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  • Dissemination

    1. 1. Multi-channel Publishing / Dissemination Carmen Brenner, Dieter Fensel, Andreea Gagiu, Birgit Leiter, Ioannis Stavrakantonakis©www.sti-innsbruck.at INNSBRUCK www.sti-innsbruck.at Copyright 2008 STI
    2. 2. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 2
    3. 3. Introduction • The Last 200 years have strongly revolutionized international transport and communication . • Fax, Phone and most of all the Internet have radically changed our communication possibilities. • More and more communication has been freed from geographical barriers that formerly limited their speed and expansion. • But new means also generate new challenges: – the number of channels has grown exponentially, – communication has changed from unilateral mode to an increasingly fully bilateral communication, – the contents of communication becomes more and more granularwww.sti-innsbruck.at 3
    4. 4. Introduction • Times where a Business unit communicates through only one or two channels with his customers have passed. (Potential) customers: – Search Information on your website – Send an email request – Get advised by a chat-agent – Visit your Business in person – Call your call center – Read your newsletter – Write to you on facebook – Retweet your comment on twitter – … • And the multi-channel monster is still growing!www.sti-innsbruck.at 4
    5. 5. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 5
    6. 6. What is Dissemination? • The vital importance of receiving, synthesizing and communicating online information is increasing dramatically in our current digital age. • Dissemination (from the Latin dissēminātus = ―sowing seeds‖, ―scatter wildly in every direction‖) refers to the process of broadcasting a message to the public without direct feedback from the audience. • Takes on the view of the traditional view of communication which involves a sender and a receiver. • The message carrier sends out information to many in a broadcasting system (composed of more than one channels). • Harmsworth et al. (2000) define dissemination as the ―delivering and receiving of a message‖, ―the engagement of an individual in a process‖ and ―the transfer of a process or product‖. Image taken from: http://nichcy.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/rsz_1rsz_dissemination2.jpgwww.sti-innsbruck.at 6
    7. 7. What is a dissemination channel? • ―In telecommunications and computer networking, a communication channel, or channel, refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel.‖ (Wikipedia Channel (communications), 2012) • A channel is a means of exchanging information in the on-line space; a ―place‖ where one can find or leave information, whether it is unanimously referred by a URI or addressed through a service. Image taken from: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 7
    8. 8. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 8
    9. 9. Why Do It? Purpose of Dissemination • Dissemination for Awareness – You wish people to be aware of the work of the project – Useful for those target audiences that do not require a detailed knowledge of the work and is helpful for them to be aware of your activities and results – Will help the ―word of mouth‖ type dissemination and help the organizer build an identity and profile within the community • Dissemination for Understanding – It is aimed at a specific number of groups/audiences that need to be targeted directly – Target audience that benefits from what your project has to offer and have a deeper understanding of the project‘s work • Dissemination for Action – ―Action‖ = change of practice resulting from the adoption of products, materials or approaches offered by the project – Target audience: people that are in the position to ―influence‖ and ―bring about change‖ within their organizations (have skills, knowledge and understanding of your work) Source: http://www.northampton.ac.uk/info/200267/pedagogic-research-and-scholarship/1068/disseminationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 9
    10. 10. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 10
    11. 11. How Is It Done? Components of Effective Dissemination Plan • Focus on the needs of the target audience and present in an appropriate manner (using appropriate language and information levels). • Include various dissemination methods, including written information, electronic media, and person-to-person contact. • Include both proactive and reactive dissemination channels • Leverage existing resources, relationships, and networks fully. • Include effective quality control mechanisms. • They include sufficient information so that the reader/user can determine the basic principles underlying specific practices and the settings in which these practices may be used most productively. • They establish links to resources that may be needed to implement the information.www.sti-innsbruck.at 11
    12. 12. Multi-Channel Publishing / Dissemination Overview 1. Introduction 2. What is dissemination? 3. Why do it? 4. How is it done? 5. Classification of Dissemination Channels 6. Pitfalls of dissemination 7. Measuring impact of dissemination 8. Summary Image taken from: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 12
    13. 13. Classification of Dissemination Channels Classified by the type of service they provide: • Static Broadcasting • Dynamic Broadcasting • Sharing • Collaboration • Social Networks • Internet Forums and Discussion Boards • Online Discussion Groups • Semantic-based Dissemination • Overview of Channels Image taken from: http://www.williamsclass.com/SixthScienceWork/Classification/ClassificationNotes/images/classify%20file%20cabinets.jpgwww.sti-innsbruck.at 13
    14. 14. Static Broadcasting • Prehistoric methods of dissemination: cave drawings, stories of triumphs on columns and arches, history on pyramids, stones with messages • More modern means: printed press, newspapers, journals • Online static dissemination: websites and homepages….www.sti-innsbruck.at 14
    15. 15. Static BroadcastingOnline Broadcasting – Static Websites Homepages / Static Websites • Powerful tool for reaching the target audience and promoting the project • Primarily used to provide information about the project and news of its activities and outcomes. • There is the temptation to present the information in order to ―wow‖ the visitor • BUT!: users tend to prefer good content in a simple, clear and easy-to navigate interface (Keep It Simple, Stupid!) • Although created through a collaborative process, Wiki websites can be considered static forms of online broadcasting as the information contained in them remains the same for long periods of time (i.e. the collaboration process is mostly employed for adding new data or editing/correcting existing one). • Wikipedia is an equally important channel that should be mentioned (although articles are created through a collaborative process) Image taken from: http://www.softicons.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 15
    16. 16. Static Broadcasting Homepage Example Static Website Example The same hotel mentioned on Wikitravel’s entry for Innsbruckwww.sti-innsbruck.at 16
    17. 17. Static Broadcasting Static Website ExampleEntry in Wikipedia for Hotel Goldener Adler www.sti-innsbruck.at 17
    18. 18. Static Broadcasting Static Website Example Entry in Wikipedia for Dieter Fenselwww.sti-innsbruck.at 18
    19. 19. Dynamic Broadcasting • Small piece of content that is dependent upon constraints such as time and location. • With Web 2.0 technologies have created dedicated means for publishing streams and interacting with content generated by users. • Blogs: pages where people present their ideas, views and opinions on a particular subject • News: pages where facts or factual information is provided • BUT: Producing high-quality content for a blog on a regularly basis is time-consuming and costly Image taken from: http://www.rgbstock.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 19
