Acid Wash:During Acid wash, pumic stones are used. By the action of pumic stones, irregularfading affect is developed on t...
9.    The pumic stones used for acid wash need to pre-treat in the following        chemical solution:  10.   Water .........
Sixth Step:Hydro Extractor Machine        Hydro extractor machine to remove excess water from the garments.Seventh Step:Dr...
2. GARMENT FINISH Unless any product is characterized by valueaddition it is now impossible to survive in this highly comp...
used more and more due to the fact that there is no wastage ofchemicals. After saturation the garments are hydro extracted...
11. DENIM WASHES ARE OF TWO TYPES:1. Mechanical washesStone wash Micro sanding2. Chemical washes Denim bleachingEnzyme was...
stonewashing with perhaps the most widely used being pumice orvolcanic rock.16. As the stones are used, they slowly disint...
coloration of blue threads and blue coloration of white threads, resultingin less contrast between blue and white threads....
drawbacks associated with stone washing process, which can beovercome by using new enzyme based washing technology. Thiste...
recommendations should befollowed). Adjust pH as recommended.Tumble 30-90 minutes.32. Drain. Rinse well (70◦C). Drain. Sep...
should be drained of excess liquor with help of mesh    Placed stonesand garments in machine     Tumble for 30 mins or unt...
durability, ability to with stand the rough laundering, good absorption,comfort to wear and ability to take up a wide rang...
47. Advantages of resin finishing It improves the Crease Resistanceand Crease Recovery property It reduces the shrinkage o...
HISTORY OF GARMENTS WASH:
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Acid wash

  1. 1. Acid Wash:During Acid wash, pumic stones are used. By the action of pumic stones, irregularfading affect is developed on the heavy garments like denims, thick canvas/twill, andsweater. The pumic stones act a brushing action on the garment fabric surface. Thearea where more brushing action takes place there more dicolour or fadding affect isdeveloped and the area where less brushing action takes place less brushing actionand takes place less fadding affect will be developed. The multi-layer fabric areaslike –collar, calf, pocket, placket, side seam etc area will be brushed more than thesingle layer areas. As a result irregular fadding affect will be developed on thegarments fabric surface. Thus in this way fading affect may be developed on thegarment by acid wash technique.Objects of Acid Wash:1. To produce irregular fading effects or old looking effect.2. For soft feeling to wear the garments i.e. to improve softness.3. To achieve the buyer washing standard.4. To increase rubbing fastness.Acid Wash Process:A processor Acid wash of 60 kg batch of Denim Trouser as mentioned below:-First Step: Pretreatment/Desizing. 1. Add water @ L : R = 1 : 10 .............. 600 litres. 2. Start Machine. 3. Add desizing agent @ 1 gm/litre .................600 Gms. 4. Add detergent @ 1 gm/litre ........................ 600 Gms. 5. Temperature............................. 60°c. 6. Time........................... 20 mts. 7. Drop the liquor. 8. Rinse one for 3 minutes (cold).Second Step:Hot wash 1. Add water @ L: R = 1: 10.............. 600 litres. 2. Temperature............................. 60°c. 3. Time........................... 5 mts. 4. Drop the liquor. 5. Here hot wash is used to remove the adhering materials from the garment surface. 6. Unload the garments from the washing m/c in the trolley. 7. Load the pre treated garments in the dryer m/c. 8. Dry the garment completely & unload the garments.
