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Kiva protocol: building the credit bureau of the future using SSI

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https://ssimeetup.org/kiva-protocol-building-credit-bureau-future-using-ssi-alan-krassowski-webinar-37/
Alan Krassowski, VP of Technology & Blockchain at Kiva, will explain how the Kiva Protocol team is leveraging Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI) and related technologies to develop identity and credit solutions for traditionally underserved populations, starting with an implementation in concert with Sierra Leone’s government and banking systems, in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

Alan will provide an overview of the project and its goals, including some of the challenges related to infrastructure, such as limited electricity, Internet bandwidth and penetration of smartphone devices — and how Kiva is overcoming those challenges. Alan will also explain how Kiva is leveraging various Hyperledger codebases related to verifiable credentials, decentralized identifiers, and distributed ledgers, as well as how Kiva is contributing back to the open-source community.

The audience will gain a better understanding of a real-world application of SSI technologies that will provide powerful benefits to citizens in the developing world. How is Kiva giving unbanked people digital identity and secure control over their own credit information? How can a systems-level change in identity and credit unlock capital and opportunity for millions of people?

Alan has been a professional software engineer, architect, and leader for over thirty years. After earning his B.S. in Computer Engineering from Rochester Institute of Technology, he worked as a software developer in a wide variety of domains including fintech, insurance, desktop publishing, point-of-sale, accounting, budgeting, video streaming, and narrative theory. He has also held technical leadership roles at various companies in the cybersecurity space, including Chief Architect at Cylance, Inc., Chief Architect & Senior Director at McAfee / Intel Security, and Architect in the Office of the CTO at Symantec. Prior to his role at Kiva, he was a Decentralization Architect at ConsenSys and CTO of ConsenSys Capital where he worked with Ethereum-based blockchain solutions. He has been a technical editor/reviewer on four software security books and one on Bitcoin, and is excited about how advances in cryptography have led to new solutions for people to communicate, collaborate and trade while minimizing the need to trust in centralized institutions.

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Kiva protocol: building the credit bureau of the future using SSI