    20. 20. Dynamic Broadcasting Good practices: • Each new item has its own URL (in order to be bookmarked, shared, returned in search results, etc.) • Should contain a pointer to a more detailed description about the information items described; • Each new item is archived • Each new item can be indexed by search engines • Each new item is types (through the use of the information model) • Each new item is categorized (using folksonomy) • Each post can be directly shared, liked, added to favorites. • News can be searched for, sorted and filtered • Important news items stay at the top to highlight main announcements Source: http://oc.sti2.at/images/c/c7/STI_International_On-line_Communication_Handbook.pdfwww.sti-innsbruck.at 20
    21. 21. Dynamic Broadcasting Channels/Tools – An overview • Examples of tools (organized considering first the length of message and second – the level of interactivity): – News Feeds – Newsletters – Email / Email lists – Microblogs – Blogs – Social networks – Chat and instant messaging applicationswww.sti-innsbruck.at 21
    22. 22. Dynamic Broadcasting News Feeds • RSS (Rich Site Summary) Feeds: – a family of web feed formats used to deliver regularly changing web content. – Many websites and blogs offer users the option of subscribing to their RSS feed. – The content is syndicated automatically – the user does not have to visit each website manually – RSS Readers are available for different platforms: • PC readers: Amphetadesk, FeedReader, NewsGator • Web-based readers: My Yahoo, Bloglines, Google Reader – Includes full or summarized text, plus metadata (publishing dates and authorship) Image taken from: http://www.softicons.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 22
    23. 23. Dynamic Broadcasting News Feeds <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?> <rss version="2.0"> <channel> <title>RSS Title</title> <description>This is an example of an RSS feed</description> <link>http://www.someexamplerssdomain.com/main.html</link> <lastBuildDate>Mon, 06 Sep 2010 00:01:00 +0000 </lastBuildDate> <pubDate>Mon, 06 Sep 2009 16:45:00 +0000 </pubDate> <ttl>1800</ttl> <item> <title>Example entry</title> <description>Here is some text containing an interesting description.</description> <link>http://www.wikipedia.org/</link> <guid>unique string per item</guid> <pubDate>Mon, 06 Sep 2009 16:45:00 +0000 </pubDate> </item> </channel> </rss>www.sti-innsbruck.at 23
    24. 24. Dynamic Broadcasting Newsletters • The newsletter is an instrument used to regularly exchange information among the members of a community • It constitutes the primary means of collecting and spreading the results achieved through network activities. • The main objectives of the Newsletter are: – to report the main activities promoted and undertaken – to widely disseminate information about published papers (position papers, state of the art reviews) of researchers involved in the network. • Website users have the possibility to subscribe to the Newsletter and automatically receive each issue in their mailbox. • Users should have the option of subscribing and unsubscribingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 24
    25. 25. Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 25
    26. 26. Dynamic Broadcasting Email/Email lists • Email: means of exchanging digital messages from a sender to one or multiple recipients • (Electronic) Mailing lists: collection of names and (email) addresses used to send material to multiple recipients. – Announcement lists (Newsletters, periodicals, advertising – used primarily as a one-way conduit of information and can be ―posted to‖ by selected people) vs. Discussion lists (any subscriber can post) – Can be self-hosted (e.g. GNU Mailman) or third-party hosted (as part of notifications for Google groups, Yahoo! Groups ) – Requires users to subscribe to the list.www.sti-innsbruck.at 26
    27. 27. Dynamic Broadcasting Email/Email lists • Well established means for dissemination within a predetermined group • Requires members to subscribe to a mailing list • Since email lists are mostly not accessible to a wider audience, they should be ignored for external use and focus should be primarily on external means of communication • Email is a good method of sharing information on a one-to-one basis (e.g. mail this website to a friend) • Despite their obvious strength, in the age of information overload and spam, mailing lists will not perform efficiently if they are not carefully targeted and offer recipients the option to subscribe/ unsubscribe whenever they wish. • Note!: there are legal requirements associated with the possibility to subscribe/unsubscribe and the storage of and access to personal data [European Commission, n.d.]www.sti-innsbruck.at 27
    28. 28. Dynamic Broadcasting Microblogging • Broadcast medium similar to blogs • The difference between microblogging and an actual blog is in the size of the content in both actual and aggregate files. • The actual messages are called microposts. • Commercial microblogs exist to promote websites, services, products or collaboration within an organization. • Can contain a wide range of topics. • Low effort to participate.www.sti-innsbruck.at 28
    29. 29. Dynamic Broadcasting Microblogging • Twitter – Social networking service and microblogging service – users can send messages of a maximum length of 140 characters, follow other users, and create interest lists. – Widely used means of dissemination – Significant space limitations: 140 characters or less – Twitts are publicly visible by default (senders can restrict the access control) – Users can tweet using the website, external APIs or SMS – The service is free – Users may subscribe to other users tweets – this is known as following and subscribers are known as followers or tweepswww.sti-innsbruck.at 29
    30. 30. Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 30
    31. 31. Dynamic Broadcasting Microblogging • Tumblr – Tumblr is a microblogging platform and social networking website. – It is owned and operated by Tumblr, Inc. – It allows users to post multimedia and other content to a short-form blog, named a "tumblelog". – Users can follow other users blogs, as well as make their blogs private.www.sti-innsbruck.at 31
    32. 32. Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 32
    33. 33. Dynamic Broadcasting Blogs • Alternatively called web logs or weblogs • A weblog is a hierarchy of text, images, media objects and data, arranged chronologically, that can be viewed in an HTML browser. * • In some situations, it is the creator‘s online journal. • The activity of updating a blog is ―blogging‖ and someone who keeps a blog is a ―blogger.‖ • Items are posted on a regular basis and displayed in reverse chronological order. • Individual articles on a blog are called ―blog posts,‖ ―posts‖ or ―entries‖. • Blogs are usually (but not always) written by one person and are updated pretty regularly. • Blogs are often (but not always) written on a particular topic. *http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/whatmakesaweblogaweblog.html Images taken from: http://www.softicons.comwww.sti-innsbruck.at 33
    34. 34. Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 34
    35. 35. Dynamic Broadcasting Using Social Networks • Social network content is dynamic in the sense that it provides information that will expire after a period of time and be important only for that period and moment; • However, as it focuses more on creating communities than on the temporal and geospatial aspect of the information, it will be discussed in detail in Section 4.5.www.sti-innsbruck.at 35
    36. 36. Dynamic Broadcasting Chat Applications • one-to-one basis • Instant method of communication • Text-based chat, video chat, one vs. multiple receivers, web-based etc. • Can be applied to a small number of people (it does not scale well for large groups – it is impossible to follow who is discussion when more than one member of the discussion group is writing/typing simultaneously) • It is not useful as a method of dissemination due to its instant and intrusive nature • In order to be used as a dissemination method, the user must add the message sender to the contact listwww.sti-innsbruck.at 36