  2. 2. 9. The pumic stones used for acid wash need to pre-treat in the following chemical solution: 10. Water ..................... 100 L 11. Potassium per manganate.............. 1000 Gms. 12. Phosphoric Acid............................... 250 Gms. 13. Stire the solution in a stainless steel tub with dry pumic stone. 14. Soak the stones with the chemical solution ......... 10 –15 minutes. 15. The stones will pick up the solution. Then the soaked stones are dried in the open air for.............. 2 to 3 hrs. 16. Then pre-treated garment 30 –40 kg per batch load in the dry washing machine. 17. Load the per-treated stones (about 50 kg) in washing machine. 18. Start machine running for each batch ........................ 7 to 10 mts. 19. Stop machine running. 20. Unload the treated garment separately. Pumic stones with P.P. solution hit on garment surface as a result fadding will be developed. 21. Then load the stones treated garment in another washing machine.Third Step:Wash for Cleaning 1. Batch wt................................ 70 kg. 2. Add water @ L: R = 1: 8.............. 560 litres. 3. Add detergent @ 1 gm/litre .............560 Gms. 4. Temperature............................. 40°c -50°c. 5. Time ..................................10 mts. 6. Drop the liquor. 7. Here detergent is used to remove the breaking stone dust and chemicals from the garment surface.Fourth Step:Whitening/Neutralization 1. Add water @ L: R = 1: 8.............. 560 litres. 2. Machine running. 3. Add Metabisulphite @ 5 gm/litre..... 2800 Gms. 4. Cold temperature. 5. Time 5 mts. 6. Drop the liquor.Fifth Step: Soft Wash 1. Add water @ L: R = 1: 7.............. 490 litres. 2. Machine running. 3. Add Acetic acid @ 0.6 gm/litre ..................... 294 Gms. 4. Add Softner @ 1 gm/litre ........................ 490 Gms. 5. Then unload the garments.
  3. 3. Sixth Step:Hydro Extractor Machine Hydro extractor machine to remove excess water from the garments.Seventh Step:Dryer Machine. After hydro extraction the garments are sent to drying m/c for complete drying.Eighth Step:Quality& Delivery. After drying the garments go to quality checking & rectify washing fault and then good one delivery.Precaution: Maintain the stock solution properly constant when comes socking the stone. No water licks age in to the machine when treated pumic stone & garments in to the machine. Not excess load the garments in the Acid wash processing. Add some new stone after finishing on batch to maintain the volume for 2nd batch. It is a mater of experience.Read more: http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/07/acid-wash-objects-of-acid-wash-process.html#ixzz2CJIWKySwWIKI PIDIAGarment washing — Presentation Transcript1. GARMENT WASHINGSUBMITTED TO:Mr. VASANT R. KOTHARISUBMITTED BY: RAJEEV SHARAN DFT(AP-06)
  4. 4. 2. GARMENT FINISH Unless any product is characterized by valueaddition it is now impossible to survive in this highly competitive worldmarket. Processing is important to make a usable but finishing givesvalue addition to it. It makes garments attractive, comfortable &finishing can incorporate desirable properties. Finishing is the heart oftextile processing. Value addition = {(Technology) + (Innovation)} xQuality.3. The need for competitive strategy that utilizes; Chemicalcompatibility to provide one-shot multifunctional finishes. Costreduction through process integration and minimizing the consumptionof all utilities. More environmentally friendly and application method.Cost reduction through minimization of effluent treatment cost.Improve process control, monitoring and automation. Greaterinnovation in chemical finishes. Quick response through right-first-time,right-on end time, right-every-time finishing.4. Finishingof textile fabric is carried out to increase attractivenessand/or serviceability of the fabric. Differentfinishing treatments areavailable to get various effects, which add value to the basic textilematerial. The domestic readymade garment sector is booming, andgarment processing has emerged as one of the important productionroutes towards meeting quick changing demands of the fashion market5. METHOD OF APPLICATION:There are two methods of garmentfinishing. Dip process. Tumbling processDip process: - Dip thegarment inside out in finishing chemical keeping MLR 1:5. Washingmachine may be used. Rotate the garment for 20 min. Hydro extractthe garment to 70 to 80% pick up. Tumble dry at 70°C to moisturecontent 10—12 %. Turn the garment right side out. Iron/steam pressthe garment to set the creases at desired places. Cure at 150—160°C6. Tumble method: - In this process the garment are placed (insideout) into a machine with sealed (not perforated) cylinder andapplication of recipe by either pumping or spraying. The drum is turnedfor 20 min there should not be excessive dripping of chemicals from thegarment. If so more tumbling time is allowed. This method is being
