Impacts of Korean innovative 
procurement policies 
2013. 12. 
Dr. Woosung Lee 
Research Fellow 
Science and Technology Po...
목 차 
I.KEIT (2013) Performance Analysis Report 
II. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) 
III. Cases 
2
목 차 
I.KEIT (2013) Performance Analysis Report 
II. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) 
III. Case 
3
4 
Case1: New Technology Purchasing Assurance 
Overview 
“In an effort to further commercialize new technologies, governme...
5 
Case1: New Technology Purchasing Assurance 
Trends: New Technology Purchase Assurance Program 
Data Source: The Small &...
Purchasing Organizations 
Data Source: Hong (2008), “Trend & Issues on SME Public Purchasing R&D Promotion”, KIET Industri...
Performance analysis scheme 
7 
Division 
Indicators of analysis 
Definition 
Input 
R & D manpower 
Research manpower put...
Target populations for analysis 
8 
<Table> distribution of population and respondents 
Category 
# of population 
# of re...
Target populations for analysis 
9 
<Table> Technical steps 
category 
Technical development 
Introduction of technology 
...
Target populations for analysis 
10 
<Table> Commercialization step 
(Unit: number, %) 
category 
failed commercialization...
Increase of research development planning capability 
Systematization of research performance management 
Increase of IP m...
2007 
2008 
2009 
Total 
# of projects generated 
# of articles generated 
# of article per 100 million won(government sup...
(Unit: number) 
Analysis of Program Performance 
2007 
2008 
2009 
Total 
# of projects generated 
# of articles generated...
Number of projects 
Before the projects 
After the projects 
Improvement of technological gap 
Total 
283 
4.27 
2.73 
1.5...
Before the projects 
After the projects 
Degree of Increase 
All 
60.7 
86.9 
26.2 
2007 
57.8 
87.0 
29.2 
2008 
61.2 
86...
Before the projects 
After the projects 
Degree of Increase 
Total 
64.1 
87.4 
23.3 
2007 
61.5 
87.4 
25.9 
2008 
60.2 
...
<Figure> Comparison of sales 
(Unit: number, million won) 
(a) Number of projects (b) sales per projects (c) sales per 100...
<Figure> Comparison of export amount 
(Unit: number, million won) 
(a)Number of projects (b) Export amount per projects (c...
<Figure> Comparison of import substitution amount 
(Unit: number, million won) 
(a) Number of projects (b) Import substitu...
<Figure> Comparison on percentage of production cost saving of developing product 
(Unit: number, %) 
(a)Number of project...
<Figure> Comparison on additional costs spending on commercialization 
(Unit: number, million won) 
(a) Number of projects...
<Figure> Comparison on operating profit 
(Unit: number, million won) 
(a) Number of projects (b) Operating profit per proj...
<Figure> Comparison on new employment 
(Unit: number, person) 
(a) Number of projects (b) New employment (c) New employmen...
<Figure> Comparison for the contribution 
Analysis of Program Performance 
<Figure> Ramifications 
<Figure> Research and D...
<Figure> The factors of a participation in purchase-conditional projects for new product development 
Analysis of Program ...
<Figure> The factors carried out successfully on purchase-conditional projects for new product development 
Analysis of Pr...
<Figure> The difficulties on the production side of purchase-conditional projects for new product development 
Analysis of...
<Table> Variables to analyze influencing factors upon the sales generated 
Name of Variables 
Attribute or Unit 
Dependent...
<Table> Variables which influence the successful performance of innovative firms 
Name of Variables 
Attribute or Unit 
De...
<Table> Relationship between the likelihood of the generation of the sales through the R&D project and inputs 
Variables 
...
<Table> Relationship between the sales generated through the R&D project and inputs 
Variables 
Regression coefficient 
St...
<Table> Relationship between the sales generated through the R&D project and academic achievements 
(theses and intellectu...
<Table> Relationship between the sales generated through the R&D project and technological achievements 
Variables 
Regres...
<Table> Relationship between the sales generated through the R&D project and economic achievements 
Variables 
Regression ...
목 차 
I.KIAT(2013) Performance Analysis Report 
II. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) 
III. Case 
35
<Figure> state of use government support system 
(Unit: %) 
Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) 
Manufacturing se...
Tax exemption on technology development 
Technology development/Commercialization support 
Participation in governmental R...
Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) 
<Table> utilization status of government support system: number of employees...
Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) 
Manufacturing sector 
The Importance of Government support system 
Tax exemp...
Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) 
Manufacturing sector 
The Importance of Government support system 
<Table> t...
<Figure> state of use government support system 
(Unit: %) 
Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) 
Service Sector 
...
Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) 
<Table> utilization status of government support system: number of employees...
<Table> the use degree of the government support system: the size and legal forms of business 
(Unit: %) 
Report on the Ko...
Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) 
The Importance of Government support system 
<Table> The importance of gover...
Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) 
The Importance of Government support system 
<Table> the importance of gover...
목 차 
I.KIAT(2013) Performance Analysis Report 
II. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) 
III. Case 
46
Case - WooJin INC. 
Foundation : 1980 
Business sales : 4.4 billion won in 2007 and 11 billion dollars in 2010 
This compa...
Case - SeHwa Electronics 
Foundation : established in 1987 and started an LCD Window department in 2000 
SeHwa Electronics...
End of Document 
Dr. Woosung Lee 
Research Fellow 
Economic Analysis Division 
Science and Technology Policy Institute 
82...
