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  • SCAI

    1. 1. Semantic Communication Architecture Innsbruck (SCAI) Dieter Fensel, Ioan Toma, AndreeaGagiu, IkerLarizgoitia, Birgit Leiter, IoannisStavrakantonakis August30, 2012© INNSBRUCK Copyright 2012 STI
    2. 2. Reference architecture • “A reference architecture in the field of software architecture or enterprise architecture provides a template solution for an architecture for a particular domain. It also provides a common vocabulary with which to discuss implementations, often with the aim to stress commonality. • A reference software architecture is a software architecturewhere the structures and respective elements and relations provide templates for concrete architectures in a particular domain or in a family of software systems. • A reference architecture often consists of a list of functions and some indication of their interfaces (or APIs) and interactions with each other and with functions located outside of the scope of the reference architecture. • Reference architectures can be defined at different levels of abstraction. – A highly abstract one might show different pieces of equipment on a communications network, each providing different functions. – A lower level one might demonstrate the interactions of procedures (or methods) within a computer program defined to perform a very specific task. • A reference architecture provides a template, often based on the generalization of a set of solutions. These solutions may have been generalized and structured for the depiction of one or more architecture structures based on the harvesting of a set of patterns that have been observed in a number of successful implementations. Further it shows how to compose these parts together into a solution. • Reference Architectures will be instantiated for a particular domain or for specific projects.” Source Wikipedia • Compare also 2
    3. 3. SCAI *sky • SCAI is a reference architecture for a semantic engagement engine applicable to various domain and task. • Core of its efficiently and flexibility is its separation of concern • And the proper separation and alignment of form and substance. • In total, SCAI includes three different types of 3
    4. 4. Infrastructure • The infrastructure layer provides basic functionalities needed by the other functionalities. • The infrastructure layer is responsible for separating and multiple alignments of communication content and communication 4
    5. 5. Communication • The communication layer used the basic functionality of the infrastructure layer to implement the on-line communication of an agent. • It combines these elements into useful patterns of on- line interactions. • It supports exchange of 5
    6. 6. Engagement • Engagement turns communication into cooperation. • Why is it important? – Because customers are important for any enterprise and the engagement concept creates strong relationships between the customers and the enterprise. – It supports value generation through on-line 6
    7. 7. Customization of the Architecture • To derive concrete products and services from the reference architecture it must be instantiated for Application types (Tasks) and Domains. • Task customization: – Advertisement – CRM – Revenue management – Brand management – Reputation management – Quality management • Domain Customization: e.g., 7
    9. 9. Infrastructure • Content can be down-/and uploaded from GUIs, Repositories, CMSs, and others • Channels are the millions of on-line communication possibilities Infrastructure Channels 9
    10. 10. Infrastructure • Consists of three major components: – Content manager • Responsible for managing the content of communication – Channel Manager • Responsible for managing the channels for communication – Weaver • Responsible for aligning content and 10
    11. 11. Infrastructure – Content manager • Import content from – GUI – CMS – Repository – Others • Export content from – GUI – CMS – Repository – 11
    12. 12. Infrastructure – Content manager • Stores the content • Decouples storage mechanism from the rest of SCAI • Independent of any specific data store implementation i.e. database and storage
    13. 13. Infrastructure – Channel manager • Integrates a channel • Personalizes a channel • Interacts with a channel – Read – Write • Describes and aggregates 13
    14. 14. Infrastructure – Weaver • Separating content from channels also requires the explicit alignment of both. • This is achieved through a weaver. • A weaver is – an uni-set of tuples of ten elements – an execution engine for these tuples – a GUI to define these tuples – a management and monitoring component for these tuple 14
    15. 15. Infrastructure – Weaver – Tuple Set Elements 1 to 3 are about the content: 1. An information item defines an information category that should be disseminated through various channels. 2. An editor: The editor defines the agent that is responsible for providing the content of an information item. 3. An editor interaction protocol: This defines the interaction protocol governing how an editor collects the 15
    16. 16. Infrastructure – Weaver – Tuple Set Elements 4 to 9 are about the communication of these items: 4. An information type: We make a distinction between three types of content: • an instance of a concept, • a set of instances of a concept (i.e., an extensional definition of the concept), • a concept description (i.e., an intensional definition of a concept) that should be content of the communication 16
    17. 17. Infrastructure – Weaver – Tuple Set Elements 4 to 9 are about the communication of these items: 5. A processing rule: These rules govern how the content is processed to fit to/being re-extracted from a channel. 6. A channel description: The group of media that is used to disseminate/search for the 17