    37. 37. Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 37
    38. 38. Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 38
    39. 39. Dynamic Broadcastingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 39
    40. 40. Dynamic Broadcasting … and many morewww.sti-innsbruck.at 40
    41. 41. Sharing • There are a large number of Web 2.0 websites that support the sharing of information items such as: bookmarks, images, slides, and videos, etc. • Provided by hosting services (images, videos, slides are stored on a server)www.sti-innsbruck.at 41
    42. 42. Sharing • Can use specialized applications (see below) of features of other platforms and services (e.g. share photos through Facebook) • Examples: – Flickr – as a means of exchanging photos, visible to all users (no account necessary), allows users to post comments; – Slideshare – channel for storing and exchanging presentations; – YouTube and VideoLectures – sharing videos, all users can see the posted videos and leave comments on the websites – Social Bookmark sites: e.g. delicious, digg, StumbleUpon – Social News websites: e.g. redditwww.sti-innsbruck.at 42
    43. 43. SharingSlide Sharing slideshare • Launched in 2006 • Is a Web 2.0 based slide hosting service • Users can upload files privately or publicly as: PowerPoint, PDF, Keynote or OpenOffice presentations • Slide decks can then be viewed on the site itself, on hand held devices or embedded on other sites • SlideShare also provides users the ability to rate, comment on, and share the uploaded contentwww.sti-innsbruck.at 43
    44. 44. Sharingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 44
    45. 45. SharingPicture Sharing flickr • Launched in 2004, and acquired by Yahoo! in 2005 • Image and video hosting website, web services suite and online community • It is a popular website for users to share and embed personal photographs • It is a service widely used by bloggers to host images that they embed in blogs and social media • features: – accounts, groups and access control – organization (based on tags added on the pictures), – organizr (web application for organizing photos within an account that can be accessed through the Flikr interface), – picnik (default photo editor in a partnership with Picnik online photo-editing application), access control, – interaction and compatibility with other applications (e.g. RSS and Atom feeds) – filtering (lets members specify by default what types of images they generally upload and how "safe" the images are), – licensing, map sources (georgraphic locations), account-undelete option (reverse an account rermination)www.sti-innsbruck.at 45
    46. 46. Sharingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 46
    47. 47. SharingVideo Sharing YouTube • Video-sharing website where users can upload, view and share videos • Features – Video technology: Playback (re-watch a video), Uploading (up to 15 min), Quality and codecs and 3D videos – Content accessibility - view videos on web pages outside the site – Localization - adaptability to different languages, regional differences and technical requirementswww.sti-innsbruck.at 47
    48. 48. SharingVideo Sharing Videolectures • Launched in 2007 • VideoLectures.NET is a free and open access educational video lectures repository. • The lectures are given by distinguished scholars and scientists at the most important and prominent events such as conferences, summer schools, workshops and science promotional events from many scientific fields. • The portal is aimed at promoting science, exchanging ideas and fostering knowledge sharing by providing high quality, didactic contents not only to the scientific community but also to the general public. • All lectures, accompanying documents, information and links are systematically selected and classified through the editorial process whilst taking into account users comments.www.sti-innsbruck.at 48
    49. 49. Sharingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 49
    50. 50. SharingSocial Bookmarking • Is a method for Internet users to organize, store, manage and search for bookmarks of resources online. • Descriptions may be added to these bookmarks in the form of metadata, so users may understand the content of the resource without first needing to download it for themselves. • The resources themselves arent shared, merely bookmarks that reference them. • Social bookmarking is particularly useful when collecting a set of resources that are to be shared with others. • Anyone can participate in social bookmarking.www.sti-innsbruck.at 50
    51. 51. SharingSocial Bookmarking delicious • Founded in 2003 • Is a social bookmarking web service for storing, sharing, and discovering web bookmarks. • Characterized by a non-hierarchical classification system in which users can tag each of their bookmarks with the desired index terms (which generates a kind of folksonomy) • A combined view of everyones bookmarks with a given tag is available; • The most important links or popular ones can be seen on the home page, "popular" and "recent" pages • All bookmarks are publicly viewable by default - the public aspect is emphasized the site is not focused on storing private bookmark collections • But users have the ability to mark some as private and imported ones are private by defaultwww.sti-innsbruck.at 51
    52. 52. Sharingwww.sti-innsbruck.at 52
    53. 53. SharingSocial Bookmarking digg • Launched in 2004 • User-driven social content website • After a user submits content, other users read their submission and "Digg" what they like best • Allows users to vote stories up or down (called digging and burying, respectively) • If a story receives enough Diggs, it is promoted to the first pagewww.sti-innsbruck.at 53
    54. 54. SharingSocial Bookmarking StumbleUpon • Launched in 2001 • Is a discovery engine that finds and recommends web content to its users • StumbleUpon uses collaborative filtering (an automated process combining human opinions with machine learning of personal preference) to create virtual communities of like-minded Web surfers. • Rating Web sites update a personal profile (a blog-style record of rated sites) and generate peer networks of Web surfers linked by common interest. • These social networks coordinate the distribution of Web content, so that users "stumble upon" pages explicitly recommended by friends and peers. • Giving a site a thumbs up results in the site being placed under the users "favorites".www.sti-innsbruck.at 54
    55. 55. SharingSocial Bookmarking reddit • Is a social news website where the registered users submit content, in the form of either a link or a text "self" post. • Other users then vote the submission "up" or "down," which is used to rank the post and determine its position on the sites pages and front page. • In December 2011, Reddit served just over 2 billion page views to almost 35 million visitors * http://www.businessinsider.com/the-secret-to-reddits-astounding-success-an-easy-customization-process-you-should-copy-2012-1www.sti-innsbruck.at 55
    56. 56. Collaboration Wiki • ―Wiki‖ = Hawaiian word for ―fast‖ of ―quick‖. • Described by the developer of the first wiki software, Ward Cunningham, as the ―simplest online database that could possibly work‖*. • Websites whose users can add, modify or delete content via a web browser using simplified markup language or a rich-text editor. • Are powered by wiki software. • Most of the content is created collaboratively. • Promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended page exists or not. • It seeks to involve the visitor in an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site landscape • However – once created the information remains static until another user edits or deletes it. *http://www.wiki.org/wiki.cgi?WhatIsWiki 56www.sti-innsbruck.at
    57. 57. Collaboration Example Wiki Biggest online free encyclopediawww.sti-innsbruck.at 57