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OECD workshop on measuring the link between public procurement, R&D and innovation. "Impacts of Korean innovative procurement policies"

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OECD workshop on measuring the link between public procurement, R&D and innovation. "Impacts of Korean innovative procurement policies", presentation by Woosung Lee

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OECD workshop on measuring the link between public procurement, R&D and innovation. "Impacts of Korean innovative procurement policies"

  1. 1. Impacts of Korean innovative procurement policies 2013. 12. Dr. Woosung Lee Research Fellow Science and Technology Policy Institute 1
  2. 2. 목 차 I.KEIT (2013) Performance Analysis Report II. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) III. Cases 2
  3. 3. 목 차 I.KEIT (2013) Performance Analysis Report II. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) III. Case 3
  4. 4. 4 Case1: New Technology Purchasing Assurance Overview “In an effort to further commercialize new technologies, government agencies, public institutions including Defense Ministry, KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corp.). KOGAS (Korea Gas Corporation), and Korea Railroad Corporation and private business commission SMEs to develop a new technology with the assurance that they will purchase the technological products. Under this program, the SMBA finances the technological development of SMEs, while public institutions purchase the products for a certain period of time. Certification (NEP, NET etc.) NTPA R&D grants Public/Private Procurement Targeting 10%
  5. 5. 5 Case1: New Technology Purchasing Assurance Trends: New Technology Purchase Assurance Program Data Source: The Small & Medium Business Administration (Note: Total numbers indicate accumulated figures) Subsidy (100million, KRW) # of Purchasing Organizations # of Firms Supported Total Public Organizations Large Firms 2002 9 1 1 0 13 2003 40 1 1 0 49 2004 40 8 8 0 40 2005 100 26 18 8 87 2006 160 45 25 20 154 2007 300 83 32 51 230 2008 400 127 36 91 254 2012 645
  6. 6. Purchasing Organizations Data Source: Hong (2008), “Trend & Issues on SME Public Purchasing R&D Promotion”, KIET Industrial Economy Analysis Participating Organizations (Purchasing Party) Public Organizations (32) National Organization National Police Agency, Defense Department, National Emergency Management Agency, Defense Acquisition Program Administration, Korea Coast Guard, Korea Meteorological Administration, Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Local Government Daejeon, Samcheok Public Organization Korea Coal Corporation, Korea Gas Corporation, Korea Airports Corporation, Korea South-East Power, Korea Southern Power, Korea Rural Corporation, Korea East·West Power, Korea Western Power, Korea National Oil Corporation, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power, Korea Electric Power Corporation, Korea Minting and Security Printing Corporation, Korea Midland Power., Korea District Heating Corp., KORAIL, Korea Rail Network Authority, Environmental Management Corporation, Seoul National University of Technology, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Korea Electrical Safety Corporation Local Public Utility Seoul Metro, Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation Large Private Firms (Total 51) Keumho Tire, Daewoo Electronics, Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., LG Dacom Corporation, Doosan Engine Co., Ltd, Doosaninfracore, Samsung Electro-mechanics Co., Ltd., Samsung Electronics, Samsung Heavy Industries, Samchully Co., Ltd., Korea Delphi Automotive Systems Corporation, Hyosung Co., Ltd., KT, LG International Corp., LG Electronics, POSCO, SKC, STX Engine, STX Group, STX Shipbuiliding, Dae Dong Industrial, Dae Won Kang Up Co., Ltd., Dongwon Systems, Meister, Magna Chip Semiconductors, Samsung Fine Chemicals, Samsung Corning, Samsung Techwin, Saehan, Semes, Sebang, Secron, Shinheung, Amore-Pacific, Asiana IDT, IDS, Inkel, GMB Korea, Cuckoo Electronics, Clark Material Handling Asia, Hynix Semiconductors, Alcatel-Lucent Korea, Fuji Film Korea, Hanwha L&C, DK UIL, KT Networks, KTFT, LG Life Science, LG Innotek, LG Philips LCD, S&T Daewoo
  7. 7. Performance analysis scheme 7 Division Indicators of analysis Definition Input R & D manpower Research manpower put into and related to technology development to perform tasks Employee Company's total number of employees for performing tasks Building the basis for technology developments Retention rate for research facilities and equipment as the default of infrastructure for research and development Implementation Planning Improvement of ability for the research and development planning due to task performance Administration Systematic management for research achievements and the empowerment of intellectual property management due to task performance Network The degree of contribution to Network Construction for joint research with other agencies due to task performance Achievements creation Impact for the creation of research and development achievements Exchange activities Information of research and development and the degree of human resources exchange activities Promoting a joint research Intentions of a promotion for the future collaborative research Quantitative performance Academic ability Presentations and papers published on the national and international professional journals related to the technology development for performing tasks Patent The national and international patent application and registration related to the technology development for performing tasks Other Intellectual Property Rights Application and registration of domestic and international utility model and design other than patents Technical performance Technology gap The difference between the world best technology and the technology for task performance Changes in technology level The difference between the world best level of technology and the level of technology developed through performing projects Degree of the technology independence The degree of relative independence of technology developed through performing projects Economic performance Sales amount Total sales due to technology or product developed through performing projects Export amount Total exports due to technology or product developed through performing projects Amount of import substitution The expected total amount of import substitution in the case of