    18. 18. Infrastructure – Weaver – Tuple Set Elements 4 to 9 are about the communication of these items: 7. Scheduling information: Information on how often and in which intervals the communication will be performed which includes temporal constrains over multi-channel communication. 8. An executor: It determines which agent or process is performing the update of a channel. 9. An executor interaction protocol: It governs the interaction protocol defining how an executer receives its 18
    19. 19. Infrastructure – Weaver – Tuple Set Element 10 contains meta-information such as: – Is it a read or write – Is it executed – Is it idle – 19
    20. 20. Infrastructure – Weaver – Execution Engine • Matchmaking of channels and content; determines which channels are appropriate for the content to be disseminated based on the descriptions of channels and content. • Evaluates and executes the rules that specify how the content is processed to fit into channels, and also how the content is extracted from the channels. • Schedules the communication considering temporal constrains over multi-channels. • Orchestrates the interaction with an agent or process (editor or executer) and defines • how an editor collects the content • how an executer receives the 20
    21. 21. Infrastructure – Weaver – GUI • The GUI supports the specification of tuples that are defining the Weaver • Definition of information item and information type • Definition of the editor and executer • Definition of interaction protocols for editor and executer • Specification of processing rules • Creation of channel 21
    22. 22. Infrastructure – Weaver – Management and Monitoring component • Detects deficiencies as early as possible in the functioning of the Weaver and its components • Is aware of the state of the Weaver at any time – monitoring is real time and continuous • Provides means to instrument the Weaver and its components • Listens to events generated by the instrumented components e.g. he – events related to execution of the processing rules, – events related to scheduling of communication acts, – events related to the interaction with the editor and executer. • The events represent a rich source of knowledge which can facilitate profiling, optimization and reliability of the Weaver
    23. 23. Infrastructure – Weaver – Management and Monitoring component • Provides visualization, analysis and reporting based on monitored data • Enables easy interpretation of the data collected during instrumentation and 23 WP11 – Instrumentation and Monitoring
    24. 24. Infrastructure Weaver: -uni-set of tuples - execution engine - GUI - management and monitoring Channel Manager - Integrates Content Manager - Personalize - Import -Interacts - Export Contents -Describes Channels Channels 24
    25. 25. Infrastructure – Summary of Components and FunctionalitiesComponent Functionality1. Content Manager 1.1 Importer/Exporter imports and exports the content from/to external sources 1.2 Storage stores the content2. Chanel Manager integrates, personalize, interacts, describes channels3. Weaver 3.1 Execution Engine 3.1.1 Matchmaker matcheschannels and content 3.1.2 Rules evaluator and transforms content to fit into channels, extracted from the executer channels 3.1.3 Scheduler schedulesthe communication considering temporal constrains over multi-channels 3.1.4 Orchestrator orchestrates the interaction with an agent or process (editor or executer) 3.2 GUI supports the specification of the tuples that are defining the Weaver 3.3 Management and Monitoring monitors and manages the Weaver and its components 25
    26. 26. COMMUNICATION Communication • Active and reactive communication • Tracing the communication • Multi-channel switch • Multi-agent • Communication Patterns Multi-Channel Publishing Social Media Monitoring 26
    27. 27. Communication • Meaningful communication requires often more than just a single and isolated act of exchanging information. – It can be active or reactive (Dissemination versus SMM and its integration) – It has a trace, a history – It needs multi-channel switch – It is bi-directional and multi-agent – It is based on patterns of successful interaction styles (campaigning versus individual interaction, etc.) 27
    28. 28. Communication – Dissemination • Dissemination (from the Latin dissēminātus = “sowing seeds”, “scatter wildly in every direction”) refers to the process of broadcasting a message to the public without direct feedback from the audience • Takes on the view of the traditional view of communication which involves a sender and a receiver. • The message carrier sends out information to many in a broadcasting system (composed of more than one channels) • Harmsworth et al. (2000) define dissemination as “delivering and receiving of a message”, “the engagement of an individual in a process” and “the transfer of a process or product”. Image taken from:
    29. 29. Communication – Dissemination Classification of channels by the type of service they provide: 2.1. Static Broadcasting 2.2. Dynamic Broadcasting 2.3. Sharing 2.4. Collaboration 2.5. Group Communication 2.6. Semantic-based Communication Image taken from: 29
    30. 30. Communication – Dissemination Multi-Channel PublishingSource: 30
    31. 31. Communication – Social Media Monitoring • SMM tools facilitate the listening of what people say about various topics in the social media sphere (blogs, twitter, facebook, etc.) Listening: is active, focused, concentrated attention for the purpose of understanding the meanings expressed by a 31