  1. 1. KIVA PROTOCOL BUILDING THE CREDIT BUREAU OF THE FUTURE USING SSI TECHNOLOGIES KIVA.ORG This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org Alan Krassowski VP of Technology & Blockchain at Kiva
  2. 2. 1. Empower global SSI communities 2. Open to everyone interested in SSI 3. All content is shared with CC BY SA SSIMeetup.org Alex Preukschat @SSIMeetup @AlexPreukschat Coordinating Node SSIMeetup.org https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ SSIMeetup objectives
  3. 3. Alan Krassowski VP of Technology & Blockchain Alan leads a technology team at Kiva to help grow opportunity and scale financial inclusion around the world. KIVA.ORG This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  4. 4. Kiva's Mission Expanding financial access to help underserved communities thrive. This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  5. 5. Borrowers Total lent through Kiva Lenders Average Loan Size Seconds between loans Countries 3.3M $1.35B 1.8M 7 85 96.8%$400 Repayment rate Kiva’s Reach in Countries192in This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  6. 6. The Kiva Protocol project Funding the next billion people Affordability AccountabilityAccessibility Smaller loans are costly to facilitate Rural markets are drastically underserved Credit histories allow for cheaper credit This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  7. 7. The Challenges IDENTITYFINANCIAL INTEGRITY Legal regulations in rural & poor areas are often minimal. Financial transactions are ripe for exploitation 1.1B 500M 310M people have no official way to prove their identity in Sub-Saharan Africa in South Asia This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  8. 8. First Implementation: Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Credit Program Until recently, Sierra Leone has had a single credit bureau serving 2,000 people. In collaboration with the Sierra Leone Government and UNDP, Kiva intends to provide credit for the whole of Sierra Leone. Unlocking credit access to all SL Citizens Gov't Cooperation Identity Information Banking Partnerships Bank Cooperation This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  9. 9. What Is Identity? This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  10. 10. What is Identity? “Do you know who you really are? Are you sure it’s really you?” From the song “I Sat by the Ocean” by Queens of the Stone Age, 2013 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  11. 11. 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 College Professional Software Developer Software Architect Amateur Hacker Chief Architect CTO VP Tech Antimalware / Cybersecurity Blockchain Identity (specific focus) Fintech
  12. 12. ERC 1056 ERC 725 ERC 780 did:uport Verifiable Claims Credentials did:sov DIDs This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  13. 13. This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  14. 14. Recommended Resource: Available as Kindle eBook Heather Vescent & Kaliya Young This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  15. 15. Pre-Blockchain - Always A Central Party This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  16. 16. SSO - Single Sign-on (to Google, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter) • Namespaces of IDs controlled by corporations, rented to users • E.g. Domain-names, ICANN is landlord • OAuth / OpenID Connect • Crawling social graphs for profit • Surveillance capitalism • Cambridge Analytica Recent phases of Evolution in Digital Identity This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  17. 17. SSO - Single Sign-on (to Google, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter) • Namespaces of IDs controlled by corporations, rented to users • E.g. Domain-names, ICANN is landlord • OAuth / OpenID Connect • Crawling social graphs for profit • Surveillance capitalism • Cambridge Analytica Recent phases of Evolution in Digital Identity Dependent Some consequences of choosing convenience over privacy... This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  18. 18. Chart from “A Comprehensive Guide to SSI” By Vescent, H & Young, K., 2018 Kim Cameron’s Laws of Identity (left, 2005) Christopher Allen’s Principles of Self-Sovereign Identity (right, 2016) Mapping by John Phillips
  19. 19. https://www.moxytongue.com/2016/02/self-sovereign-identity.html Origin of the term “Self-Sovereign Identity” Devon Loffreto This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  20. 20. SSO - Single Sign-on (to Google, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter) SSI - Self-Sovereign Identity For capable adults in stable societies • Namespaces of IDs controlled by corporations, rented to users • E.g. Domain-names, ICANN is landlord • OAuth / OpenID Connect • Crawling social graphs for profit • Surveillance capitalism • Cambridge Analytica • Aadhaar • Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) • DIDAuth • Verified Claims • Distributed Key Management (DKMS) • Evernym/Sovrin, uPort, Veres One, etc. - competing blockchains • Hyperledger Indy • DIF standards • Non-correlability • Consent receipts • Wallets, Agents, Hubs Recent phases of Evolution in Digital Identity Dependent Independent This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  21. 21. Building Blocks for Self-Sovereign Identity Diagram from “A Comprehensive Guide to SSI” By Vescent, H & Young, K., 2018