substitution with products developed through performing projects for existing import goods Reduce ratio of the production cost Reduction ratio of the production cost due to technology development through performing projects Additional cost required to commercialization Additional costs putted into for realizing a commercialization and the public applying Operating Profit Operating Profit of the product developed through performing projects Number of new employees Number of new employment induced to produce product developed through performing projects Contribution/ ramifications Technical contributions The contribution of technology developed through performing projects Contribution to total sales The contribution to the total sales of the technology or product developed through performing projects Contribution to creation of new jobs The contribution of new employment due to technology or product developed through performing projects Ability improvement of information gathering Improvement of ability for information gathering due to performing projects Improvements of technology Improvement of technology due to performing projects Product improvement The effect of product improvement due to performing projects Process Improvement The effect of process improvement due to performing projects Environment for research and development Improvement and enhancement of the environment for research and development due to performing projects research manpower The ability improvement of research manpower due to performing projects Company Image Improvement and enhancement of the company's public image and awareness due to performing projects <Table> the configuration of analysis indicators
  8. 8. Target populations for analysis 8 <Table> distribution of population and respondents Category # of population # of respondent surveyed response rate successful project failed project total successful project failed project total successful project failed project total All 395 33 428 283 15 298 71.6 45.5 69.6 Enterprise public 139 11 150 96 6 102 69.1 54.5 68.0 private 229 20 249 165 8 173 72.1 40.0 69.5 overseas 27 2 29 22 1 23 81.5 50.0 79.3 Support year 2007 149 14 163 105 5 110 70.5 35.7 67.5 2008 148 12 160 98 8 106 66.2 66.7 66.3 2009 98 7 105 80 2 82 81.6 28.6 78.1 Technical field Mechine·material 145 13 158 106 7 113 73.1 53.8 71.5 BioㆍHealth 15 1 16 12 1 13 80.0 100.0 81.3 Electricㆍelectronic 130 11 141 88 4 92 67.7 36.4 65.2 Information and Communications 62 7 69 40 2 42 64.5 28.6 60.9 Information service 9 0 9 9 0 9 100.0 - 100.0 Chemistry 34 1 35 28 1 29 82.4 100.0 82.9 (Unit: number, %)
  9. 9. Target populations for analysis 9 <Table> Technical steps category Technical development Introduction of technology Technical growth Technology maturity Technical decline n/a Total total project # of project 21 68 134 59 9 7 298 Ratio (%) 7.1 22.8 45.0 19.8 3.0 2.4 successful project # of project 14 64 131 59 8 7 283 Ratio (%) 5.0 22.6 46.3 20.9 2.8 2.5 failed project # of project 7 4 3 0 1 0 15 Ratio (%) 46.7 26.7 20.0 0.0 6.7 0.0 (Unit: number, %) Technical steps
  10. 10. Target populations for analysis 10 <Table> Commercialization step (Unit: number, %) category failed commercialization progress of a commercialization end of a commercialization total complete pro-type of production prototype production purchase planning closing a delivery contract entry commercial production line on sale sale suspension total project # of project 42 19 35 30 23 14 122 13 298 ratio(%) 14.1 6.4 11.7 10.1 7.7 4.7 40.9 4.4 successful project # of project 33 18 33 29 23 14 121 12 283 ratio(%) 11.7 6.4 11.7 10.3 8.1 5.0 42.8 4.2 failed project # of project 9 1 2 1 0 0 1 1 15 ratio(%) 60.0 6.7 13.3 6.7 0.0 0.0 6.7 6.7 <Table> definition of commercialization step commercialization step definition failed commercialization stage 0 : give up commercialization due to internal and external factors progress of commercialization stage 1 : complete pro-type of production stage 2: produce prototype production after a pilot stage 3: purchase planning with purchase organization stage 4: close a delivery contract with purchase organization stage 5: entry commercial production line successful commercialization stage 6: continues to sell the product or process in the current stage 7: while selling the product or process is now aborted Commercialization step
  11. 11. Increase of research development planning capability Systematization of research performance management Increase of IP management capacity Contribution on cooperative construction with other agencies Total Projects 4.05 3.83 3.64 3.41 Projects succeeded 4.06 3.83 3.65 3.40 Projects failed 3.87 3.80 3.47 3.80 <Table> Degree of increases on Research project managing ability of new product development project with purchasing condition (Unit: point) Analysis of Program Performance Degree of effect on creation of research development performance Degree of research development information exchange activities Degree of research development manpower exchange activities Inclination to promote future joint research Total Projects 3.44 3.35 3.25 3.48 Projects succeeded 3.43 3.35 3.25 3.48 Projects failed 3.80 - - - <Table> Effects of joint research project on new product development project with purchasing condition (Unit: point) Performance of Technology development
  12. 12. 2007 2008 2009 Total # of projects generated # of articles generated # of article per 100 million won(government support) Total 2 2 4 8 8 1.00 0.43 Project Field Public 0 1 0 1 1 1.00 0.59 Private 2 1 4 7 7 1.00 0.41 Foreign 0 0 0 0 0 - - Phase of Commercialization Success 0 0 1 1 1 1.00 0.59 Progress 1 2 3 6 6 1.00 0.41 Failure 1 0 0 1 1 1.00 0.42 Technology Field Machinery·Material 0 0 3 3 3 1.00 0.40 BioㆍHealth 2 0 0 2 2 1.00 0.41 ElectricityㆍElectronics 0 0 0 0 0 - - Information& Communications 0 0 0 0 0 - - Knowledge service 0 1 0 1 1 1.00 0.59 Chemistry 0 1 1 2 2 1.00 0.43 Technology base 0 0 0 0 0 - - <Table> Number of articles of new product development project with purchasing condition (Unit: number) (Unit: number) Analysis of Program Performance Quantitative Performance
  13. 13. (Unit: number) Analysis of Program Performance 2007 2008 2009 Total # of projects generated # of articles generated # of article per 100 million won (government support) Patent Application 1 10 13 24 15 1.60 0.50 Registration 1 3 3 7 7 1.00 0.40 Utility model Application 0 0 0 0 0 - - Registration 0 0 3 3 1 3.00 1.45 Design Application 0 0 5 5 1 5.00 1.23 Registration 0 0 1 1 1 1.00 0.48 Total 2 13 25 40 25 1.60 0.60 <Table> Performance of intellectual property right of new product development project with purchasing condition (Unit: number) Quantitative Performance