  5. 5. used more and more due to the fact that there is no wastage ofchemicals. After saturation the garments are hydro extracted tumbledry at 70°C to 10—20 % pick up moisture content. The iron and steampress the garments to remove/set creases. Cure at 150—160°C for 8 -10 min.7. Important features: - MLR should not be less than 1: 0.85 for thegarment weighing 600 gm and 1:1 for those weighing more than 600gm. Minimum time of tumbling should be 20 min. Tumble rotationspeed 20-30 rpm. Tumble drying temp. Should not be more than70°C. Moisture retention after drying should be 10-12%.8. Wash down effects It can be achieved by a variety of garmentprocessingtechniques which are mainly dependent on physical andonchemical abrasion of the surface dye there by producingdifferentwash down or break-in looks. In garment washing the seams,waistband, pockets, cuffs,etc develop a contour, which can be obtainedby washing ingarment from only. Washing down of garments is thelatest development infashion technology. Washing brings out specialeffectschanging the feel and look of garments.9. Five good reasons can be attributed forwashing the garments. Toinfluence physical properties such as softness, handle, drape or fall ,absorbency, creasing etc. To influence appearance by alteringthenature of yarn of fabric or lusture. To create shrinkage & effects ofshrinkage like puckering of garments. To create abrasion & relatedeffects. To create a trend in fashion with consistentquality& brandimage with range of finishes.10. Denim washing It is the aesthetic finish given to the denim fabric toenhance the appeal and to provide strength Indigo jeans were once theonly item processed by the garment wash method Emphasis is onComfort And Softness. Fashion Trends Favor The Broken-in Look AndWorn/Faded seams that can only be achieved through garmentprocessing
  6. 6. 11. DENIM WASHES ARE OF TWO TYPES:1. Mechanical washesStone wash Micro sanding2. Chemical washes Denim bleachingEnzyme wash Acid wash12. Any of these procedures can be modified To fit a particularsituation, Depending upon garment type (i.e., heavyweight denimversus lightweight chambray), Available equipment, and Process flow.Also, some of these procedures yield garments suitable for overdyeing, which may create a whole new look.13. PROCEDURE1. Garments can be inverted to minimize unwantedabrasion streaks (especially useful when preset creases are present).2.Load machine with garments.3. Desize with alpha amylase enzymeand detergent.4. Drain.5. Rinse.6. Fill machine with water and heat to60◦C. The liquor ratio can range from 10:1 to 20:1. A number ofsynthetic detergents can be used. Also, alkaline products such as sodaash or caustic soda can be added in amounts ranging from 0.5 to 2.0grams/liter. Some chemical suppliers offer special products thataccelerate the wash down process, dependent upon the particulardyestuff used.7. Wash/tumble action for 20-60 minutes, dependingupon desired effect.8. Drain and rinse.9. Apply softener.10. Tumbledry.11. Invert garments, if previously turned.12. Press, if required .14. STONEWASH In the process of stone washing, freshly dyed jeansare loaded into large washing machines and tumbled with pumicestones It means Pre washed, abraded, faded either regular or irregularlooks are produced by subjecting the dyed garments to severe washingtreatments In order to accelerate the garment wash effect and to givegarments an even more unique appearance, desirable look and softerhand, abrasive stones were introduced to the wash bath.15. Variations in composition, hardness, size shape and porositymake these stones multifunctional. The process is quite expensive andrequires high capital investment. Pumice stones give the additionaleffect of a faded or worn look as it abrades the surface of the jeans likesandpaper, removing some dye particles from the surfaces of theyarn. A variety of natural and synthetic stones are available for
