Presentation designingnon routineknowledgeworkfinal

211 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Presentation designingnon routineknowledgeworkfinal

  1. 1. Designing Non-Routine Knowledge Work Carolyn Ordowich and Douglas Austrom, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Five Forces Shifting the Nature of Work Gratton CONTEXT OF WORK TECHNOLOGY GLOBALIZATION DEMOGRAPHY and LONGEVITY ENERGY RESOURCES • Technological capability increases exponentially • Five billion become connected • The cloud becomes ubiquitous • Continuous productivity gains • Social participation increases • The world’s knowledge becomes digitalized • Mega-companies & micro-entrepreneurs emerge • Ever-present avatars and virtual worlds • Rise of cognitive assistants • Technology replaces jobs • 24/7 global world • Emerging economies • China & India decades of growth • Frugal innovation • Global educational powerhouses • World becomes urban • Continued financial bubbles and crashes • Regional underclass emerge • Families become rearranged • The rise of reflexivity • The role of powerful women • The balanced man • Growing distrust of institutions • The decline of happiness • Passive leisure increases • Energy prices increase • Environmental catastrophes displace people • A culture of sustainability begins to emerge • Ascendance of Gen Y • Increasing longevity • Some Baby Boomers grow old poor • Global migration increases
  3. 3. Task Uncertainty / Ambiguity Complexity L H Routine Non-routine “Manual” Work Knowledge Work Change in nature of work Mixed Models Mixed Models Efficiency Effectiveness Innovation Quality Flexibility Service Sustainability Efficiency Shifting Nature of Work • Degree/nature of interdependence • Volatility • Virtuality - time zones, ICT, language, geography • X-boundaries - functional/ discipline, organizational, sector, national, cultural 3
  4. 4. What is Non-Routine Knowledge Work? • The primary task of knowledge work is non-routine problem solving that requires a combination of convergent, divergent, and creative thinking (Reinhardt, Schmidt, Sloep, &Drachsler 2011). Knowledge work is typically non-repeated, unpredictable, and emergent. • Knowledge work primarily involves the management of unstructured or semi-structured problems (Keen & Morton, 1978) characterized by imprecise information inputs, varying degrees of detail, extended or unfixed time horizons, dispersed information formats, and diffuse or general scope (Pava, 1983). 4
  5. 5. Evolution of Sociotechnical Systems Three Waves Wave One: 1950’s- 1970’s Wave Three: 1990’s-Present Wave Two: 1970’s- 1990’s 5
  6. 6. Evolution of Sociotechnical Systems Wave One: 1950’s-1970’s Nature of the Work Design Principles* • Routine work in single organizations • Work groups with shared identity • Single linear conversion process • Joint optimization • Compatibility • Sociotechnical criterion and variance control • Boundary location • Information flow • Design and human values • Multifunctional principle: mechanism or organism • Support congruence • Transitional organization • Minimum critical specification • Incompletion * Albert Cherns, 1976 6
  7. 7. Evolution of Sociotechnical Systems Wave Two: 1970’s-1990’s Nature of the Work Design Principles** • Non-routine face-to- face knowledge work in single organizations • Individual performers with specialized expertise • Multiple, concurrent nonlinear conversion processes • Joint optimization • Self-design by the members of the unit being changed • Specify only those things that must be defined allowing for ongoing adaptation • Multi-functionality and redundancy of functions • Iterative and open- ended design process * Cal Pava, 1983 7
  8. 8. Evolution of Sociotechnical Systems Wave Three: 1990’s- Present Nature of the Work Design Principles • Virtual, non-routine work • Work and workers distributed across multiple locations and/or organizations • Information and communication technology enabled • Multiple, concurrent, nonlinear, independent, and interdependent conversion processes • An iVUCA world*** • Whole systems optimization • Align on shared purpose and mutually beneficial outcomes • Promote dignity, meaning, challenge, mastery, autonomy, and self- determination • Foster learning and knowledge sharing • Supportive infrastructure and coordination system • Minimum critical specifications • Participative, iterative, real- time design, and mutual adaptation *** Interconnected, Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, and Ambiguous 8