  14. 14. Number of projects Before the projects After the projects Improvement of technological gap Total 283 4.27 2.73 1.54 2007 105 4.39 2.46 1.93 2008 98 4.26 3.15 1.11 2009 80 4.14 2.58 1.56 Commercialization-Success 133 4.70 2.83 1.87 Commercialization-Progress 117 4.00 2.80 1.20 Commercialization-Failure 33 3.52 2.09 1.42 Public 96 4.97 3.02 1.95 Private 165 3.87 2.58 1.28 Foreign 22 4.27 2.59 1.68 Machinery·Material 106 4.64 2.44 2.20 BioㆍHealth 12 2.83 2.50 0.33 ElectricityㆍElectronics 88 4.17 2.59 1.58 Information& Communications 40 3.28 2.85 0.43 Knowledge service 9 5.44 2.78 2.66 Chemistry 28 4.86 4.18 0.68 <Table> Performance of intellectual property right of new product development project with purchasing condition (Unit: number) Analysis of Program Performance Technical Performance
  15. 15. Before the projects After the projects Degree of Increase All 60.7 86.9 26.2 2007 57.8 87.0 29.2 2008 61.2 86.1 24.9 2009 63.8 87.8 24.0 Commercialization-Success 61.5 88.7 27.2 Commercialization-Progress 58.8 85.9 27.1 Commercialization-Failure 64.3 83.2 18.9 Public 60.2 87.9 27.7 Private 60.5 86.3 25.8 Foreign 64.4 87.1 22.7 Machinery·Material 59.4 88.1 28.7 BioㆍHealth 71.8 88.0 16.2 ElectricityㆍElectronics 59.5 87.3 27.8 Information& Communications 63.3 84.5 21.2 Knowledge service 58.8 81.6 22.8 Chemistry 61.4 85.9 24.5 <Table> Improvement of technology level of new product development project with purchasing condition (Unit: %) Analysis of Program Performance Technical Performance
  16. 16. Before the projects After the projects Degree of Increase Total 64.1 87.4 23.3 2007 61.5 87.4 25.9 2008 60.2 86.3 26.1 2009 62.7 88.9 26.2 Commercialization-Success 61.5 88.8 27.3 Commercialization-Progress 60.5 87.0 26.5 Commercialization-Failure 64.0 83.1 19.1 Public 62.5 88.6 26.1 Private 60.1 86.4 26.3 Foreign 66.4 90.0 23.6 Machinery·Material 58.4 87.8 29.4 BioㆍHealth 67.6 93.0 25.4 ElectricityㆍElectronics 63.3 87.4 24.1 Information& Communications 61.6 85.6 24.0 Knowledge service 67.2 87.2 20.0 Chemistry 61.9 86.4 24.5 <Table> change of technical self-reliance of new product development project with purchasing condition (Unit: %) Analysis of Program Performance Technical Performance
  17. 17. <Figure> Comparison of sales (Unit: number, million won) (a) Number of projects (b) sales per projects (c) sales per 100 million won (government support) Analysis of Program Performance # of projects Avg. of Sales Total Sales of projects Total government support Sales per 100 million won (government support) Total projects 283 1,263.12 357,462.96 55,796.00 640.66 Projects generated 144 2,482.38 357,462.72 28,852.00 1,238.95 <Table> Sales (Unit: number, million won) Economic Performance
  18. 18. <Figure> Comparison of export amount (Unit: number, million won) (a)Number of projects (b) Export amount per projects (c) Export amount per 100 million won (government support) Analysis of Program Performance # of projects Avg. of export amount per project Total export amount Total government support Export amount per 100 million won(government support) Total projects 283 181.27 51,300.00 55,796.00 91.94 Projects generated 43 1,193.02 51,299.86 8,605.00 596.16 <Table> Export amount (Unit: number, million won) Economic Performance
  19. 19. <Figure> Comparison of import substitution amount (Unit: number, million won) (a) Number of projects (b) Import substitution amount per projects (c) Import substitution amount per 100million won (government support) Analysis of Program Performance # of projects Avg. of import substitution amount per project Total import substitution amount Total government support Import substitution amount per 100million won(government support) Total projects 283 585.26 165,629.00 55,796.00 296.85 Projects generated 56 2,957.66 165,628.96 10,971.00 1,509.70 <Table> Import Substitution amount (Unit: number, million won) Economic Performance
  20. 20. <Figure> Comparison on percentage of production cost saving of developing product (Unit: number, %) (a)Number of projects (b) Percentage of production cost savings per project (c) Percentage of production cost saving per 100million won government contributions Analysis of Program Performance category # of projects Average (%) Total sum of Percentage of production cost saving of the pertinent project (%) Total sum of the contributions (million won) Percentage of production cost saving per 100million won government contributions (%) Total projects 283 5.56 1,574.00 55,796.00 2.82 Pertinent projects 90 17.49 1,574.00 16,630.00 9.46 <Table> percentage of production cost saving (Unit: number, million won, %) Economic Performance
  21. 21. <Figure> Comparison on additional costs spending on commercialization (Unit: number, million won) (a) Number of projects (b) Additional costs on commercialization per project (c) Additional costs per 100million won contributions Analysis of Program Performance category Number of projects Average additional cost Total sum of additional cost spending on commercialization of the pertinent project Total sum of the contributions (million won) Additional cost per 100million won government contributions Total projects 283 63.71 18,029.00 55,796.00 32.31 Pertinent projects 99 182.11 18,029.00 19,940.00 90.42 <Table> Additional costs spending on commercialization (Unit: number, million won) Commercialization result
  22. 22. <Figure> Comparison on operating profit (Unit: number, million won) (a) Number of projects (b) Operating profit per project (c) Operating profit per 100million won government contributions Analysis of Program Performance category # of projects Average operating profit Total sum of operating profit of the pertinent project Total sum of the contributions (million won) Operating profit per 100million won government contributions Total projects 2,373 65.79 156,114.00 359,928.55 43.37 Pertinent projects 880 177.40 156,114.00 129,655.00 120.41 <Table> Operating profit (Unit: number, million won) Commercialization result
  23. 23. <Figure> Comparison on new employment (Unit: number, person) (a) Number of projects (b) New employment (c) New employment per 100million won government contributions Analysis of Program Performance <Table> Operating profit (Unit: number, mission won person) category Number of projects Average new employment Total number of employees of the pertinent project Total sum of the contributions (million won) Employment per 100million won government contributions Total projects 283 0.80 226 55,796.00 0.41 Pertinent projects 92 2.46 226 18,998.00 1.19 Commercialization result