  22. 22. Building Blocks for Self-Sovereign Identity Graphic from Phil Windley This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  23. 23. Recommended Resource SSIMeetup.org This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  24. 24. Indy/Sovrin/DID Comprehensive Architecture Reference Model (INDY ARM) https://mwherman2000.github.io/indy-arm/ This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  25. 25. uPort - past ~11 months This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  26. 26. Peace, love and identifier/claims interop?
  27. 27. Recent proposals promote interoperability Classic diagram (Drummond Reed) Note: Blockchain is the base layer BCGov’s diagram (Stephen Curran) Peers talking, with pluggable blockchain support This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  28. 28. Bleeding-edge work in Digital Identity The Sovrin Guardianship Task Force’s research on “Indirect Identity Control” From Daniel Hardman’s July 2019 SSIMeetup talk This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  29. 29. Bleeding-edge work in Digital Identity The Sovrin Guardianship Task Force’s research on “Indirect Identity Control” From Daniel Hardman’s July 2019 SSIMeetup talk This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  30. 30. From Daniel Hardman’s July 2019 SSIMeetup talk Bleeding-edge work in Digital Identity The Sovrin Guardianship Task Force’s research on “Indirect Identity Control” This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  31. 31. Austin Griffith’s Kirby Working with Civil team “Bottom-up” Identity Instant Onboarding - For end-users - And for devs! (single line of code) “an ephemeral key pair (burner!) is generated inside a child iframe for a user and the developer can begin signing messages and storing/validating off-chain attestations” https://medium.com/@austin_48503/kirby-32491315c5 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  32. 32. Microsoft/DIF Working on Identity / Sidetree From Daniel Buchner This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  33. 33. Edge Agents, Routing Agents, Domain Endpoints https://github.com/hyperledger/indy-hipe/blob/master/text/0 022-cross-domain-messaging/README.md This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  34. 34. Debates on semantics in SSI-land This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  35. 35. Debates on facts vs. FUD in SSI-land... This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  36. 36. Concern and discussion about this very talk! This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  37. 37. SSO - Single Sign-on (to Google, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter) SSI - Self-Sovereign Identity For capable adults in stable societies Identity Stewardship For every entity, in many contexts • Namespaces of IDs controlled by corporations, rented to users • E.g. Domain-names, ICANN is landlord • OAuth / OpenID Connect • Crawling social graphs for profit • Surveillance capitalism • Cambridge Analytica • Aadhaar • Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs) • DIDAuth • Verified Claims • Distributed Key Management (DKMS) • Evernym/Sovrin, uPort, Veres One, etc. all competing blockchains • Hyperledger Indy • DIF standards • Non-correlability • Consent receipts • Wallets, Agents, Hubs • Hyperledger Aries, & Cloud Agent Python (ACA-Py) - w/pluggable blockchain support for public DIDs • did:peer • DIDcomm • W3C standards • Guardianship, delegation, controllership scenarios, within... • ...Proxy Trust Frameworks • Routing Agents & Agency Endpoints • Possibly “Trust over IP” initiative at Linux Foundation (we’ll see) Recent phases of Evolution in Digital Identity Dependent Independent Interdependent
  38. 38. Goals of Kiva Protocol’s Design Support emerging W3C DID Standards Leverage and contribute to open-source Empower individuals with tools to prove their identity and credit history Reduce friction of banking-related activities and save time for users Respect privacy of users (data subjects) Minimize on-chain data This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  39. 39. Hyperledger Projects - Open Source - Hosted by Linux Foundation - Umbrella for Blockchain and Smart Contract Technologies Distributed Ledger for Decentralized Identity Enterprise Ethereum client Toolkit for Creating, Transmitting and Storing Verifiable Credentials Library of Cryptographic Primitives This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  40. 40. HARDWARE-FREE SOVEREIGNTY? Many of our borrowers lack computers/smartphones “If you don’t have a device, what are you doing here?” Overheard at TruffleCon2019 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  41. 41. HARDWARE-FREE SOVEREIGNTY? Many of our borrowers lack computers/smartphones From Daniel Hardman’s “Paper Sovrin” proposal
  42. 42. Other Constraints Efficiency CPU, Bandwidth and electricity limitations This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  43. 43. Current State & Where We’re Going This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  44. 44. This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  45. 45. 5M Blockchain Wallets Associated to Sierra Leone Citizen Identities April 2019 First KYC Check at a Sierra Leone Commercial Bank July 2019 Sierra Leone Project Milestones First Credit Write To Ledger November 2019 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  46. 46. STEP 1 Fingerprint Identification Citizens access credit at banks/MFIs/motorbike lenders Fingerprint scan confirms citizen’s identity Identity is compared against Hyperledger Indy wallet seeded by the National Citizen Registry Database A citizen scans a finger This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  47. 