    33. 33. Communication – Integration of Publication and Monitoring Communication • Active and reactive communication Multi-Channel Social Media Publishing 33
    34. 34. Example of ActiveCommunicationperformed by a hotelier on 34
    35. 35. Customerresponse to thehotel’s 35
    36. 36. Transmitter: guest at hotel Reactor: hotelierSource: 36
    37. 37. Communication – Trace Tracing a conversation through all channels involved is crucial for making communication effective and efficient, and is therefore required for Communication • Active and reactive communication • Tracing the communication  Communication has a history  The communication history IS the trace Multi-Channel Social Media  Communication must be Publishing Monitoring remembered otherwise it is 37
    38. 38. Communication – Multi-Channel Switch (Online) Communication is scattered over multiple, often very different channels. Communication • Active and reactive • Agents are challenged to communication • Tracing the communication disseminate information over all • Multi-channel switch appropriate channels. • Activities of all channels the agent is active in must be Multi-Channel Social Media monitored. Publishing Monitoring • Impact, Feedback and Responses need to be collected from all 38
    39. 39. Communication – Multi-Agent  Communication requires at least 2 agents: a speaker and Communication • Active and reactive communication a listener • Tracing the communication • Multi-channel switch  However, communication does • Multi-agent not occur in a void – thus the initial model may never occur in real life as there may always Multi-Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoring be more than one listener or more than one agent.  More agents may be required when the communication receives responses from multiple 39
    40. 40. Communication – Communication Patterns In software engineering, a design pattern is a general reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem within a given context in software design. A design pattern is not a finished design that can be transformed directly into code. It is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations. So patterns are formalized best practices that you must implement yourself in your application. Based on this definition of Software design patterns we introduce at this point the idea of the communication patterns. Software Communication Design Patterns 40
    41. 41. Communication – Communication Patterns • The communication patterns could be a way to facilitate the response phase of an enterprise. • A rich set of communication paradigms that address different types of issues by describing workflows of interaction with customers or potential customers. • It should be a dynamic set of patterns in the sense that it is being extended and altered continuously according to the needs of the customers and the nature of the issues that are 41
    42. 42. Communication – Communication 42
    43. 43. Communication – Communication Patterns The Who dimension •For any feedback item that is available, someone in the enterprise should be responsible to interact with the customer or the user that gave that feedback or disseminated something related to the brand, products and services of the enterprise. •It is crucial for the enterprise to respond via the appropriate employee to the user. To achieve this the enterprise should have a decent mechanism that could figure out in a semi-automatic way they needs of the user by relying on the content of user’s 43
    44. 44. Communication – Communication Patterns The What dimension • The What dimension mostly refers to the process of content adaptation. Content adaptation is the action of transforming content to adapt to the needs of the user. Thus, the responsible person (who is specified from the Who dimension) should be able to adapt the existing content, which is available and related to the user’s issue. • Furthermore, there are cases that the response should be different than a reply to the user. Various actions should be taken in order to support and help the 44
    45. 45. Communication – Communication Patterns The What dimension – Example scenario “Hotel” • A customer faces a problem with the hygiene of his room and tweets about that. • The listening procedures of the hotel capture that tweet and the administrator assigns the issue to the responsible person, who is dealing with the customer services. • The responsible employee contacts the customer at his room and asks him if is everything as it should be and in case there is any problem, they could fix it immediately. An alternative could be to contact the customer and propose him an inspection and a second cleaning session within the next minutes/hours to fix the issue that was publicly 45
    46. 46. Communication – Communication Patterns The Where dimension • The response of the enterprise to the content of the user, which was spread in the web sphere should be done not only via the appropriate person that could adapt the content in the right way, but it should be realized through the correct medium. • That could be the medium that was used by the user or any other way, which is considered to be more appropriate. • Moreover, there is the possibility to switch between the available mediums (social networks, phone, email, etc.) 46
    47. 47. Communication – Communication Patterns The When dimension • This parameter reflects the appropriate response time of the enterprise in the bi-directional communication with the user. • The enterprise should be ready enough in order to respond and support the users within the most efficient time span, which depends on the type of the input. • An hierarchy model is needed in order to sort the open issues according to the importance of the discussion for the enterprise. This depends on: – Popularity of the user in the action field of the enterprise – The importance of the issue – Existing data regarding the issue and the 47
