with technology fitted Collisions Property costs Injury costs FCW & LDW AEB AEB & LDW ACC & FCW
  7. 7. Global NCAP Requirements 7 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 LDW AEB PED LKA LDW LDW LDW AEB AEB AEB PED PED LDWAEBPED PED LKA LKA LDWAEBPEDPotential Source : Regional NCAP agencies LDW = Lane Departure Warning AEB = Autonomous Emergency Braking PED = Pedestrian Detection LKA = Lane Keeping Assist
  8. 8. Key Drivers for Automated Driving 8 Road Safety – Zero Accident Vision Traffic Management Emission Reduction Demographic Change Innovation
  9. 9. Timeline For Vehicle Automation Driver Engagement Introduction Example Level 1 (Feet Off) Fully Active Pre 2010 AEB,ACC,LKA Level 2 (Hands Off) Level 3 (Eyes Off) Level 4 (Mind Off) Fully Active 2015 Highway Autopilot Available 2016 Country & City Roads Not Required 2021 Fully Autonomous 9
  10. 10. Roadmap for Sensor Introduction Radar sensors Machine Vision system Camera sensors Vision Processor (w/ MobilEye) Radar system Radar Control MCU V2X (w/ AutoTalks) Pedestrian Detection Active Cruise Control ADAS Fusion MCU Automotive Precise GNSSRadar Baseband Lane Keep Assist Surround View Surround View Surround Vision Lidar Add ons L1 NO L2 NO L4L3 Y/N L1 YES Secure V2X L1 Y/N L2 Y/N L4L3 YES L1 YES Lidar L1 YES L2 YES L4L3 YES L1 YES Radar L1 YES L2 YES L4L3 YES L1 YES Camera Parkassist Parkassist 10 Level 1 (Feet Off) Level 2 (Hands Off) Level 3 (Eyes Off) Level 4 (Mind Off)
  11. 11. Trend is that Vision will drive future systems • Richest source of raw data about the scene - only sensor that can reflect the true complexity of the scene. • The lowest cost sensor - nothing can beat it, not today and not in the future. • Cameras are getting better - higher dynamic range, higher resolution • Combination of Radars/Lidar/Ultrasonic: for redundancy, robustness 11
  12. 12. WiFi based communication • V2X is a Wireless Technology enabling vehicles to exchange information such as position and speed with other vehicles (V2V) or infrastructures to deliver data to vehicles (V2I) • OBU (Onboard Unit) when V2X system is in the vehicle • RSU (Roadside Unit) ) when V2X system is on road infrastructures • Communication system that alerts drivers to unseen dangers of potential collisions to increase their safety • Non-Line-of-Sight and extended-range sensing that on-board cameras and RADARs cannot offer • V2X has also been developed and standardized for other non-safety systems, such as Energy Saving 12
  13. 13. Networks must be protected against security attacks 13 Vehicle Security Threats Security means protecting • ECU, sensors • Functions that require multi-ECU interactions and data exchange • Protecting data in/out of vehicular systems • Protecting privacy of personal information • Integrating safety, security, and usability goals • Dealing with the full lifecycle of vehicular and transportation systems Potential attack entry points • Wireless Key, TPMS, V2X Tx/Rx • ECUs (ADAS, Lighting, Engine, Transmission, Steering, Braking, Access, Airbag) • Smartphone, Bluetooth, USB, OBD, Remote Link
  14. 14. Conclusions 1/2 • ADAS is to be dominated by cameras • The primary sensor for automated driving will also be the camera • Multiple cameras will be used • Radars and Lidars will be used for redundancy and for additional robustness when cost allows • Visual interpretation is difficult if done at high image quality and will require a massive validation resources • Automated Driving requires environmental modeling and path planning 14
  15. 15. Conclusions 2/2 • Connectivity is changing the rules radically • Car Communication enables safety features • Road experience management takes it to new levels • The safety requirements bar is being raised and requires complex techniques • Highly automated driving needs all of the above and is coming to a road near you soon! • Watch this space, it may be a bumpy ride but it will be fun 15

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