SWI manual in Hindi - Bihar, India

SRI-Rice, Dept. of Global Development, CALS, Cornell University
SRI-Rice, Dept. of Global Development, CALS, Cornell UniversitySRI-Rice, Dept. of Global Development, CALS, Cornell University
SWI manual in Hindi - Bihar, India
izLrkouk

   2008 & 09 esa fo’o cSd ,oa fcgkj ljdkj }kjk
    laiksf"kr thfodk ifj;kstuk] iVuk ,oa vkRek
 ifj;kstuk] ukyUnk vUrxZr iznku ds ek/;e ls jch
esa Jh fof/k xsg¡w ijh{k.k dh ;kstuk cukbZ A x;k
  ,oa ukyank ftyksa ds fofHkUu iz[k.Mks esa Jh
 fof/k /kku ds mit ls mRlkfgr fdlkuksa us Jh
   fof/k xsg¡w dks vius [ksrksa esa viuk;k A bl
     izf’k{k.k iqfLrdk esa bUgha fdlkuksa dss
    vuqHkoksa dk laf{kIr ladyu gS A Jh fof/k
  fo’ks"k dj NksVs ,oa xjhc fdlkuksa ds fy, fy,
   T;knk mi;qDr gS D;ksafd os cgqr de tehu esa
Jh fof/k ls xsgw¡ dh [ksrh D;k gS 
  ;g xsgw¡ dh [ksrh djus dk ,d rjhdk gS ftlesa /kku dh Jh
  fof/k ds fl)karksas dk ikyu dj ds vf/kd mit izkIr fd;k
  tkrk gS tSls %
  • de cht nj % flQZ 10 fdyksxzke izfr ,dM++
  • Ckht mipkj ,oa la’kks/ku
  • IkkS/kksa ds chp vf/kd nqjh ¼8 baZp drkj ls
               drkj ,oa 8 baZp ikS/kk ls ikS/kk½
  • 2 ls 3 ckj [kjirokj dh fudklh ,oa ohMj ls dksM+kbZ

  Qly dh ns[kHkky lkekU; xsgw¡ dh Qly dh gh rjg dh tkrh
  gS A
bl rjg xsg¡w dh Qly dh vPNh rjg ns[kHkky djds x;k ,oa ukyank
ftys ds fdlkuksa us vkSlr 14 fDoaVy izfr ,dM+ mit ik;h gS tks mudh
igys dh mit ls yxHkx nqxquh gS A fiNys lky yxHkx 280 fdlkuksa us
bl fof/k dks x;k ,oa ukyank ftys esa viuk;k gS A
Ckht ,oa cht dk mipkj
 Ckht dk pquko % bl fof/k ds fy, fdlh [kkl cht
 dh t#jr ugha gS ] vkids bykds ds fy, tks mUur
 cht vuq’kaflr gS mlh dk iz;ksx djsa A vxj viuk cht
 iqjkuk gS rks u;k cht [kjhn ysa A
 Ckht dh ek=k % 10 fdyks izfr ,dM+

 Ckht dk mipkj %
 10 fdyks xsgw¡ ds cht ds mipkj ds fy, fuEufyf[kr
 lkeku dh t#jr gksxh
  10 fdyks mUUkr fdLe ds xsgw¡ dk cht
  xeZ¼lqlqe ;k xquxquk½ ikuh 20 yhVj
  dsapqok [kkn ¼oehZdEiksLV½ 5 fdyks
  xqM+ 4 fdyks
  xkSeq= 4 yhVj                                      xkSew= ,d vljnkj
                                                      izd`frd [kkn gS ftlls
  osfHkLVhu ¼dkcsZUMkfte½ QQwanhuk’kd 20 xzke        vadqfjr gksrs chtksa dks
                                                      rqjar iks"k.k feyrk gS