  24. 24. <Figure> Comparison for the contribution Analysis of Program Performance <Figure> Ramifications <Figure> Research and Development Environment <Figure> Research manpower and images of purchase- conditional new product development projects Contribution and ramifications
  25. 25. <Figure> The factors of a participation in purchase-conditional projects for new product development Analysis of Program Performance <Figure> The factors of a re-participation in purchase-conditional projects for new product development Diagnosis
  26. 26. <Figure> The factors carried out successfully on purchase-conditional projects for new product development Analysis of Program Performance <Figure> The difficulties factors of purchase-conditional projects for new product development Diagnosis
  27. 27. <Figure> The difficulties on the production side of purchase-conditional projects for new product development Analysis of Program Performance <Figure> The difficulties on the selling side of purchase-conditional projects for new product development Diagnosis
  28. 28. <Table> Variables to analyze influencing factors upon the sales generated Name of Variables Attribute or Unit Dependent Variables Whether the sales are generated or not 0: yes, 1 : no Total amount of sales generated 1,000,000 KRW Independent Variables Inputs Number of researchers in the R&D project Number Number of doctors in the R&D project Number Number of masters in the R&D project Number Number of bachelors in the R&D project Number Number of other personnel in the R&D project Number Research facilities and equipment retention rate before the R&D project Five point scale Research facilities and equipment retention rate after the R&D project Five point scale Spending in the R&D in 2011 1,000,000 KRW Academic achievements (theses and intellectual property rights) Number of foreign theses Number Number of local thesis Number Number of registered patent application Number Number of registered utility model application Number Number of registered design application Number Technological achievements Years of technology gap before the R&D project Number Narrowing years of technology gap after the R&D project Number Current technology gap Five point scale Change in technology gap Five point scale Technology independence before the R&D project Five point scale Technology independence after the R&D project Five point scale Whether the technology is eco-friendly or not 0: no, 1: yes Economic achievements Amount of the export of developed products in 2011 1,000,000 KRW Amount of the sales of products which substituted import in 2011 1,000,000 KRW Percentage of reduction in product costs in 2011 % Additional expense for commercialization in 2011 1,000,000 KRW Number of newly employed personnel for the R&D project in 2011 Number Control Variables Technological sectors Machinery and materials, bio technology and medicine, electronics and electrics, information and communications, chemicals The year when support was made 2007, 2008, and 2009 Empirical Analyses : logistic Regression Introduction to the Analyses
  29. 29. <Table> Variables which influence the successful performance of innovative firms Name of Variables Attribute or Unit Dependent Variables Whether the performance of innovative firms is successful or not 0: not successful or not yet delivered 1: successful Independent Variables Ability to manage the R&D Improvement in the ability to design the R&D Five point scale Systematic management of R&D achievements Five point scale Improvement in the capacity to manage intellectual property rights Five point scale Contribution to the establishment of the shared network with other organizations Five point scale Level of contribution Level of technological contribution to the R&D project Five point scale Level of contribution to the total sales Five point scale Level of contribution to the creation of jobs Five point scale Ripple effects Technological improvement Improvement in the ability to collect the information about advanced technologies and market trends Five point scale Securing core technologies Five point scale Enhancement of the ability to improve existing products Five point scale Enhancement of the ability to develop new products Five point scale Enhancement of the ability to improve existing manufacturing processes Five point scale Enhancement of the ability to improve new manufacturing processes Five point scale Shortening the period to develop technologies Five point scale Research environment and its image Improving research atmosphere Five point scale Increase in the investment in the R&D Five point scale Expansion of the group for the R&D Five point scale Equipment of facilities for the R&D Five point scale Improvement of the status of R&D personnel Five point scale Increase in the number of R&D personnel Five point scale Enhancement of the capacity for the R&D Five point scale Improvement in the image and awareness of the public Five point scale Empirical Analyses : logistic Regression Introduction to the Analyses
  30. 30. <Table> Relationship between the likelihood of the generation of the sales through the R&D project and inputs Variables Regression coefficient Standard error Chi-squared value P-value Standardized regression coefficient Intercept 0.240 0.613 0.15 0.70 Total number of researchers in the R&D project -0.013 0.010 1.75 0.19 -0.12 Number of doctors in the R&D project -0.189 0.137 1.90 0.17 -0.12 Number of masters in the R&D project 0.143 0.093 2.37 0.12 0.14 Number of bachelors in the R&D project -0.031 0.040 0.60 0.44 -0.06 Number of other personnel in the R&D project 0.184 0.083 4.95 0.03 0.23 Research facilities and equipment retention rate before the R&D project -0.003 0.149 0.00 0.98 0.00 Research facilities and equipment retention rate after the R&D project 0.171 0.132 1.69 0.19 0.10 Spending in the R&D in 2011 0.000 0.000 0.24 0.62 0.04 Empirical Analyses : logistic Regression Result of the Overall Analyses