    58. 58. Collaboration Google Docs • Is a free, Web-based office suite and data storage service • It allows users to create and edit documents online while collaborating in real-time with other users. • Google Docs combines the features of Writely and Spreadsheets with a presentation program incorporating technology designed by Tonic Systems. • Data storage of files up to 1 GB total in size was introduced on January 13, 2010, but has since been increased to 10 GB, documents using Google Docs native formats do not count towards this quota. • Its main features rely on storage, file limits, and supported file formatswww.sti-innsbruck.at 58
    59. 59. Collaboration Ether Pad • Launched in 2008 • EtherPad web service allows real-time document collaboration for groups and teams. • Etherpad can be re-branded with your own domain and company name. • Acquired by Google – the servers are downwww.sti-innsbruck.at 59
    60. 60. Social Networks • Provide a community aspect, i.e. forms a community that shares information in a multi-directional way • Common features (regardless of platform): – construct a public/semi-public profile; – articulate list of other users that they share a connection with; – view the list of connections within the system • Some sites allow users to upload pictures, add multimedia content or modify the look and feel of the profile • Social networks typically offer more than one channel of dissemination (thus they will be considered platforms with many available dissemination channels): – Facebook: Pages, Groups, Share options – LinkedIn and Xing are focused on professional use and fit the purpose of organizationswww.sti-innsbruck.at 60
    61. 61. Social Network Facebook • Facebook is a social networking service and website; • Launched in February 2004 • It is owned and operated by Facebook, Inc. • As of May 2012 has over 900 million active users* • More than half are using mobile devices* • Users must register before using the services. • Users can create a personal profile, add friends, exchange messages, chat (the company has also launched a separate instant messaging service), receive automatic notifications, take part in games, etc. * http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/15/technology/facebook-needs-to-turn-data-trove-into-investor-gold.html?_r=1www.sti-innsbruck.at 61
    62. 62. Social Networkwww.sti-innsbruck.at 62
    63. 63. Social Network Google+ • Launched in 2011 • Social networking and identity service owned and operated by Google Inc • Integrates social services such as Google Profiles • Introduces new services such as Circles, Hangouts and Sparks • Share photos, videos, links, or anything else that‘s on your mind. • Users can share using the share box on any Google site or +1 buttons across the web.www.sti-innsbruck.at 63
    64. 64. Social Networkwww.sti-innsbruck.at 64
    65. 65. Social Network LinkedIn • Founded in December 2002 • LinkedIn is the world‘s largest professional network • It has over 120 million members • LinkedIn connects users to their trusted contacts • Helps users exchange knowledge, ideas, and opportunities with a broader network of professionals. • It allows users to search, keep in touch and extend their networks of professionalswww.sti-innsbruck.at 65
    66. 66. Social Networkwww.sti-innsbruck.at 66
    67. 67. Social Network Xing • Social and business networking tool for professionals with over 8 million users; • Initially established as Open business Club AG in August 2003 in Germany; name was changed to Xing in November 2006 • Main competitor is LinkedIn • Seems to attract more small business and independent business owners than its competitors • Basic membership is free • The platform uses https and has a rigid privacy and no-spam policy.www.sti-innsbruck.at 67
    68. 68. Social Networkwww.sti-innsbruck.at 68
    69. 69. Social Network • Market share for December 2011 (according to ComScore): Worldwide Unique Visitors Percentage Facebook.com 792,999,000 55.1 % Twitter.com 167,903,000 11.7 % LinkedIn.com 94,823,000 6.6 % Google+ 66,756,000 4.6 % MySpace 61,037,000 4.2 % Others 255,539,000 17.8 % Total 1,438,877,000 100 % http://techcrunch.com/2011/12/22/googlesplus/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Techcrunch+%28TechCrunch%29www.sti-innsbruck.at 69
    70. 70. Internet Forums and Discussion Boards • Web applications managing user-generated content • Early forums can be described as a web version of an email list or newsgroup • Internet forums are prevalent in several countries: Japan, China • Are governed by a set of rules • Users have a specific designated role, e.g. moderator, administrator • The unit of communication is the post • Common features – Tripcodes and capcodes - a secret password is added to the users name following a separator character – Private message – Attachment – BBCode and HTML – Emoticon or smiley to convey emotion – Poll – RSS and ATOM feeds – Other forum featureswww.sti-innsbruck.at 70
    71. 71. Internet Forums and Discussion Boardswww.sti-innsbruck.at 71
    72. 72. Online Discussion Groups • Many-to-many • Threaded conversations • Usually created on a particular topic • Have different access levels • Better for disseminating within a group that shares common interests as the purpose of the services is to enable collaboration, knowledge and information sharing and open discussions • Examples: Google Groups, Facebook Groups, Yahoo! Groups, LinkedIn Groups, Xing Groups. • Similar in many ways to Discussion boards and Internet Forumswww.sti-innsbruck.at 72
    73. 73. Online Discussion Groups Google Groups • Not a common forum software • Includes an archive of Usenet news group postings dating back t o 1981 • Strongly focuses on the concept of mailing list - Can have parallel mailing lists (can use Google groups to archive another mailing list, such as Yahoo Groups) • Need a Google account to access groups or post messages; • What can be shared: there‘s a limit of 25MB including attachments/ group • Joining a group: Invitation or request. Owners can make an opt-out issue by inviting members directly through their email address • Notifications: – No email: read group postings only online – Abridged Email: one summary email of new activity/day – Digest Email: get up to 25 full messages in a single email – Email: send each message to me as it arrives • Noise: the level of noise is dependent on the managers; • Fully integrated with Google products : Google Calendars, Google Docs, Google Siteswww.sti-innsbruck.at 73
    74. 74. Online Discussion Groupswww.sti-innsbruck.at 74
    75. 75. Online Discussion Groups Yahoo! Groups • Yahoo! Groups is one of the world‘s largest collections of online discussion boards. • Group messages can be read and posted by e-mail or on the Groups webpage like a web forum. • Members can choose whether to receive individual, daily digest or Special Delivery e- mails, or simply read Group posts on the Group‘s web site • Groups can be created with public or member-only access. • Yahoo! Groups service provides additional facilities for each Group web site, such as a homepage, message archive, polls, calendar • announcements, files, photos, database functions, and bookmarkswww.sti-innsbruck.at 75
    76. 76. Online Discussion Groups Facebook Groups • Create a private space (group) to share – Post updates, questions, photos; – Chat with the group; – Create share docs – Schedule group events • Members can stay in touch using: – Notifications regarding new posts and updates – The group‘s shared email address to connect off Facebookwww.sti-innsbruck.at 76