    48. 48. Communication – Communication Patterns The Why dimension • The enterprise should have a set of criteria that could help them decide if a post in the web sphere should be taken in consideration and should be replied or not. • There are some types of posts that the enterprise does not gain any added value by responding. Some of the criteria could be: – Is that person an influencer and active in the area of the enterprise? – Does the post need a reply? (e.g. if it is an online discussion between 2 people, it would be annoying to pop-up in the discussion with the official account of the enterprise.) – Is there any decent answer to the problem or by jumping into the discussion it would be uncomfortable for the enterprise? 48
    49. 49. Communication – Summary of Components and FunctionalitiesComponent Functionality1. Tracer shows the history of communication over multiple channels involving multiple agents2. Multi-channel switch 2.1 Multi-channel publisher publishes content on multiple channels using the underlying Weaver component 2.2 Monitoring actively monitors multiple channels 2.3 Feedback and responsecollector collects and aggregates periodically feedback and responses from multiple channels 2.4 Impact analyzer measure the impact of the communication over multiple channels3. Multi-agent manager enables multiple agents support in the communication4. Communication patters library manages a set of commonly used communication patters 49
    50. 50. Communication • Active and reactive communication • Tracing the communication • Multi-channel switch • Multi-agent • Communication Patterns Multi-Channel Publishing Social Media 50
    51. 51. ENGAGEMENT Value-chain generation Engagement Crowdsourcing Workflow management 51
    52. 52. Engagement – Workflow management What is Workflow management? • A workflow consists of a sequence of concatenated (connected) steps*. • Workflow management refers to the process of assigning, tracking and responding to social media streams, usually in a team environment in order to prevent double responses and missed opportunities. It is crucial for an enterprise tool to promote team productivity through collaboration . * 52
    53. 53. Engagement – Crowdsourcing What is Crowdsourcing? • Crowdsourcing is the act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined, generally large group of people in the form of an open call. • The application of Open Source principles to fields outside of software. Howe (2008, 2009) 53
    54. 54. Engagement – Crowdsourcing Amazon Mechanical Turk • Amazon’s Mechanical Turk is a market in which anyone can post tasks to be completed and specify prices paid for completing them. • The inspiration of the system was to have users complete simple tasks that would otherwise be extremely difficult (if not impossible) for computers to perform. • A number of businesses use Mechanical Turk to source thousands of micro- tasks that require human intelligence, for example to identify objects in images, find relevant information, or to do natural language processing. • Mechanical Turk has more than 500,000 people in its workforce. Their median wage is about $1.40 an hour.* * 54
    55. 55. Engagement – Value-Chain generation “A value chain is a chain of activities for a firm operating in a specific industry. The business unit is the appropriate level for construction of a value chain, not the divisional level or corporate level. Products pass through all activities of the chain in order, and at each activity the product gains some value. The chain of activities gives the products more added value than the sum of the independent activities values.” 55
    56. 56. Engagement – Value-Chain generation • The value chain generation lays on top of the other layers (i.e. workflow management, crowdsourcing) and reflects the aim of the enterprise to monetize their activities through these layers. • The ultimate target for keeping the customers happy and engaged to the brand is to increase the revenue. Thus, it is important to have a layer on top of the communication that transforms long-term relationships into economic transactions and new opportunities for the enterprise. • For example, for a hotelier this layer could be the book-ability of his 56
    57. 57. Engagement– Summary of Components and FunctionalitiesComponent Functionality1. Workflow engine manages,executes and tracks the communication and engagement processes2. Crowdsourcing manager enables the definition and management of tasks related to communication and engagement; integrates with popular crowdsourcing platforms3. Value-chain integrator integrates the overall system with a value chain system such as for example a hotel booking engine 57
    58. 58. Value-chain generation Engagement Crowdsourcing Workflow 58
    59. 59. Summary Communication • Active and reactive communication • Tracing the communication • Multi-channel switch • Multi-agent Engagement • Communication Patterns Value-chain generation Crowdsourcing Multi-Channel Social Media Publishing Monitoring Workflow management 59
    60. 60. Domain Layer - eTourism • Top down: Instantiate this architecture for the touristic domain. • Bottom up: Extend current seekda stuff into the direction of SCAI • The domain specific instantiation is already a refinement of the SCAI - reference architecture (i.e., no longer a reference architecture) • In any case what needs to be done: – Evaluate the overall approach – Identify core components and their functionalities – Define their APIs and the control flow – Start to define a technical 60