  31. 31. <Table> Relationship between the sales generated through the R&D project and inputs Variables Regression coefficient Standard error Chi-squared value P-value Standardized regression coefficient Intercept 2400.964 5002.968 0.48 0.63 0.00 Total number of researchers in the R&D project 255.580 119.952 2.13 0.04 0.26 Number of doctors in the R&D project 192.967 1154.424 0.17 0.87 0.02 Number of masters in the R&D project -832.656 714.799 -1.16 0.25 -0.13 Number of bachelors in the R&D project -585.343 323.524 -1.81 0.07 -0.19 Number of other personnel in the R&D project 434.119 452.736 0.96 0.34 0.09 Research facilities and equipment retention rate before the R&D project 1334.373 1234.934 1.08 0.28 0.11 Research facilities and equipment retention rate after the R&D project 392.033 1159.579 0.34 0.74 0.03 Spending in the R&D in 2011 -1.145 1.456 -0.79 0.43 -0.08 Empirical Analyses : logistic Regression <Table> Relationship between the likelihood of the generation of the sales through the R&D project and academic achievements (theses and intellectual property rights) Variables Regression coefficient Standard error Chi-squared value P-value Standardized regression coefficient Intercept 0.8944 0.4737 3.5655 0.059 Number of foreign theses -15.212 1368.200 0.00 0.99 -0.69 Number of local thesis -1.264 1.253 1.02 0.31 -0.08 Number of registered patent application 0.075 0.296 0.06 0.80 0.02 Number of registered utility model application -5.237 667.600 0.00 0.99 -0.50 Number of registered design application 0.000 . . . . Result of the Overall Analyses
  32. 32. <Table> Relationship between the sales generated through the R&D project and academic achievements (theses and intellectual property rights) Variables Regression coefficient Standard error Chi-squared value P-value Standardized regression coefficient Intercept 4584.17494 3740.79434 1.23 0.2226 0 Number of foreign theses 0.000 . . . . Number of local thesis 417.114 13432.000 0.03 0.98 0.00 Number of registered patent application 171.094 1840.626 0.09 0.93 0.01 Number of registered utility model application 0.000 . . . . Number of registered design application 0.000 . . . . Empirical Analyses : logistic Regression Variables Regression coefficient Standard error Chi-squared value P-value Standardized regression coefficient Intercept -1.1927 0.9398 1.6108 0.2044 Years of technology gap before the R&D project 0.011 0.051 0.05 0.83 0.02 Narrowing years of technology gap after the R&D project -0.482 0.251 3.70 0.05 -0.21 Current technology gap in years -0.013 0.045 0.08 0.77 -0.03 Current technology level 0.659 0.307 4.63 0.03 0.23 Technology independence before the R&D project 0.118 0.243 0.24 0.63 0.05 Technology independence after the R&D project 0.159 0.299 0.28 0.59 0.06 Whether the technology is eco-friendly or not 0.169 0.308 0.30 0.58 0.04 <Table> Relationship between the likelihood of the generation of the sales through the R&D project and technological achievements Result of the Overall Analyses
  33. 33. <Table> Relationship between the sales generated through the R&D project and technological achievements Variables Regression coefficient Standard error Chi-squared value P-value Standardized regression coefficient Intercept 9561.882 8255.291 1.16 0.25 0.00 Years of technology gap before the R&D project -190.884 450.674 -0.42 0.67 -0.05 Narrowing years of technology gap after the R&D project 2693.892 2331.697 1.16 0.25 0.16 Current technology gap in years 25.073 388.244 0.06 0.95 0.01 Current technology level -1840.963 2620.563 -0.70 0.48 -0.08 Technology independence before the R&D project 1263.323 2021.160 0.63 0.53 0.08 Technology independence after the R&D project -1930.531 2618.960 -0.74 0.46 -0.09 Whether the technology is eco-friendly or not -391.607 2536.430 -0.15 0.88 -0.01 Empirical Analyses : logistic Regression <Table> Relationship between the likelihood of the generation of the sales through the R&D project and economic achievements Variables Regression coefficient Standard error Chi-squared value P-value Standardized regression coefficient Intercept -0.00919 0.5215 0.0003 0.9859 Amount of the export of developed products in 2011 0.003 0.001 6.13 0.01 1.19 Amount of the sales of products which substituted import in 2011 0.006 0.003 4.69 0.03 11.19 Percentage of reduction in product costs in 2011 0.028 0.013 4.81 0.03 0.22 Additional expense for commercialization in 2011 0.001 0.001 0.62 0.43 0.12 Number of newly employed personnel for the R&D project in 2011 0.050 0.081 0.39 0.53 0.06 Result of the Overall Analyses
  34. 34. <Table> Relationship between the sales generated through the R&D project and economic achievements Variables Regression coefficient Standard error Chi-squared value P-value Standardized regression coefficient Intercept 4901.988 3743.670 1.31 0.19 0.00 Amount of the export of developed products in 2011 0.770 1.113 0.69 0.49 0.07 Amount of the sales of products which substituted import in 2011 0.213 0.249 0.86 0.39 0.08 Percentage of reduction in product costs in 2011 -15.207 77.026 -0.20 0.84 -0.02 Additional expense for commercialization in 2011 -2.101 4.532 -0.46 0.64 -0.04 Number of newly employed personnel for the R&D project in 2011 -220.512 560.131 -0.39 0.69 -0.04 Empirical Analyses : logistic Regression Result of the Overall Analyses
  35. 35. 목 차 I.KIAT(2013) Performance Analysis Report II. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) III. Case 35
  36. 36. <Figure> state of use government support system (Unit: %) Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) Manufacturing sector Utilization status of government support system
  37. 37. Tax exemption on technology development Technology development/Commercialization support Participation in governmental R&D project Governmental technical support and guidance Providing technical information Technical manpower and educational research support Gov./public sector purchasing Marketing support Total 5.4 13.9 5.5 3.9 3.5 3.1 1.9 4.1 10. Food 2.9 10.1 3.6 3.3 1.7 2.7 0.6 4.5 11. Beverage 6.4 12.7 6.4 6.4 6.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 13. Textile 4.3 9.5 5.4 5.9 4.9 2.5 1.8 2.0 14.Clothes 1.0 2.2 2.5 0.6 1.9 1.6 1.2 1.6 15.Leather 0.0 3.2 3.2 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 16. Lumber 8.0 9.5 3.2 6.3 6.3 3.2 3.2 9.5 17. Wood pulp 3.8 6.2 0.0 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.6 1.5 18. Printing 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.0 0.0 19.Cokes 9.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.0 20.Chemical 12.9 19.8 8.4 4.5 3.9 4.6 3.9 7.0 21.Medicine 27.0 40.4 26.3 23.8 5.2 9.7 0.0 23.4 22.Rubber product 3.3 6.3 3.0 2.0 2.6 1.2 0.6 1.2 23. Non-metal 3.1 12.3 2.9 2.9 0.9 2.0 6.2 2.0 24. Primary metal 1.8 8.8 1.7 0.6 3.4 1.6 0.3 0.3 25.Metal processing 3.3. 15.8 2.1 3.3 2.8 1.4 1.3 2.3 26.Electronic 6.6 14.8 10.8 4.5 5.3 3.7 0.8 3.2 27.Medical 16.5 19.1 10.1 7.1 3.4 5.8 4.6 12.4 28.Electrical equipment 6.6 21.1 8.7 3.9 3.4 3.5 2.3 6.3 29.Other machine 7.5 19.6 8.5 5.6 5.3 5.3 3.2 6.7 30.Wheels 4.5 19.0 5.9 3.4 3.1 2.6 0.2 2.3 31.Other transportation 4.1 13.4 10.9 6.8 7.6 7.8 4.1 9.0 32.Furniture 5.4 11.8 3.1 2.4 2.4 3.4 4.7 7.8 33.Other products 3.4 10.8 4.3 4.4 4.4 6.4 0.0 3.2 <Table> utilization status of government support system: type of business (Unit: %) Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) Manufacturing sector Utilization status of government support system