  7. 7. stonewashing with perhaps the most widely used being pumice orvolcanic rock.16. As the stones are used, they slowly disintegrate, reducing theseverity of the stonewash effect over a period of time. The stones notonly abrade the fabric but also gradually abrade the inside of the rotarydrum. A machine used for stonewashing should not be used to dyedelicate articles or when abrasion would be detrimental to the fabric.It‘s gives used look because of varying degrees of abrasion in areassuch as the waistband, pocket and seems17. Degree of colour fading Garments to stone ratio Washing time Size of stone MLR Load of garments Stone weight 0.5-318. Selection of stone Stone should be selected of the properhardness, shape, and size for the particular end product. It should benoted that large, hard stones last longer and may be suited for heavyweight fabrics only. Smaller, softer stones would be used for lightweight fabrics and more delicate items. STONE WT. /FABRIC WT. =0.5 TO 3 /1 It depends on the degree of abrasion needed to achievethe desired result. Stones can be reused until they completelydisintegrate or washed down the drain.19. PROCEDURE Load stones into machine. Load garments intomachine (ratio usually 0.5 - 3.0 part weight stones:1 part weightgarments). Desize with alpha amylase enzyme and detergent. Liquorratio approximately 5-8:1. Rinse. Refill and tumble with stones 30 to90 minutes, depending upon desired effect. Liquor ratio 5-8:1 at 50-70◦C. Scouring additives can also be used.20. Drain. Separate garments from stones (garments can betransferred to another machine). Rinse. Apply softener (garments canbe transferred to another machine for softening). Extract and unload.De-stone and tumble dry. Press, if required.21. BACK STAINING OR RE-DEPOSITION: The dye removed fromdenim material after the treatment with cellulose or by a conventionalwashing process may cause "back staining‖ or "redeposition‖. Re-
  8. 8. coloration of blue threads and blue coloration of white threads, resultingin less contrast between blue and white threads.22. PROBLEMS CAUSED BY STONES: Damage to washmachineries and garment due to stone to machine and machine tostone abrasion Increase in labor to remove dust from finishedgarments. Water pollution during disposal of used liquor. Backstaining and re deposition.23. REMEDY OF BACK STAINING Adding dispersion/suspensionagent to wash cycle. Intermediate replacement of wash liquor. Usingalkaline detergent like sodium per borate with optical brightener as afterwash24. LIMITATIONS OF STONE WASHING: Quality of the abrasionprocess is difficult to control outcome of a load of jeans is neveruniform, little percentage always getting ruined by too much abrasion.The process is non-selective. Metal buttons and rivets on the jeans inthe washing machines get abraded. This reduces quality of theproducts and life of equipment, and increases production costs.Stones may turn into powder during the process of making the garmentgrayish in color and rough too Provides rougher feel than enzymewash Stone may lead the harm to the machine parts25. STONEWASH EFFECT: In traditional washing process, volcanicrocks or pumice stones are added to the garments during washing asabradant. Due to ring dyeing and heavy abrasion fading is moreapparent but less uniform. The degree of colour fading depends on thegarment to stone ratio, washing time, size of stones, material to liquorratio and load of garments. Normally after desizing, stone washprocess starts with pumice stone addition in rotary drum type garmentwasher. Process time varies from 60-120 mins. Stone wash effect isone of the oldest but highly demanded washing effects.26. Stone wash process gives ―used‖ look or ―vintage‖ on thegarments, because of varying degree of abrasion in the area such aswaistband, pocket, seam and body. There are many limitations and
  9. 9. drawbacks associated with stone washing process, which can beovercome by using new enzyme based washing technology. Thistechnology also helps to conserve water, time, energy and environment27. ENZYME WASH Cellulase enzymes are natural proteins which areused in denim garment processing to get stone wash look on to thedenim garments without using stones or by reducing the use of pumicestone. Cellulase attacks primarily on the surface of the cellulose fiber,leaving the interior of the fiber as it is, by removing the indigo present inthe surface layer of fiber.28. Cellulase enzyme is classified into two classes: Acid Cellulase:Itworks best in the pH range of 4.5-5.5 and exhibit optimumactivity