47. Credit Report After identity verification, lending history presented to potential lender. Provides centralized report of previous/outstanding loans from Sierra Leone banks, MFIs, moto-lenders. Historically, cross-bank lending data only shared for very large borrowers (<2,000 citizens) Credit Report STEP 2 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  48. 48. STEP 3 Simple Repayments Fingerprints of both borrower and lender confirm repayments have been made. Repayment data sent to ledger in real time. In geographies where internet is unavailable, data is uploaded as soon as lender returns online. Allows remote agents to provide loans via thumb drive, remote kiosks Repayment history secured by fingerprint authentication This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  49. 49. Sovereignty and Control Fraud and deception are rife throughout developing markets. We need to ensure citizens have sovereignty over their data, but also need to provide permissions to specific trusted actors. This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  50. 50. Trust & Sovereignty Immutability can ensure trust in low-trust environments Biometric confirmations required to access and write to citizen ledger, offering sovereignty over credit data access and protection from corrupt/false loan records Lenders also require biometric sign-in, providing accountability and oversight of financial service staff in previously low-accountability environments Immutability ensures financial institutions *share credit data* in a way they can trust, protected from concerns other banks may give false information to earn a strategic advantage This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  51. 51. Scenario Flees an Oppressive Government Fearing violence, a minority population flees an unfriendly government. All national ID cards are revoked, banking details erased, address & contact details no longer confirmable MINORITY POPULATION Across Borders Immutable protocol data can be accessed by foreign governments, banks or NGOs to provide financial service to refugees or migrants during a time they’re in particular need of capital, despite erasure of previous government ID & financial records ACCESSING CREDIT Protected from government intervention The malicious government cannot revoke the existing identity and credit information of the minority. So long as fingerprints intact, biometric-authenticated ledger accessible anywhere IMMUTABLE CREDIT Ensures financial security during political insecurity Immutability ensures previously trusted transactions cannot be undermined by later corruption. Eg: good govt overthrown by bad govt. New corruption does not undermine trustworthiness of prior transactions UNREPEALABLE DATA 1 2 3 4 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  52. 52. Realities and Challenges of Implementation Many of our borrowers lack computers/smartphones Biometric input has limitations (Eg: manual labor wears down fingerprints) Expanding biometric & other identity solutions will be crucial to ensuring sovereign control without direct wallet storage HARDWARE-FREE SOVEREIGNTY Sierra Leone's current banking system is largely pre-digital Credit records are stored on index cards, occasionally in MS Excel. Computing systems are second class systems. Introducing partners to the advantages of advanced digital solutions is crucial and challenging PARTNER EDUCATION Realtime transactions restricted by network downtime Many transactions will be made in high-downtime environments (or outside network coverage altogether) Ensuring the ledger stays sufficiently synchronized will be crucial to maintaining a trustworthy system DELAY TOLERANCE Accessing Sierra Leone Govt's Citizen Identity Data Citizen identity data cannot leave Sierra Leone government buildings. Created a distributed blockchain solution that integrates with aging citizen ID database infrastructure serves up interesting challenges DATA ACCESS This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  53. 53. Going Forward Migrant Solutions Migrants and refugees are often the most in need of credit and, given their unstable living condition, have the fewest opportunities to prove creditworthiness. By deploying cross-border services, we intend to provide access to migrant communities Broader Rollout Kiva is in discussion with other countries and organizations across the globe, and intends to expand to other geographies starting in 2020 Cheaper Credit At present, a credit check in Sierra Leone costs $1.30. For low-income borrowers, this is prohibitive. With blockchain, we expect to bring the price of credit checks down to pennies, opening up opportunities for substantially poorer borrowers This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  54. 54. We're Hiring Looking to hire engineers, product managers, and forward deployers Know Your Stuff? Call Us Visit https://kiva.org/careers or reach out to Alan and other Kivans after the talk Fast-moving, mission-driven, real-world project Extensive travel opportunities Real-world application with substantial runway and support SF, Portland, Austin and remote opportunities This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  55. 55. Questions? KIVA.ORG This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  56. 56. KIVA PROTOCOL BUILDING THE CREDIT BUREAU OF THE FUTURE USING SSI KIVA.ORG This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org Alan Krassowski VP of Technology & Blockchain at Kiva

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