  38. 38. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) <Table> utilization status of government support system: number of employees and legal forms of business Category Tax exemption on technology development Technology development/ Commercialization support Participation in Gov. R&D project Gov. technical assistance and guidance Providing technical information Technical manpower and educational research support Gov./public sector purchasing Marketing support Total 5.4 13.9 5.5 3.9 3.5 3.1 1.9 4.1 Number of workers 10~49 4.7 13.4 4.3 3.4 3 2.7 1.8 3.9 50~99 7.4 15.1 9.1 5.6 4.9 3.9 2.6 3.8 100~299 10.6 17.3 14.7 7.9 7.5 5.7 2.1 5.8 300~499 18.9 22.7 24.4 5.4 6.3 9 4.1 17.1 Above 500 21.3 31.2 22.5 8.2 10.7 10.1 5 10.3 Legal forms of business Large company 20.9 27.5 21.9 7.5 9.8 10.4 5.4 14.8 Medium company 9.9 17.2 10 6.3 5.4 5.2 2.5 5.4 Small company 4 12.8 4.1 3.2 2.9 2.4 1.7 3.6 (Unit: %) Manufacturing sector Utilization status of government support system
  39. 39. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) Manufacturing sector The Importance of Government support system Tax exemption on technology development Technology development/Commercialization support Participation in governmental R&D project Governmental technical support and guidance Providing technical information Technical manpower and educational research support Gov./public sector purchasing Marketing support Total 44.4 51.2 44.2 33.5 22.7 30.9 32.3 43.1 10. Food 73.4 47.4 30.6 8.0 7.7 23.0 100.0 32.7 11. Beverage 0.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 - - - 13. Textile 46.5 46.9 45.6 41.8 26.8 26.8 36.7 66.7 14.Clothes 0.0 72.1 25.0 0.0 33.3 61.3 50.0 61.3 15.Leather - 400.0 100.0 100.0 - - - 16. Lumber 50.0 33.3 0.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 0.0 66.7 17. Wood pulp 49.5 24.6 - 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 18. Printing - - - - - 0.0 - - 19.Cokes 0.0 - - - - - - 0.0 20.Chemical 44.1 61.2 71.0 86.4 16.6 42.7 16.6 38.7 21.Medicine 53.8 65.0 47.7 76.3 7.7 79.0 - 79.3 22.Rubber product 30.3 44.9 32.6 0.0 27.1 33.3 50.0 25.0 23. Non-metal 58.1 56.4 35.1 31.6 27.8 100.0 68.0 80.0 24. Primary metal 52.9 42.3 0.0 0.0 22.1 58.1 0.0 0.0 25.Metal processing 33.7 40.5 43.1 42.7 16.9 21.7 0.0 37.1 26.Electronic 51.3 48.6 50.6 15.8 19.8 38.4 29.5 45.7 27.Medical 39.9 50.6 37.1 47.5 75.0 35.4 44.7 36.8 28.Electrical equipment 35.7 51.0 42.3 19.4 0.0 13.5 41.4 39.6 29.Other machine 44.6 62.1 46.0 31.8 16.5 25.3 9.8 48.0 30.Wheels 42.7 43.3 35.6 17.3 60.4 16.3 0.0 25.8 31.Other transportation 45.2 83.2 71.8 27.4 35.2 23.7 90.4 24.9 32.Furniture 86.5 20.0 23.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 50.0 60.4 33.Other products 65.9 70.2 0.0 26.3 0.0 50.0 - 0.0 <Table> the importance of government support system(‘high’) : by business (Unit: %)
  40. 40. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) Manufacturing sector The Importance of Government support system <Table> the importance of government support system(‘high’) : number of employees and legal forms of business (Unit: %) Category Tax exemption on technology development Technology development/ Commercialization support Participation in Gov. R&D project Gov. technical assistance and guidance Providing technical information Technical manpower and educational research support Gov./public sector purchasing Marketing support Total 44.4 51.2 44.2 33.5 22.7 30.9 32.3 43.1 Number of workers 10~49 43.9 41.6 43.9 32 24 31.9 35.5 44.2 50~99 45.9 48.4 41.1 43.6 9.5 22.4 16.7 34.9 100~299 47.8 48.1 47.1 28.7 29.8 32.1 28.4 45.7 300~499 33.7 52 58.1 46.2 15.5 38.6 15.7 32.9 Above 500 45.8 55 39.6 45.1 33.9 36.5 22.6 39.2 Legal forms of business Large company 43.5 56.3 59.1 34.4 34.1 30.4 28.3 34.2 Medium company 50.3 48.2 43.2 29.9 17.4 30.2 23.3 38.9 Small company 40.4 41 43.7 35.5 24.9 31.4 35.9 45.3
  41. 41. <Figure> state of use government support system (Unit: %) Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) Service Sector Utilization status of government support system
  42. 42. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) <Table> utilization status of government support system: number of employees and legal forms of business Category Tax exemption on technology development Technology development/ Commercialization support Participation in Gov. R&D project Gov. technical assistance and guidance Providing technical information Technical manpower and educational research support Gov./public sector purchasing Marketing support Total 5.4 13.9 5.5 3.9 3.5 3.1 1.9 4.1 Number of workers 10~49 4.7 13.4 4.3 3.4 3 2.7 1.8 3.9 50~99 7.4 15.1 9.1 5.6 4.9 3.9 2.6 3.8 100~299 10.6 17.3 14.7 7.9 7.5 5.7 2.1 5.8 300~499 18.9 22.7 24.4 5.4 6.3 9 4.1 17.1 Above 500 21.3 31.2 22.5 8.2 10.7 10.1 5 10.3 Legal forms of business Large company 20.9 27.5 21.9 7.5 9.8 10.4 5.4 14.8 Medium company 9.9 17.2 10 6.3 5.4 5.2 2.5 5.4 Small company 4 12.8 4.1 3.2 2.9 2.4 1.7 3.6 (Unit: %) Utilization status of government support system Service Sector
  43. 43. <Table> the use degree of the government support system: the size and legal forms of business (Unit: %) Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) Utilization status of government support system Service Sector Category Tax exemption on technology development Technology development/ Commercialization support Participation in Gov. R&D project Gov. technical assistance and guidance Providing technical information Technical manpower and educational research support Gov./public sector purchasing Marketing support Total 3.2 9.0 3.4 2.4 2.8 3.9 1.8 2.5 Number of workers 10~49 2.7 8.7 3.3 2.2 2.9 3.9 1.6 2.5 50~99 4.2 7.5 2.7 2.8 3.3 3.6 1.9 1.9 100~299 4.1 10.2 3.7 2.3 1.5 3.5 1.7 2.7 300~499 5.7 13.8 5.4 2.6 3.1 4.7 3.2 2.3 Above 500 4.2 10.4 7.9 4.3 4.9 6.4 4.2 5.1 Legal forms of business Large company 5.7 12.1 10.4 4.5 4.7 5.6 5.1 5.2 Medium company 5.5 10.0 5.6 3.3 2.9 5.6 2.6 3.2 Small company 2.5 8.7 2.7 2.1 2.7 3.3 1.5 2.1