at50°C. Neutral cellulase:It works best at pH 6 however its activity is notadverselyaffected in the range of pH 6-8 and show maximum activityat55°C.29. Neutral Cellulase:These are the enzymes which are active betweenpH: 6-8 lower abrasion than acid celluloses low back staining pH 6 -8.0Acid Cellulase: high abrasion higher back-staining than neutralcellulases pH 4.5 - 5.5 optimized pH and temperature = maximumactivity of the enzyme30. Acid celluloseRecipe and Condition Cellulose 450 AP (OWG) 0.5– 1 gm/l Lube pro VX ( crease inhibitor) 0.5 – 1 gm/l White MRC(anti-redepositing agent) 1 – 2 gm/l Treat at 50C and pH – 5 for 30-45minsNeutralcelluloseRecipe and Condition Americoscellucom 110 OM(OWG) 0.5 – 1 gm/l Lube pro VX ( crease inhibitor) 0.5 – 1gm/l Americos White MRC (anti-redepositing agent) 1 – 2gm/l Treatat 50C and pH – 5 for 30-45 mins31. PROCEDURE Load stones in machine (normally 0.5 - 2.0 partweightstones: 1 part weight garments) if applicable. Loadgarments. Desize with alpha amylase enzyme and detergent.Rinse. Add cellulase enzyme (amount, pH, temperature, andcycle timedependent upon type of fabric and desiredeffects; manufacturers
  10. 10. recommendations should befollowed). Adjust pH as recommended.Tumble 30-90 minutes.32. Drain. Rinse well (70◦C). Drain. Separate garments from stones ifused (garmentscan be transferred to another machine). Applysoftener. Extract and unload. De-stone and tumble dry. Press, ifrequire33. Advantage of enzyme washing Soft handle and attractive cleanappearance is obtained without severe damage to the surface of yarn.Simple process handling and minimum effluent problem. Better feel totouch and increased gloss or luster. Prevents tendency of pilling afterrelatively short period of wear. Can be applied on cellulose and itsblend. Due to mild condition of treatment process is less corrosive.Fancy colour - flenced surface can be obtained without or a partial useof stone. More reproducible effect can be obtained. It allows moreloading of the garment into machines34. Environmental friendly treatment. Less damage to seam edgesand badges. Wear and tear of equipment is minimum due to absenceof stone. Use of softener can be avoided or minimised. Easy handlingof floor and severs as messy sludge of stones does not interfere. Dueto absence of stone, labour intensive operation of stone removal is notrequired. Homogenous abrasion of the garments. Puckering effect canalso be obtained35. ACID WASH It is done by tumbling the garments with pumicestones presoaked in a solution of sodium hypochlorite (5 to 10%) orpotassium permanganate (3 to 6%) for localized bleaching resulting ina non uniform sharp blue/white contrast. To remove the colour only onthe surface of the garment and produces a frosted appearance In thiswash the color contrast of the denim fabric can be enhanced by opticalbrightening. The advantage of this process is that it saves water asaddition of water is not required.36. PROCEDURE: Soak the stones in solution of sodium hypochlorite(5 to 10%) or potassium permanganate (3 to 6%) for 1-2 hrs Stones
  11. 11. should be drained of excess liquor with help of mesh Placed stonesand garments in machine Tumble for 30 mins or until desire effectsare achieved. Results are dependent up on the dyestuff, fabric, andconcentration of chemical, stones, additives, and equipment In somecases, stones can be used ( resoaking, porosity ) Rinse Applysoftener Tumble dry Press, if req.37. Limitations of acid wash: Acid washed, indigo dyed denim has atendency to yellow after wet processing. The major cause is residualmanganese due to incomplete neutralization, washing orrinsing.Remedy: Manganese is effectively removed during launderingwith addition of ethelene- diamine -tetra acetic acid as chelating agent.Acid washing jeans avoided some of problems of stone wash, butcame with added dangers, expenses, and pollution38. MICROSANDINGThere are 3 ways for this technique:Sandblasting Machine sanding Hand sanding or hand brushing39. Used in various ways: - Flat surfaces (tables, ironing boards) Onthe dummy (inflatable dummies, sometimes standing, sometimes flat,sometimes seated) Various templates can be used to create a 3Deffect.40. SAND BLASTING Sand blasting technique is based on blasting anabrasive materialin granular, powdered or other form through a nozzleat very highspeed and pressure onto specific areas of the garmentsurface to betreated to give the desired distressed/ abraded/used look.It is purely mechanical process, not using any chemicals. It is a waterfree process therefore no drying required. Variety of distressed orabraded looks possible. Any number of designs could be created byspecial techniques41. Advantages : Pure chemical process Water free processtherefore no need drying Variety of distresses or abraded lookspossible Any number of designs could be created by special finishes42. Wrinkle Free Finish (or) Ant crease Finish (Or) Wash- N-WearFinish Cotton fabrics are mainly selected for apparels because of their