    77. 77. Online Discussion Groups Facebook Groups• Pages allow real organizations, businesses, • Groups provide a closed space for small groups celebrities and brands to communicate of people to communicate about shared broadly with people who like them. interests.• Pages may only be created and managed by • Groups can be created by anyone. official representatives. • Privacy: groups offer three levels of control over• Privacy: information and posts are public and shared information: open, closed and secret. In generally available to everyone on Facebook. secret and closed groups, posts are only visible• Audience: to group members. – Anyone can like a Page to become connected • Audience: with it and get News Feed updates. – Group members must be approved or added by – There is no limit to how many people can like a other members. Page. – When a group reaches a certain size, some – Visitor statistics features are limited (e.g. chat).• Communication: – The most useful groups tend to be the ones you create with small groups of people you know. – Page admins can share posts under the Page‘s name. • Communication: – Page posts appear in the News Feed of people – In groups, members receive notifications by default who like the Page. when any member posts in the group. – Page admins can also create customized apps – Group members can participate in chats, upload for their Pages and check Page Insights to track photos to shared albums, collaborate on group the Page‘s growth and activity. docs, and invite all members to group events. Groups: smaller number of people. Pages: large number of followers www.sti-innsbruck.at 77
    78. 78. Online Discussion Groups LinkedIn • Discover the most popular discussions. • Take an active part in determining the top discussions by liking and commenting. • Follow the most influential people in your groups by checking the Top Influencers board or clicking their profile image to see all their group activity. • Review new members or search for specific ones. • See both member-generated discussions and news in one setting. • Easily browse previews of the last three comments in a discussion. • Find interesting discussions by seeing who liked a discussion and how many people commented.www.sti-innsbruck.at 78
    79. 79. Online Discussion Groups Xing • Social and business networking tool for professionals with over 8 million users; • Initially established as Open business Club AG in August 2003 in Germany; name was changed to Xing in November 2006 • Main competitor is LinkedIn • Seems to attract more small business and independent business owners than its competitors • Basic membership is free • The platform uses https and has a rigid privacy and no-spam policy.www.sti-innsbruck.at 79
    80. 80. Online Discussion Groups Tool Website Description Meetup www.meetup.com Meetup is an online social networking portal that facilitates offline group meetings in various localities around the world [Wiki]. GroupSpaces groupspaces.com GroupSpaces (styled groupspaces) is a London-based online company that provides technology to help real-world clubs, societies, associations and other groups manage their membership and activities, and promote themselves online [Wiki]. Windows Live groups.live.com Windows Live Groups is an online service by Microsoft as part of its Groups Windows Live range of services that enable users to create their social groups for sharing, discussion and coordination [Wiki].www.sti-innsbruck.at 80
    81. 81. Online Discussion GroupsCharacteristics Google Groups Yahoo Groups Facebook Groups LinkedIn Xing Groups GroupsForums Yes Yes Yes Yes YesChat Threaded Yes Yes (max 250 No No conversation members)Shared email Yes Yes Yes No NoUpload content (documents, Not part of Yes Yes Via weblinks Yesimages, videos) groups Google DocsMaximum Storage 25 MB posts and 200 MB Unlimited -- 2 MB attachmentsIntegrate external content Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes(RSS feeds)Notifications Customizable: no Email Email, FB Email, http email, abridged, notifications bundled newsletter digest, emailSearch features Google Search / Yahoo search, Not a separate Advanced - Advanced Directory Search separate group function (Facebook search for search classic search), group, clumsy and no member, group suggestion event www.sti-innsbruck.at 81
    82. 82. Social Network vs. Online Discussion Groups • ODG have a limited number of members; • ODG are intended for a smaller number of people to collaborate (Facebook places the number at 250 members); • ODG have a specific purpose – a goal that unites all members, i.e. a discussion topic. • In ODG the number of members and the ideas of the members are known to all participants. • ODG have a creator/owner recognized by all members; • ODG follow a set of rules determined by the administrator, moderator or owner; • In ODG members may have different roles: administrator, moderator, owner, participant, etc.www.sti-innsbruck.at 82
    83. 83. Social Network vs. Online Discussion Groups • Moderators and administrators ensure that the ODG‘s internal code of conduct is followed; • In ODG all members have access to the same shared resources; • ODG members do not have to be connected with the other members (other than the group) to communicate • SN vary in size and heterogeneity; • In SN different members have access to different resources (e.g. some members might have restricted access to a friend‘s photo archive); • In SN members do not know how many participant exist, or who they are;www.sti-innsbruck.at 83
    84. 84. Semantic Based Dissemination What is semantic web? • An extension of the current web in which information is given a well defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 84
    85. 85. Semantic Based Dissemination Why use semantics? • Problems with current day search engines: – Recall issues – Results are dependent on the vocabulary – Results are single Web pages – Human involvement is necessary for result interpretation – Results of Web searches are not readily accessible by other software tools • Content is not machine-readable: – It is difficult to distinguish between: ―I am a professor of computer science.‖ and ―You may think, I am a professor of computer science. Well, actually. . .‖www.sti-innsbruck.at 85
    86. 86. Semantic Based Dissemination The Semantic Web Approach • Represent Web content in a form that is more easily machine-processable. • Use intelligent techniques to take advantage of these representations. • Knowledge will be organized in conceptual spaces according to its meaning. • Automated tools for maintenance and knowledge discovery • Semantic query answering • Query answering over several documents • Defining who may view certain parts of information (even parts of documents) will be possible. • Semantic Web does not rely on text-based manipulation, but rather on machine- processable metadatawww.sti-innsbruck.at 86
    87. 87. Semantic Based Disseminationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 87
    88. 88. Semantic Based Dissemination Implementations – Rich Snippets • Implementation realization of an application, plan, idea, model, or design. • Snippets—the few lines of text that appear under every search result—are designed to give users a sense for what‘s on the page and why it‘s relevant to their query. • If Google understands the content on your pages, we can create rich snippets— detailed information intended to help users with specific queries.www.sti-innsbruck.at 88
    89. 89. Semantic Based Dissemination Overview Format e.g. RDFa Implementation e.g. OWLIM Vocabulary e.g. foafwww.sti-innsbruck.at 89
    90. 90. Semantic Based Dissemination • A (Semantic Web) vocabulary can be considered as a special form of (usually light- weight) ontology, or sometimes also merely as a collection of URIs with an (usually informally) described meaning*. – URI = uniform resource identifier – Semantic vocabularies include: FOAF, Dublin Core, Good Relations, etc. • Format is an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, or service. – The most known examples are RDF and OWL. • Implementation realization of an application, plan, idea, model, or design. – OWLIM - a family of semantic repositories, or RDF database management system * http://semanticweb.org/wiki/Ontologywww.sti-innsbruck.at 90
    91. 91. Semantic Based Dissemination Format • an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, or service. • is an encoded format for converting a specific type of data to displayable information.www.sti-innsbruck.at 91