  44. 44. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) The Importance of Government support system <Table> The importance of government support system (‘high’) : type of business (Unit: %) Service Sector Category Tax exemption on technology development Technology development/Commercialization support Participation in Gov. R&D project Gov. technical assistance and guidance Providing technical information Technical manpower and educational research support Gov./public sector purchasing Marketing support Total 34.7 43.5 43.3 19.5 21.3 32.3 27.7 37.5 Wholesale/Retail 36.2 24.1 57.1 27.2 27.4 33.0 42.3 48.6 Transportation 45.4 54.7 4.9 10.9 12.1 3.5 18.5 0.0 Lodging/Food 50.4 50.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 43.0 0.0 Publishing/Broadcasting 42.5 52.5 46.4 13.3 3.2 32.4 11.0 32.2 Financial/Insurance 12.9 23.6 14.1 16.6 16.9 37.3 19.4 23.6 Real estate/Leasing service 100.0 29.8 100.0 33.6 100.0 42.3 38.5 45.0 Science/technology 29.1 44.9 41.7 33.1 38.5 20.7 22.6 12.6 Facilities management 0.0 58.1 50.0 18.3 26.3 17.5 0.0 0.0 Education 40.0 26.5 50.7 17.2 11.7 59.4 35.0 49.8 Health/Welfare 19.3 46.7 24.6 3.9 18.9 23.1 5.2 30.5 Art/Leisure 0.0 100.0 65.2 - 0.0 69.9 100.0 100.0 Repair/Private - 58.0 100.0 100.0 66.7 81.6 - 100.0
  45. 45. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) The Importance of Government support system <Table> the importance of government support system (‘high’): the size and legal forms of business (Unit: %) Service Sector Category Tax exemption on technology development Technology development/Commercialization support Participation in Gov. R&D project Gov. technical assistance and guidance Providing technical information Technical manpower and educational research support Gov./public sector purchasing Marketing support Total 34.7 43.5 43.3 19.5 21.3 32.3 27.7 37.5 Number of workers 10~49 28.7 37.9 42.9 14.4 18.3 30.8 24.7 35.8 50~99 49.7 53.6 56.6 27.5 17.6 33.3 18.2 53.3 100~299 38.6 52.6 36.8 35.3 48.2 42.4 50.2 51.5 300~499 44.3 59.0 36.1 29.8 36.3 33.7 38.2 17.5 Above 500 31.8 69.7 51.5 29.5 34.1 33.9 31.5 23.7 Legal forms of business Large company 45.3 56.6 43.8 15.7 19.1 33.0 29.1 24.4 Medium company 38.1 51.5 40.7 18.8 21.2 26.4 30.3 34.8 Small company 32.0 40.2 44.9 19.8 19.2 33.8 26.0 37.1
  46. 46. 목 차 I.KIAT(2013) Performance Analysis Report II. Report on the Korean Innovation Survey(2012) III. Case 46
  47. 47. Case - WooJin INC. Foundation : 1980 Business sales : 4.4 billion won in 2007 and 11 billion dollars in 2010 This company has concentrated its energy on research and development field, and made research in domestic key industries including the steel industry, semiconductor industry and nuclear industry since 1987 in which it set up the first measurement technology laboratory. WooJin has made an investment in R & D field (research and development field) amounting to 5.8% of the total sales since 2007. Its major technical field is measurement field and new material field. 1. measurement field - development of TMS(Tele Meter System) data logger and monitoring software - development of device to measure thickness of slag for molten metal - development of digital measuring instrument for molten metal - development of NIMS ( NSSS (Nuclear Steam Supply System) Integrated Monitoring system. ) - development of a digital indicator of safety class for nuclear station. - development of digital M/A Station for nuclear station. 2. new material field - development of high damping alloy (It is included in ferro-alloy and a new kind of alloy which can convert outside vibrational energy into thermal energy through phase change of metal.) - development of high silicon cast iron with acid proof preventing various corrosion responses by making efficient oxide film. option to purchase project As for WooJin, it can be a significant opportunity for growth to succeed in developing a measuring instrument system used for nuclear reactor with Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power co., ltd. through research and development in the long term in order to devise a new business plan during the foreign exchange crisis. In particular, with the governmental technology development project with an option to purchase deciding buyer company in public in advance, WooJin can succeed in developing a new measuring instrument in nuclear reactor field thanks to funding for research and development. Moreover, Woojin is scheduled to make progress in development of technology through strategic partnership with POSCO. Company outline
  48. 48. Case - SeHwa Electronics Foundation : established in 1987 and started an LCD Window department in 2000 SeHwa Electronics has dealt with an order of 'development of touch window using four wire resistance' from LG Electronics for 12 months (from December 2007 to November 2008). Through this process, it was provided support fund of 247 million won from the government. Before this task was completed, touch window using resistance method used for mobile cellular phone from LG Electronics had to be entirely imported from foreign countries and lagged behind developed countries like Japan in producing technology by more than 5 years. Option to purchase project SeHwa Electronics to develop new touch window products used for mobile cellular phone that would apply and combine touch screen basic technology, making integrate flat window and touch screen with LG Electronics. In the process, a variety of core processes were utilized : technology to design electrode pattern, to etch metallic oxide dealt with ITO deposition and to print high detailed patterns. In addition, the company had to materialize simpler product structure by combining adhesive tape bonding technology, UV printing and bonding technology, CNC detailed-operating technology. Through this project, LG Electronics could reduce costs by using domestic parts and jumped to the same level of quality and productivity of industrialized countries, as a result of which the major company had competitive price and quality compared to developed countries. SeHwa Electronics also turned over 34.4 billion won for four years (from 2008 to 2011) and secured technology with the same product. Moreover, this company added a new production line and brought about 100 new jobs. Company outline
  49. 49. End of Document Dr. Woosung Lee Research Fellow Economic Analysis Division Science and Technology Policy Institute 82-2-3284-1781 leews@stepi.re.kr 49

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