  12. 12. durability, ability to with stand the rough laundering, good absorption,comfort to wear and ability to take up a wide range of dyestuffs. Themain headache with the cotton fabric is CREASE formation duringwashing, laundering and in use. It is an undesirable property and hencethe crease resistant finish is to be given. It is called as Anti-creasefinish or Crease resistant or Crease recovery finish or Wash-n- Wear‗finishes.43. Object of Anti-crease finish Cotton, viscose fabrics form creasesduring washing, laundering and in use. To prevent it, the anti-creasefinish is given. It is called as Anti-crease finish or Crease resistant orCrease recovery finish or Wash-n- Wear finishes. As the resins areused, it is also called as Resin finishing. It is a permanent chemicalfinish. To keep the fabric flat smooth and free from undesirablecreases44. Usually cotton, linen, viscose and cuprammonium rayon arefinished with resinDepends on1. Amount and type of resin2. Amountand type of catalyst3. Curing conditions4. Quality of cotton5. Processpreceding finishing and possible damage45. MECHANISM OF CREASE FORMATION Cotton cellulosemolecular chain contains OH groups in both amorphous and crystallineregion. When a load is applied on to cotton fabric, the cellulose chainbends and this bending remains permanent since the chains are In-elastic. The hydrogen bonds form, between the adjacent chains in thecrystalline region are broken and new hydrogen bond are formed at thefolding points and in amorphous region, which do not allow the chain toreturn. Hence the creases are formed.46. Method to prevent creases The method of minimizing the formationof creasesinvolves cross-linking the OH groups of adjacentcellulosicchains by means of cross-linking agents. The introduction of cross-linksimparts dimensionalstability and elasticity to the fibrous materialanmakes it crease resistant and crease recoverable. The mostcommonly used cross-linking agentsarenothing but resins. The resinsreact with OH groups ofcellulose forming cross links which is durable
  13. 13. 47. Advantages of resin finishing It improves the Crease Resistanceand Crease Recovery property It reduces the shrinkage of fabricduring laundering It improves the resilience, drape and handle Itimparts a smooth and quick drying property It improves theDimensional stability and weight It increase the strength of rayon inboth wet and dry states It gives resistance to degradation by light andlaundering It improves the fastness to light and wash It prevents theinter-molecular slippage in the fiber It becomes partially water proofand rot proof.48. Disadvantages It decreases the tensile strength and tearingstrength It decreases the abrasion resistance It gives harsh and stifffeel It gives an unpleasant odour It turns yellow after chlorinebleaching49. ResinsDMU Di MethylolUreaDMEU Di Methylol EthyleneUreaDMDHEU Di Methylol Di Hydroxy Ethylene UreaTMM TriMethylolMelamineRecipeFor Shirting cloth (Cotton, PIC,PN)DMU/DMDHEU 80 -100 gpl cross-linking resinMgCl2 - 8 - 10 gplcatalyst for cross linking reactionPE emulsion 20 gplLubricantReactivesoftener 30 gpl softener50. Process Padding in two bowl padding mangle with 80% expressionat room temperature Drying in stenter with minimum tension at 70 -80°C Cure at 120°C -150°C for 2-5 min Cross-linking andpolymerization takes place Washing and soaping - I-2gpl soap or TROand 2-4 gpl soda ash at 50 -60°C for 10 min acidity is neutralisedSoftening and drying - rinsed in water with softener Stentering51. LASER TECHNOLOGY It is a computer controlled process fordenim fading. This technique enables patterns to be created such aslines and/or dots, images, text or even pictures. It is water free fadingof denim. Being an automatic system, chances of human error areslim. Also called spray painting in denims. This technique hasrelatively high cost
  14. 14. HISTORY OF GARMENTS WASH:

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