cht mipkj djds cht }kjk vkus okys jksxksa ls Qly dks cpk;k tk ldrk gS
cht dk mipkj dh fof/k
     10 fdyks cht esa ls feêh] dadM+ ,oa [kjkc chtksa dks NkaV ysaA
     20 yhVj ikuh ,d cZÙku esa xeZ djsa ¼60 fMxzh ls- ;kfu lqlqe gksus
      rd½
     NkaVs gq, chtksa dks bl xeZ ikuh esa Mky nsa A
     Ikkuh ds mij rSj jgs chtksa dks Nkudj gVk nsa A
     vc bl ikuh esa 5 fdyks dsapqok [kkn] 4 fdyks xqM+ ,oa 4 yhVj
      xkSeq= feykdj 8 ?kaVs ds fy, NksM+ nsa A
     8 ?kaVs ds ckn bl feJ.k dks ,d diM+s ls Nku ysa ftlls cht ,oa
      vU; feJ.k ?kksy ls vyx gks tk,] ?kksy ds ikuh dks Qsad nsaA
     Ckht ,oa vU; feJ.k esa osfHkLVhu ¼dkcZUMkfte½ QQwanhuk’kd 20 xzke
      feykdj 12 ?kaVs ds fy, vadqfjr gksus ds fy, xhyk cksjs esa cka/kdj
      NksM+ nsa blh vadqfjr cht dks cksus ds fy, bLrseky fd;k tk,xkA



    bl rjg cht mipkj cht dh c<+us dh ’kfDr dks c<+krk gS vkSj os rsth ls
               c<+rs gSa bls izkbfeax (priming) Hkh dgrs gSa A
[ksr dh rS;kjh
[ksr dh rS;kjh lkekU; xsgw¡ dh [ksrh dh rjg gh
djrs gSaA

xkscj [kkn 20 fDoaVy ;k dsapqok [kkn 4 fDoaVy
izfr ,dM+ esa iz;ksx djuk pkfg,A dEiksLV [kkn
dh mfpr ek=k ds fcuk flQZ jklk;fud [kkn dk
iz;ksx djrs jgus ls [ksr dh mit {kerk ?kVrh
tkrh gS A

vxj [ksr esa Ik;kZIr ueh ugh gS rks cqokb ds igys
,d ckj iysok djuk pkfg, A

vafre tqrkbZ ds igys 27 fdyks Mh , ih vkSj 13-5
fdyks iksVk’k [kkn izfr ,dM+ [ksr esa NhaVdj vPNh
rjg gy ls feêh esa feyk nsa
Jh fof/k ls xsgw¡ dh cqvkbZ
cqvkbZ ds le; [ksr esa vadqj.k ds fy, Ik;kZIr ueh
gksuk pkfg, D;ksafd vadqfjr cht yxk, tk jgs gSa ]
vxj Ik;kZIr ueh ugh gksxh rks vadqj lw[k tk;saxsaA

Ckhtksa dks drkj esa 8 bZap dh nqjh esa yxk;k tkrk
gSA

blds fy, ,d irys dqnkyh ls 8 bZap dh nwjh ij
1 ls 1-5 bZap xgjh ukyh cukrs gSa vkSj blesa 8 b±p
dh nwjh ij 2 cht Mkyrs gSa vkSj mlds ckn feêh
ls <d nsrs gSaA

,d lIrkg ds ckn ftl txg cht ugha vadqjrs gSa
ogk¡ u;k cht yxk nsrs gSaA
[ksrksa dh ns[kHkky
cqvkbZ ds 15 fnuksa ds ckn ,d flapkbZ nsuk t#jh gS D;ksafd
blds ckn ls ikS/kksa esa ubZ tM+sa vkuh ’kq# gksrh gS A vxj
tehu esa ueh u gks rks ikS/kk ubZ tM+sa ugh cuk,xk vkSj
c<+okj #d tk,xhA

flapkbZ ds ckn 40 fdyks ;qfj;k ,oa 4 fDoaVy oehZdEiksLV
dks feykdj NhaV nsa A

flapkbZ ds 2 & 3 fnu ckn irys dqnky ;k ohMj ls feêh
dks <hyk djsa [kkFk gh [kj irokj Hkh fudky nsaA ;g djuk
vfr vko’;d gSa ugh rks flapkbZ vkSj [kkn nsus ds ckn [ksr
esa [kj irokj Hkj tk;saxsaA


bl rjg dksM+kbZ djus ls xsgw¡ ds ikS/ks dh tM+ks dks yack gksus
  esa enn feyrh gS vkSj os feêh ls T;knk iks"k.k ,oa ueh
                     izkIr djrs gSA
[ksr dh ns[kHkky cqvkbZ ds 25 fnu
                       ds ckn
cqvkbZ ds 25 fnuksa ds ckn nwljh flapkbZ nsuk
pkfg,] D;ksafd blds ckn ls ikS/kksa esa u, dYys
rsth ls vkus ’kq# gksrs gS vkSj u, dYys cukus ds
fy, ikS/kksa dks vf/kd ueh ,oa iks"k.k dh t#jr
gksxhA

flapkbZ ds 2&3 fnu ckn irys dqnky ;k ohMj
ls feêh dks <hyk djsa lkFk gh [kj irokj Hkh
fudky nsa A ;g djuk vfrvko’;d gSa ugh rks
flapkbZ nsus ds ckn [ksr esa [kj irokj Hkj
tk;saxsaA



