The fundamental criticism of situational crime prevent is that osf displacement.
Yes, my home is well protected by the latest CCTV and Alarm systems but what about the guy down the road. Yes, there is evidence suggesting that criminals look for easier less riskier targets.
Fails to address whole range of sexual offences, rape, child abuse , crimes of violence, murder, domestic violence etc.
It is often dependant upon the individual’s ability to purchase the technology or locate in a gated communities. Hence situational measures are sometimes not within the reach of poorer communities – those very communities that are more likely to be victims of crime. It exacerbates the ‘them and us society’.
That said, I think there is a place for situational crime prevention – of course. I think what I’m advocating is that we as a society need to think very carefully about promoting inequality in the way we talk about safety and security.
Gives attention to those systemic issues often thought to be the root causes of crime
This approach tends to include crime prevention measures that take some time to produce the intended results. This may include action to improve housing, health and educational achievement, as well as improved community cohesion through community development measures.
The risk of becoming involved in crime, or being victimised, is greater in those communities that experience high levels of social exclusion or a lack of social cohesion.
Community development is premised on the notion that changing the physical or social organisation of communities may influence the behaviour of individuals who live there
Programmes that seek to build a person’s resilience to offending by providing them with the resources, skills, knowledge and ability to avoid situations in which their risk of offending might be increased
These two quotes, one made over 30 years ago and the other has been lifted from The National Development Plan. The communality is the belief in community engagement and involvement as being absolutely crucial for any sustainable strategy for improving citizen safety.
Let us take community policing for example. Community Policing in its many different forms is considered to be at the heart of police reform. It is an approach that many western countries are tryiig to perfect.
Community policing is wholly reliant upon the ability of police to not only engage but involve communities in developing crime control strategies for their neighbourhood.
Effective citizen engagement and involvement is key to crime prevention.
There is no universally accepted definition of Active Citizenship and no standard model of what an active citizen is. But there is general agreement that it refers to the involvement of individuals in public life and affairs. This can take place at local, national and international levels. The term is used especially at local level to refer to citizens who become actively involved in the life of their communities tackling problems or bringing about change or resisting unwanted change.
This is where Civil Society is increasingly playing a bigger role as it’s not just around crime prevention that government institutions are seeking to engage communities.
Business and Civil Society, each acting in their own particular sphere
However times have changed, there is now a greater degree of activity to address societal challenges and as a result we have seen greater integration
New frameworks for collaboration, partnership and innovation.
Increased blurring of traditional roles
I think Integrated Offender Management is a classic example of where we are going.
IOM principlesIOM is an overarching framework for bringing together agencies in local areas to prioritise interventions with offenders who cause crime in their locality – the emphasis is on offenders not offences an IOM approach to enhance the “notion” of the whole society arrangements to increase innovation and capability to prevent crime and reduce reoffending A key part of the IOM Strategic Framework is to mobilise civil society by enhancing partnership arrangements with community based organisations (NGO/NPO) and government agencies in the CJS.
Yes, SSAF is about Social Crime Prevention, however in order to achieve best outcomes for the community we make it clear that we wish to integrate criminal justice and law enforcement practioners into our programmes where possible and I’ll shortly talk to you about our flagship programme designed to achieved that integration.
Why is this important? Because we recognise the gulf that exists particularly here in South Africa, between criminal justice and law enforcement institutions.
This is an historical legacy and calls for concerted efforts to improve that trust and confidence which serves to destabilise and undermine our criminal justice system.
Yes, the NDP reminds us that a sustainable safety strategy is based upon active, engaged citizenry and an effective criminal justice system. We say that these two issues are not mutually exclusive. In fact a reliable criminal justice system is absolutely reliant upon an active, engaged well informed community.
Safer South Africa Foundation's presentation at the American Chamber of Commerce Security and Safety Summit, 15 July 2014, Johannesburg, South Africa
Building Safer Stronger Communities
‘A Safer South Africa’
American Chamber of Commerce/Motorola Solutions,
The Wanderers Hotel, Johannesburg
Safer South Africa Foundation
Preventing crime - the theory
Generally agreed there are two popular approaches
underpinned by criminological theory
Situational – by reducing opportunities
Sociological – by changing his/her disposition
Situational crime prevention
Developed by the British Home Office 1970’s
Premised upon rational choice theory
reduces the opportunities for criminals to commit crime
changes criminals' ideas about whether they can get away with a particular crime
makes it seem harder, riskier, and less rewarding to commit crime
Criticism of situational approach
situational prevention attacks symptoms and not underlying,
contributes little to our understanding of why crimes occur
Simplistic approach to complex social issue
Create a fortress society accessed by rich and powerful
Social Crime Prevention
The social crime prevention model gives much needed
attention to the ‘root causes’ of crime viz social and
concerned with strengthening human resources,
creative problem-solving, restructuring, and
alternative models of organization and action
Programmes intervene at the community level oriented
towards improving or changing community institutions
and solving community problems
Building Stronger Sustainable Communities
“……must understand that the controls that lead to
reduced crime cannot be imposed from the outside;
they must emerge from changes in the community
itself, and in the people who compose it.’’
(Kornblum & Boggs, 1984, pp. 26 -27)
‘’Active citizenry, an efficient criminal justice system
and effective co-ordinated partnerships with civil
society and the private sector are the key components
of a sustainable strategy for citizen safety’’
National Development Plan (p386)
Safer South Africa Foundation
A national ‘not for profit organisation’ established in 2012
with the following Vision:
‘South Africa – a safer place to work, rest and play’
‘To help build safe, confident and empowered communities’
Aim of Safer South Africa Foundation
To mobilise under resourced communities, to build
their awareness and ability to work in partnership with
service providers in order to strengthen the
community’s ability to ‘fight against crime’
Foster a better understanding of community safety
issues and improve relationships between the
community and the law enforcement agencies
To actively contribute to the national discourse on
crime and community safety matters by undertaking
research, advocacy and campaigns
Presented to Police Portfolio Committee on Private
Security Amendment Bill (relationship SAPS & Priv.
Presented comprehensive commentary and critique of
Policing Green Paper
Developed flagship Communities & Justice programme
Communities and Justice Programme;
Professionally structured modules presented in
a ‘classroom’ setting
‘Mock trial’ in a Court room setting, involving
Visit to Correctional Facility
Programme delivered over a 8wk period
‘Graduation ceremony’/certificates presented
The goal of the Communities and Justice Programme
to promote a better understanding of the criminal Justice system
to foster the trust and confidence of the communities
to open lines of communication
to produce informed and empowered members of the community and
to lay a foundation for strong partnerships and community based crime prevention
Focus upon our younger learners
Partnership with Gauteng Department of Education
Potential delivery in 200+ schools
Plans to deliver in the Western Cape
Identify tertiary education institutions
Secure revenue streams