    92. 92. Semantic Based Dissemination Methods of describing Web content: RDFs 1998 RDF 1999 RDFa 2004 Microformats 2005HTML Meta OWL Elements 2007 SPARQL 2008 OWL 2 2009 RIF 2010 Microdata 2011www.sti-innsbruck.at 92
    93. 93. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – HTML Meta Elements • HTML or XHTML elements which provide structured metadata about a Web page • Represented using the <meta...> element • Can be used to specify page description, keywords and any other metadata not provided through the other head elements and attributes • Example: <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html" >www.sti-innsbruck.at 93
    94. 94. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – HTML Meta Elements • Search engine optimization attributes: keywords, description, language, robots – keywords attribute - although popular in the 90s, search engine providers realized that information stored in meta elements (especially the keywords attribute) was often unreliable and misleading, or created to draw users towards spam sites – description attribute - provides concise explanation of a Web pages content – the language attribute - tells search engines what natural language the website is written in – the robots attribute - controls whether or not search engine spiders are allowed to index a page, and whether or not they should follow links from a pagewww.sti-innsbruck.at 94
    95. 95. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – HTML Meta Elements • Example - metadata contained by www.wikipedia.org: <meta charset="utf-8"> <meta name="title" content="Wikipedia"> <meta name="description" content="Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia that anyone can edit."> <meta name="author" content="Wikimedia Foundation"> <meta name="copyright" content="Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 and GNU Free Documentation License"> <meta name="publisher" content="Wikimedia Foundation"> <meta name="language" content="Many"> <meta name="robots" content="index, follow"> <!--[if lt IE 7]> <meta http-equiv="imagetoolbar" content="no"> <![endif]--> <meta name="viewport" content="initial-scale=1.0, user-scalable=yes">www.sti-innsbruck.at 95
    96. 96. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDFa • Is a W3C Recommendation that adds a set of attribute-level extensions to XHTML for embedding rich metadata within Web documents. • Adds a set of attribute-level extensions to XHTML enabling the embedding of RDF triples; • Integrates best with the W3C meta data stack built on top of RDF • Benefits [Wikipedia RDFa, n.d.]: – Publisher independence: each website can use its own standards; – Data reuse: data is not duplicated - separate XML/HTML sections are not required for the same content; – Self containment: HTML and RDF are separated; – Schema modularity: attributes are reusable; – Evolv-ability: additional fields can be added and XML transforms can extract the semantics of the data from an XHTML file; – Web accessibility: more information is available to assistive technology. • Disadvantage: the uptake of the technology is hampered by the web- master‘s lack of familiarity with this technology stackwww.sti-innsbruck.at 96
    97. 97. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDFa • RDFa Attributes: – about and src – a URI or CURIE specifying the resource the metadata is about – rel and rev – specifying a relationship or reverse-relationship with another resource – href and resource – specifying the partner resource – property – specifying a property for the content of an element – content – optional attribute that overrides the content of the element when using the property attribute – datatype – optional attribute that specifies the datatype of text specified for use with the property attribute – typeof – optional attribute that specifies the RDF type(s) of the subject (the resource that the metadata is about).www.sti-innsbruck.at 97
    98. 98. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDFa • Example <div xmlns:dc=http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ about="http://www.example.com/books/wikinomics"> <span property="dc:title">Wikinomics</span> <span property="dc:creator">Don Tapscott</span> <span property="dc:date">2006-10-01</span> </div>www.sti-innsbruck.at 98
    99. 99. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL • Family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies • WebOnt developed OWL language • OWL based on earlier languages OIL and DAML+OIL • Characterized by formal semantics and RDF/XML- based serializations for the Semantic Web • Endorsed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 2003www.sti-innsbruck.at 99
    100. 100. Semantic Based Dissemination OWL Sublanguages • The W3C-endorsed OWL specification includes the definition of three variants of OWL, with different levels of expressiveness (ordered by increasing expressiveness): – OWL Lite - originally intended to support those users primarily needing a classification hierarchy and simple constraints Each of these sublanguage – OWL DL - was designed to provide the maximum expressiveness is a syntactic extension of possible while retaining computational completeness, decidability, and the availability of practical reasoning algorithms. its simpler predecessor. – OWL Full - designed to preserve some compatibility with RDF Schema • The following set of relations hold. Their inverses do not. – Every legal OWL Lite ontology is a legal OWL DL ontology. – Every legal OWL DL ontology is a legal OWL Full ontology. – Every valid OWL Lite conclusion is a valid OWL DL conclusion. – Every valid OWL DL conclusion is a valid OWL Full conclusion. • Development of OWL Lite tools has thus proven almost as difficult as development of tools for OWL DL, and OWL Lite is not widely used Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 2003www.sti-innsbruck.at 100
    101. 101. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL • Class Axioms – oneOf (enumerated classes) – disjointWith – sameClassAs applied to class expressions – rdfs:subClassOf applied to class expressions • Boolean Combinations of Class Expressions – unionOf – intersectionOf – complementOf • Arbitrary Cardinality – minCardinality – maxCardinality – cardinality • Filler Information – hasValue Descriptions can include specific value information Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 2003www.sti-innsbruck.at 101
    102. 102. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL • Example: <owl:Class> <owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType=" collection"> <owl:Class rdf:about="#Person"/> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasChild"/> <owl:allValuesFrom> <owl:unionOf rdf:parseType=" collection"> <owl:Class rdf:about="#Doctor"/> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource="#hasChild"/> <owl:someValuesFrom rdf:resource="#Doctor"/> </owl:Restriction> </owl:unionOf> </owl:allValuesFrom> </owl:Restriction> </owl:intersectionOf> </owl:Class> Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 2003www.sti-innsbruck.at 102
    103. 103. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL 2 • Extends OWL 1 • Inherits OWL 1 language features • Makes some patterns easier to write • Does not change expressiveness, semantics and complexity • Provides more efficient processing in implementations • Syntactic sugar: – DisjointUnion - Union of a set of classes; all the classes are pairwise disjoint – DisjointClasses - A set of classes; all the classes are pairwise disjoint – NegativeObjectPropertyAssertion - Two individuals; a property does not hold between them – NegativeDataPropertyAssertion - An individual; a literal; a property does not hold between them • OWL 2 allows the same identifiers (URIs) to denote individuals, classes, and properties • Interpretation depends on context • A very simple form of meta-modelling Source: McGuinness, COGNA October 3, 2003www.sti-innsbruck.at 103