                                                   lkekU; fof/k ls mxk;k x;k
                                                    25 fnu dk xsagw dk ikS/kk
[ksr dh ns[kHkky cqvkbZ ds 40 fnu
cqvkbZ ds 35 ls 40 fnuksa ds ckn flapkbZ
                          ds ckn rhljh
nsuk pkfg,] blds ckn ls ikS/ks rsth ls cM+s gksrs
gS lkFk gh u, dYys Hkh vkrs jgrs gSa A blds
fy, ikS/kksa dks vf/kd ueh ,oa iks"k.k dh t#jr
gksxh A

blfy, flapkbZ ds rqjar ckn 15 fdyks ;qfj;k ,oa
13 fdyks iksVk’k [kkn izfr ,dM+ tehu ds fglkc
ls fNM+dko djsa A

flapkbZ ds 2 & 3 fnu ckn irys dqnky ;k ohMj
ls feêh dks <hyk djsa [kkFk gh [kj irokj Hkh
fudky nsa A blls feêh <hyh gksxh] tM+ksa dks
gok feysxh vkSj ikS/ks rsth ls c<+saxsa A
                                                    lkekU; fof/k ls mxk;k x;k
                                                     40 fnu dk xsgw dk ikS/kk
                                                                   a
Jh fof/k ls mxk;k x;k
Xksg¡w dh Qly esa vxyh                                                          xsgw¡
flapkbZ 60] 80 ,oa 100
fnuksa ds varj ij dh
tkrh gS A ;g le;
feêh ds izdkj ,oa ekSle
ij fuHkZj djrk gS A                                                     lkekU; fof/k ls mxk;k
/;ku nsus dh ckr ;g                                                           x;k xsgw¡
gS fd Qwy vkus ds le;
,oa nkuk esa nw/k Hkjus ds
le; ikuh dh deh ugha
gksuh pkfg, ugha rks
mit esa dkQh deh
gksrh gS A

 Qwy vkuk ,oa nkuk esa nw/k Hkjus dk le; ,d egzRoiw.Zk voLFkk gS bl le; ikuh dh deh fcYdqy
                                       ugha gksuh pkfg, A
Jh fof/k ls xsgq¡ dh mit
2009&10 esa x;k ,oa
ukyank ftys ds 15808
fdlkuksa us Jh fof/k ls xsagw
dh [ksrh dh
bu fdlkuksa dh vkSlr
mit 18-21 fDoaVy izfr
,dM+ gqbZ] tcfd ikjaifjd
fof?k ls bUgh fdlkuksa dks
8 fDoaVy izfr ,dM+ dh
vkSlr mit izkIr gqbZA
Jh fof/k ls izkIr vf/kdre
mit 41 fDoaVy izfr
,dM+ gqbZ tcfd ijaijkxr
fof/k ls vf/kdre mit
11 fDoaVy izfr ,dM+ Fkh
A



    ;s vkadM+s lcwr gSa fd Jh fof/k xsgw¡ dh [ksrh ds fy, Hkh ,d mUur i)fr gSA
Ikzekf.kr fd;k tkrk gS fd Jherh ekyrh nsoh ifr Jh f’ko ckyd fcUn xk¡o djheiqj]
iz[kaM] jktxhj ftyk ukyUnk us vius [ksr esa thfodk ifj;kstuk]iVuk ,oa vkRek] ukyank
varxZr iznku] x;k dh ns[kjs[k esa Jh fof/k ls jch 2008 esa    PBW   343 fdLe dh xsg¡q dh
[ksrh djds 7-96 Vu izfr gsDVs;j dh mit izkIr dh A


