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Ch7appt nervous function and cells

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Used with permission from Pearson for Clay Virtual Academy. Copyright Pearson, Inc.

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Ch7appt nervous function and cells

  1. 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Nervous System 7 PART A Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  2. 2. Functions of the Nervous System  Sensory input—gathering information  To monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body  Changes = stimuli  Integration  To process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  3. 3. Functions of the Nervous System  Motor output  A response to integrated stimuli  The response activates muscles or glands Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  4. 4. Functions of the Nervous System Figure 7.1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  5. 5. Structural Classification of the Nervous System  Central nervous system (CNS)  Brain  Spinal cord  Peripheral nervous system (PNS)  Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord  Spinal nerves  Cranial nerves Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  6. 6. Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System  Sensory (afferent) division  Nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system  Motor (efferent) division  Nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous system Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  7. 7. Organization of the Nervous System Figure 7.2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  8. 8. Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System  Motor (efferent) division (continued)  Two subdivisions  Somatic nervous system = voluntary  Autonomic nervous system = involuntary  Sympathetic (‘fight or flight’)  Parasympathetic (normal ‘housekeeping’) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  9. 9. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells  Support cells in the CNS are grouped together as “neuroglia”  Function: to support, insulate, and protect neurons Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells  Astrocytes  Abundant, star-shaped cells  Brace neurons  Form connection between capillaries (blood supply) and neurons Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  11. 11. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells Figure 7.3a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  12. 12. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells  Microglia  Spiderlike phagocytes  Dispose of debris Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  13. 13. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells Figure 7.3b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  14. 14. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells  Ependymal cells  Line cavities of the brain and spinal cord  Circulate cerebrospinal fluid Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  15. 15. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells Figure 7.3c Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  16. 16. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells  Oligodendrocytes  Wrap around nerve fibers in the central nervous system  Produce myelin sheaths Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  17. 17. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells Figure 7.3d Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  18. 18. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells  Schwann cells  Form myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  19. 19. Nervous Tissue: Support Cells Figure 7.3e Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  20. 20. Nervous Tissue: Neurons  Neurons = nerve cells  Cells specialized to transmit messages  Major regions of neurons  Cell body—nucleus and metabolic center of the cell  Processes—fibers that extend from the cell body Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  21. 21. Nervous Tissue: Neurons  Cell body  Nucleus  Large nucleolus  Processes outside the cell body  Dendrites—conduct impulses toward the cell body  Axons—conduct impulses away from the cell body Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  22. 22. Nervous Tissue: Neurons Figure 7.4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  23. 23. Nervous Tissue: Neurons  Axons end in axonal terminals  Axonal terminals contain vesicles with neurotransmitters  Axonal terminals are separated from the next neuron by a gap  Synaptic cleft—gap between adjacent neurons  Synapse—junction between nerves Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  24. 24. Nervous Tissue: Neurons  Myelin sheath—whitish, fatty material covering axons  Schwann cells—produce myelin sheaths in jelly roll–like fashion  Nodes of Ranvier—gaps in myelin sheath along the axon Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  25. 25. Nervous Tissue: Neurons Figure 7.5 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  26. 26. Functional Classification of Neurons  Sensory (afferent) neurons  Carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the CNS  Cutaneous sense organs  Proprioceptors—detect stretch or tension  Motor (efferent) neurons  Carry impulses from the central nervous system to viscera, muscles, or glands Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  27. 27. Functional Classification of Neurons  Interneurons (association neurons)  Found in neural pathways in the central nervous system  Connect sensory and motor neurons Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  28. 28. Neuron Classification Figure 7.6 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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