  9. 9. STS Designing for Non-linear Knowledge Work 1. Design By Principles • With new technologies, design is increasingly becoming the product itself created through a complex network of entities. It is the ideas behind the products (now made more and more by machines) that make the difference between success and failure. • Ideas can’t be organized the way physical objects can; people must be inspired to create and innovate. • Competitive advantage is becoming an issue of not just actions, but beliefs. People are most likely to coalesce into groups of avid participants (high-performing employees, buyers, consumers, cause-backers, etc.) if the organization taps their strongest interests, talents and temperament through principles. 2. Design By Context • Contexts are simple maps or frames that help us deal with complexity. They help to describe and handle certain parts of reality, but are not the reality itself. You can never fully understand complexity, but you can frame it within a certain context to solve a particular problem. The paradox is that by keeping the design frame simple, we can tackle complexity at every level. 9
  10. 10. Coordinating System*Coordinating System* Deliberations*Deliberations* Pool of Shared KnowledgePool of Shared Knowledge New InsightsNew Insights Informed Decisions and ActionInformed Decisions and Action * Based on STS values and principles. Critical Design Elements for Designing Non- Routine Knowledge Work By Principles
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. Three Contexts For Design Vertically Integrated Decentralized Organization Value Realization Network Issue-based Ecosystem vs. Vertically integrated centralized organization vs.. Traditional Supply Chains vs. Large institutional programs 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. Key Unit of Analysis -> Deliberations Pava, 1983 • Deliberations are patterns of exchange and communication in which people engage with themselves or others to reduce the equivocality of a problematic issue. • The salient elements of a deliberation include the … • Topics or problematic issues facing the social entity about which people reflect and communicate • Forums in which they occur which may structured, semi-structured, or unstructured or ad hoc • Participants both those who are currently involved and those who ideally should be involved in the deliberation. • Coalitions whose purpose is to obtain the best outcomes from the inputs of multiple perspectives, a novel organizing principle, which pushes the static positions of the organization chart into the background. 16
  17. 17. Knowledge Work - the R&D Continuum Pure Research Work DON’T KNOW WHAT we are looking for DON’T KNOW HOW to carry out the research Pure Research Work DON’T KNOW WHAT we are looking for DON’T KNOW HOW to carry out the research Applied Research Work DON’T KNOW WHAT (i.e. end state or objective) KNOW HOW to carry out the research Applied Research Work DON’T KNOW WHAT (i.e. end state or objective) KNOW HOW to carry out the research Exploratory Development Work KNOW WHAT DON’T KNOW HOW to achieve it Exploratory Development Work KNOW WHAT DON’T KNOW HOW to achieve it Advanced Development Work KNOW WHAT DON’T KNOW HOW IN DETAIL to achieve it Advanced Development Work KNOW WHAT DON’T KNOW HOW IN DETAIL to achieve it Start-Up (pilot plants, beta testing) Development Work KNOW WHAT KNOW HOW CONCEPTUALLY to achieve it Start-Up (pilot plants, beta testing) Development Work KNOW WHAT KNOW HOW CONCEPTUALLY to achieve it Scale-Up (volume & costs) Development Work KNOW WHAT KNOW HOW OPERATIONALLY to achieve it Scale-Up (volume & costs) Development Work KNOW WHAT KNOW HOW OPERATIONALLY to achieve it R 1 R 2 D 1 D 4 D 2 D 3 17
  18. 18. Deliberations Across the Knowledge Generation Continuum R1-R2 Breakthroughs R1-R2 Breakthroughs MYSTERIES ALGORITHMS D3-D4 Optimization of Execution D3-D4 Optimization of Execution D1-D2 Enhancements and Extensions D1-D2 Enhancements and Extensions • Sense Making • Solution Generation • High Uncertainty • Exploratory • Focus on effectiveness • Don’t know WHAT, don’t know HOW • Informal mutual adjustment • Value Realization • Solution Delivery • Low Uncertainty • Prescriptive • Focus on efficiency • Know WHAT, know HOW • Negotiated plans, SOPs, results HEURISTICS 18
  19. 19. Coordination Complexity Across the Breakthrough-Optimization Continuum Mystery Heuristic Algorithm 19

×