    104. 104. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL 2 • New constructs for properties: – Self restriction: Classes of objects that are related to themselves by a given property – Qualified cardinality restriction: Qualifies the instances to be counted – Object properties – Disjoint properties – Property chain: Properties can be defined as a composition of other properties – keys • An OWL 2 profile (commonly called a fragment or a sublanguage in computational logic) is a trimmed down version of OWL 2 that trades some expressive power for the efficiency of reasoning. • OWL 2 profiles – OWL 2 EL is particularly useful in applications employing ontologies that contain very large numbers of properties and/or classes. – OWL 2 QL is aimed at applications that use very large volumes of instance data, and where query answering is the most important reasoning task – OWL 2 RL is aimed at applications that require scalable reasoning without sacrificing too much expressive power. • OWL 2 profiles are defined by placing restrictions on the structure of OWL 2 ontologies. Source: http://semwebprogramming.org/?p=175www.sti-innsbruck.at 104
    105. 105. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – OWL 2 • Example property chains in OWL2: Declaration( ObjectProperty( :isEmployedAt ) ) ObjectPropertyAssertion( :isEmployedAt :Martin :SC ) SubObjectPropertyOf( ObjectPropertyChain( :isEmployedAt :isPartOf ) :isEmployedAt) ObjectPropertyAssertion( :isEmployedAt :Martin :ICS ) ObjectPropertyAssertion( :isEmployedAt :Martin :MU ) Source: http://dior.ics.muni.cz/~makub/owl/www.sti-innsbruck.at 105
    106. 106. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RIF • A collection of dialects (rigorously defined rule languages) • Intended to facilitate rule sharing and exchange • RIF framework is a set of rigorous guidelines for constructing RIF dialects in a consistent manner • The RIF framework includes several aspects: – Syntactic framework – Semantic framework – XML framework • RIF can be used to map between vocabularies (one of the proposed use cases) Source: Michael Kifer State University of New York at Stony Brookwww.sti-innsbruck.at 106
    107. 107. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RIF • The standard RIF dialects are: – Core - the fundamental RIF language. It is designed to be the common subset of most rule engines. (It provides "safe" positive datalog with builtins.) – BLD (Basic Logic Dialect) - adds a few things that Core doesnt have: logic functions, equality in the then-part, and named arguments. (This is positive Horn logic, with equality and builtins.) – PRD (Production Rules Dialect) - adds a notion of forward-chaining rules, where a rule fires and then performs some action, such as adding more information to the store or retracting some information. • Although RIF dialects were designed primarily for interchange, each dialect is a standard rule language and can be used even when portability and interchange are not required. • The XML syntax is the only one defined as a standard for interchange. Various presentation syntaxes are used in the specification, but they are not recommended for sending between different systems. Source: http://www.w3.org/2005/rules/wiki/RIF_FAQ#What_is_RIF-BLD.3F__.28and_RIF-Core.2C_PRD.2C_FLD.29www.sti-innsbruck.at 107
    108. 108. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RIF • A simplified example of RIF-Core rules combined with OWL to capture anatomical knowledge that can be used to help label brain cortex structures in MRI images. Source: http://www.w3.org/2005/rules/wiki/Modeling_Brain_Anatomywww.sti-innsbruck.at 108
    109. 109. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microformats • Directly use meta tags of XHTML to embed semantic information in web documents; • Microformats were developed as a competing approach directly using some existing HTML tags to include meta data in HTML documents • As of 2010, microformats allow the encoding and extraction of events, contact information, social relationships and so on • Advantages: – you can publish a single, human readable version of your information in HTML and then make it machine readable with the addition of a few standard class names – No need to learn another language – Easy to add • However: they overload the class tag which causes problems for some parsers as it makes semantic information and styling markup hard to differentiatewww.sti-innsbruck.at 109
    110. 110. Semantic Based Dissemination Format - Microformats • Example <ul class="vcard"> <li class="fn">Joe Doe</li> <li class="org">The Example Company</li> <li class="tel">604-555-1234</li> <li><a class="url“ href="http://example.com/">http://example.com/</a></li> </ul>www.sti-innsbruck.at 110
    111. 111. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microdata • Use HTML5 elements to include semantic descriptions into web documents aiming to replace RDFa and Microformats. • Introduce new tag attributes to include semantic data into HTML • Unless you know that your target consumer only accepts RDFa, you are probably best going with microdata. • While many RDFa-consuming services (such as the semantic search engine Sindice) also accept microdata, microdata-consuming services are less likely to accept RDFa. • Advantages: – the variable groupings of data within published area tables may not be the detail required for a particular application (e.g. age group, ethnic group or occupational classification). – the cross-tabulations of variables available in area tables may not be those needed for a study (e.g. counts of individuals by age and ethnic group and occupation).www.sti-innsbruck.at 111
    112. 112. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microdata • Examples: – Google may use microdata in its results pages: – Opera from version 11.60 is the only current stable release of a browser that supports microdata: – MicrodataJS is a JavaScript library and jQuery plugin that emulates the DOM API.www.sti-innsbruck.at 112
    113. 113. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microdata • Example without microdata: <section> Hello, my name is John Doe, I am a graduate research assistant at the University of Dreams. My friends call me Johnny. You can visit my homepage at <a href="http://www.JohnnyD.com">www.JohnnyD.com</a> . I live at 1234 Peach Drive Warner Robins, Georgia. </section>www.sti-innsbruck.at 113
    114. 114. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – Microdata • Example using microdata: <section itemscope itemtype="http://data-vocabulary.org/Person"> Hello, my name is <span itemprop="name">John Doe</span> , I am a <span itemprop="title">graduate research assistant</span> at the <span itemprop="affiliation">University of Dreams</span>. My friends call me <span itemprop="nickname">Johnny</span> . You can visit my homepage at <a href=http://www.JohnnyD.com itemprop="url">www.JohnnyD.com</a>. <section itemprop="address" itemscope itemtype="http://data- vocabulary.org/Address"> I live at <span itemprop="street-address"> 1234 Peach Drive</span> <span itemprop="locality">Warner Robins</span> , <span itemprop="region">Georgia</span>. </section> </section>www.sti-innsbruck.at 114
    115. 115. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDF • The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web. • RDF provides a common framework for expressing information so it can be exchanged between applications without loss of meaning. • It is based on the idea of identifying things using Web identifiers (called Uniform Resource Identifiers, or URIs) and describing resources in terms of simple properties and property values • Thus, RDF can represent simple statements about resources as a graph of nodes and arcs representing the resources, and their properties and values. • It specifically supports the evolution of schemas over time without requiring all the data consumers to be changed Source: http://www.iis.sinica.edu.tw/~trc/public/courses/Fall2008/week15/slide-w15.html#%287%29www.sti-innsbruck.at 115
