The history of the english language


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The history of the english language

  1. 1. A history of the English Language: 1.Anglo-Saxon / Old English <ul><li>Three Germanic tribes from northwestern Europe pushed the Celts north and west, and established an Anglican kingdom around AD 410-500. </li></ul><ul><li>Old English= the dialects spoken by these Germanic tribes in Great Britain at the time. </li></ul><ul><li>AD 597: Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity. </li></ul>
  2. 2. 2. The Viking Age (AD 793-1066) <ul><li>AD 793: The monastery at Lindisfarne raided and plundered by Vikings. </li></ul><ul><li>Vikings from Denmark and Norway raided and settled down in various areas of Europe, including the British Isles, in the 700s, 800s and 900s. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the Vikings lived peacefully with the Englishmen (the Anglo-Saxons). </li></ul>
  3. 3. 2. The Viking Age (continued) <ul><li>They introduced, among other things, new technology and architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Old English changed by taking in new words and place names from Old Norse (e.g. they/them, bag, husband, Grimsby, York). </li></ul>
  4. 4. 3. The Norman Period (1066-1250) <ul><li>French became the language of ordinary intercourse / conversation among the ruling class and upper classes in England. </li></ul><ul><li>English remained the language of the masses. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 3. The Norman Period (continued) <ul><li>An enormous number of French words introduced in the English language, along with a great number of buildings, like this cathedral. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of these French loan words have to do with either politics, law, art, dress or food. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 4. Reestablishment of English in Great Britain (1200 -1500) <ul><li>In Britain French loses gradually its position as official language and English makes steady progress . </li></ul><ul><li>By 1450 English becomes the dominant language both in writing and when talking/speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>French remains the «cultivated language». </li></ul>
  7. 7. 5. The Renaissance (1500-1650) <ul><li>England becomes a military superpower. </li></ul><ul><li>English language and culture is spreading and becoming more important outside Britain as well. </li></ul><ul><li>The colonisation of Ireland (and North America). </li></ul>
  8. 8. 5. The Renaissance (continued) <ul><li>The printing press invented. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread of popular education. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved means of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>The vocabulary grew, wheras the grammar stayed more or less the same: Modern English. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 6. English becomes a world language (1650-1920) <ul><li>The UK acquires colonies all over the world due to its military power and leading role in the Industrial Revolution: «The sun never sets on the British Empire». </li></ul><ul><li>1914-1920: High water mark of the British Empire, 400 million people, ¼ of the earth's surface. </li></ul><ul><li>English becomes an official language in these colonies. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 7. English in steady progress (1920 -2006) <ul><li>While the British Empire starts losing ground, the English language continues to spread around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>1,5-2 billion people throughout the world are able to communicate in English today. </li></ul><ul><li>This number is about to rise dramatically in the near future! </li></ul>