    116. 116. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDF • Based on triples <subject, predicate, object> • An RDF triple contains three components: – the subject, which is an RDF URI reference or a blank node – the predicate, which is an RDF URI reference – the object, which is an RDF URI reference, a literal or a blank node – An RDF triple is conventionally written in the order subject, predicate, object. – The predicate is also known as the property of the triple. • Triple data model: <subject, predicate, object> – Subject: Resource or blank node – Predicate: Property – Object: Resource (or collection of resources), literal or blank node • Example: <ex:john, ex:father-of, ex:bill>www.sti-innsbruck.at 116
    117. 117. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – RDF • An RDF graph is a set of RDF triples. • The set of nodes of an RDF graph is the set of subjects and objects of triples in the graph. • Person ages (:age) and favorite friends (:fav) Properties encoded as XML entities: <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/ 22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:example="http://fake.host.edu/e xample-schema#"> <example:Person> <example:name>Smith</example:name> <example:age>21</example:age> <example:fav>Jones</example> </example:Person> </rdf:RDF>www.sti-innsbruck.at 117
    118. 118. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – SPARQL • A recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language • On 15 January 2008, SPARQL 1.0 became an official W3C Recommendation • Query language based on RDQL • Used to retrieve and manipulate data stored in RDF format • Uses SQL-like syntaxwww.sti-innsbruck.at 118
    119. 119. Semantic Based Dissemination Format – SPARQL • Example SPARQL Query: – “Return the full names of all people in the graph” PREFIX vCard: <http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#> SELECT ?fullName WHERE {?x vCard:FN ?fullName} – Results: @prefix ex: <http://example.org/#> . @prefix vcard: <http://www.w3.org/2001/vcard-rdf/3.0#> . fullName ex:john vcard:FN "John Smith" ; ================= vcard:N [ "John Smith" vcard:Given "John" ; vcard:Family "Smith" ] ; "Mary Smith" ex:hasAge 32 ; ex:marriedTo :mary . ex:mary vcard:FN "Mary Smith" ; vcard:N [ vcard:Given "Mary" ; vcard:Family "Smith" ] ; ex:hasAge 29 .www.sti-innsbruck.at 119
    120. 120. Semantic Based Disseminationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 120
    121. 121. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – Linked Data Linked Data Cloudwww.sti-innsbruck.at 121
    122. 122. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – Linked Data • Materialization of the usage of vocabularies • Wikipedia defines Linked Data as "a term used to describe a recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF― • ―Semantic web done right‖ Tim Berners-Lee • Combination of openness with data + open standards • Linked Data Essentials: – Use URIs – Use HTTP URIs – Serve useful information using SPARQL, RDF standards – Mention URIs of related objectswww.sti-innsbruck.at 122
    123. 123. Semantic Based Disseminationwww.sti-innsbruck.at 123
    124. 124. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – schema.orgwww.sti-innsbruck.at 124
    125. 125. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – schema.org • Example*: – Imagine you have a page about the movie Avatar—a page with a link to a movie trailer, information about the director, and so on. Your HTML code might look something like this: <div> <h1>Avatar</h1> <span>Director: James Cameron (born August 16, 1954)</span> <span>Science fiction</span> <a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-trailer.html">Trailer</a> </div> * http://schema.org/docs/gs.htmlwww.sti-innsbruck.at 125
    126. 126. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – schema.org • Example with microdata*: <div itemscope itemtype ="http://schema.org/Movie"> <h1 itemprop="name"&g;Avatar</h1> <div itemprop="director" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Person"> Director: <span itemprop="name">James Cameron</span> (born <span itemprop="birthDate">August 16, 1954)</span> </div> <span itemprop="genre">Science fiction</span> <a href="../movies/avatar-theatrical-trailer.html" itemprop="trailer">Trailer</a> </div> * http://schema.org/docs/gs.htmlwww.sti-innsbruck.at 126
    127. 127. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – FOAF • Friend of a Friend • Uses RDF to describe the relationship people have to other ―things‖ around them • FOAF permits intelligent agents to make sense of the thousands of connections people have with each other, their jobs and the items important to their lives; • Because the connections are so vast in number, human interpretation of the information may not be the best way of analyzing them. • FOAF is an example of how the Semantic Web attempts to make use of the relationships within a social context.www.sti-innsbruck.at 127
    128. 128. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – FOAF • Example <foaf:Person> <foaf:name>Dan Brickley</foaf:name> <foaf:mbox_sha1sum> 748934f32135cfcf6f8c06e253c53442721e15e7 </foaf:mbox_sha1sum> </foaf:Person> • Which says "there is a Person called Dan Brickley who has an email address whose sha1 hash is..."www.sti-innsbruck.at 128
    129. 129. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – GoodRelations • A lightweight ontology for annotating offerings and other aspects of e-commerce on the Web. • The only OWL DL ontology officially supported by both Google and Yahoo. • It provides a standard vocabulary for expressing things like – that a particular Web site describes an offer to sell cellphones of a certain make and model at a certain price, – that a pianohouse offers maintenance for pianos that weigh less than 150 kg, – or that a car rental company leases out cars of a certain make and model from a particular set of branches across the country. • Also, most if not all commercial and functional details of e-commerce scenarios can be expressed, e.g. eligible countries, payment and delivery options, quantity discounts, opening hours, etc. http://semanticweb.org/wiki/GoodRelationswww.sti-innsbruck.at 129
    130. 130. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – GoodRelations • Example: <rdf:RDF xmlns="http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/examples/gr#" xml:base="http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/examples/gr" xmlns:toy="http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/examples/toy#" xmlns:gr="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:protege="http://protege.stanford.edu/plugins/owl/protege#" xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#" xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#"> <owl:Ontology rdf:about=""> <owl:imports rdf:resource="http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/examples/toy"/> <owl:imports rdf:resource="http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1"/> </owl:Ontology> <gr:BusinessEntity rdf:ID="ElectronicsCom"> <gr:legalName rdf:datatype="&xsd;string" >Electronics.com Ltd.</gr:legalName> <rdfs:seeAlso/> <gr:offers rdf:resource="#Offering_1"/> </gr:BusinessEntity> </rdf:RDF>www.sti-innsbruck.at 130
    131. 131. Semantic Based Dissemination Vocabulary – DublinCore • Early Dublin Core workshops popularized the idea of "core metadata" for simple and generic resource descriptions. • Metadata terms are a set of vocabulary terms which can be used to describe resources for the purposes of discovery. • The terms can be used to describe a full range of web resources: video, images, web pages etc. and physical resources such as books and objects like artworks • The Dublin Core standard includes two levels: – Simple Dublin Core comprises 15 elements; – Qualified Dublin Core includes three additional elements;— Audience, Provenance and RightsHolder;— as well as a group of element refinements, also called qualifiers, that refine the semantics of the elements in ways that may be useful in resource discovery. Source: http://dublincore.org (tutorials)www.sti-innsbruck.at 131