   Jh nsoukFk izlkn                                   MkW0 ,e- lh- fnokdj
duh; IkkS/kk laj{k.k inkf/kdkjh           funs’kd] pkoy fodkl funs’kky;
            Ukkyank                                      d`f"k ea=ky;] Hkkjr ljdkj
                                                                    iVuk
Ikzekf.kr fd;k tkrk gS fd Jherh nq[kuh nsoh ifr Jh fcgkjh ikloku xk¡o ’ks[kokjk] iz[kaM
cks/kx;k] ftyk x;k us vius [ksr esa ftfodk ifj;kstuk]iVuk varxZr iznku] x;k dh
ns[kjs[k esa Jh fof/k ls jch 2008 esa   PBW   343 fdLe dh xsagq dh [ksrh djds 5-43 Vu izfr
gsDVs;j dh mit izkIr dh A


                                                              ykyth izlkn pkS/kjh
                                                               ifj;kstuk funs’kd]
                                                                  vkRek] x;k
Ikzekf.kr fd;k tkrk gS fd Jherh ekyk nsoh ifr Jh t;jke ikloku xkao ’ks[kokjk] iz[kaM
cks/kx;k] ftyk x;k us vius [ksr esa ftfodk ifj;kstuk]iVuk varxZr iznku] x;k dh ns[kjs[k
esa Jh fof/k ls jch 2008 esa   PBW   343 fdLe dh xsagq dh [ksrh djds 6-92 Vu izfr gsDVs;j
dh mit izkIr dh A


MkW0 vkj0 ih- ’kekZ                                         Jh lquhy dqekj
fo"k; oLrq fo’ks"kK                                                 funs’kd]
d`f"k foKku dsUnz                                         ftyk xzkeh.k fodkl vfHkdj.k ekuiqj]
x;k                                                        x;k
Jh fof/k ls [ksrh djus ij vf/kd mit D;kas gksrh gS 




                                                                                           Økmu tM+sa
                                                         Lksfeuy tM+sa



bls le>us ds fy, gesa igys xsgw¡ ds ikS/ks dh tM+ks dks tkuuk gksxk
     • vadqj.k ds ckn xsg¡w ds ikS/ks esa lsfeuy tM+sa fudyrh gSa tks ikuh ,oa Hkkstu dh ryk’k esa
     feêh esa uhps dh vksj rsth ls c<+rh gSa] vxj feêh l[r gS rks os T;knk uhps rd ugha tk ikrh
     gSa
     • 20 fnu ds ckn feêh dh lrg ds Bhd uhps Økmu tM+sa fudyrh gSa tks ikuh ,oa Hkkstu dh
     ryk’k esa pkjksa rjQ QSyrh gSa A vxj feêh l[r gS rks os T;knk QSsy ugha ldrh gSa vkSj uUgs
     ikS/ks dks Ik;kZIr Hkkstu ,oa ikuh ugha feyrk gS A
   tM+ks ij Lk[r feêh ds izHkko dks cksalkbZ IkzHkko        (Bonsai Effect*)     dgrs gSa A
• dHkh dHkh feêh ds uhps fifFk;e QQan
                                    w      (Pithium)ds   vkdze.k ls Hkh tM+sa [kjkc gks tkrh gSa
* http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/lockers/Gruver_J/PDF%20files/soil%20conditions%20and%20plant%20growth.pdf
*Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 14(6) 643 - 656 Full text doi:10.1071/PP9870643 © CSIRO 1987
Ikjaijkxr
 fof/k                                                                     Jh fof/k




Jh fof/k esa feêh dks ckj&ckj <hyk djus ls tM+sa T;knk c<+rh gSa vkSj ikS/ks
dks ’kq# ls gh Ik;kZIr iks"k.k ,oa ueh izkIr gksrh gS lkFk gh [kjirokj Hkh
de gks tkrs gSa
cht mipkj ds dkj.k TkM+ esa yxus okys jksx dh jksdFkke gks tkrh gSA
xkSeq= uotkr ikS/ks ds fy, izkd`frd [kkn dk dke djrk gSA
8 bZap dh nwjh ij cksus ls izR;sd ikS/ks ds fy, Ik;kZIr txg feyrh gS
ftlls muesa vkil esa iks"k.k]ueh ,oa izdk’k ds fy, izfr;ksfxrk ugha gksrh
gS A
Jh fof/k ls [ksrh djus ij fdruk [kpZ vkrk gS 
                ,d ,dM+ tehu esa Jh fof/k ,oa ijaijkxr fof/k ds [kpZ dh rqyuk bl rjg gS %
          fooj.k                          Ekk=k                     nj                  [kpZ ¼#½
                        Ikjaijkxr fof/k     Jh fof/k                             Ikjaijkxr fof/k Jh fof/k
      Ckht              50 fdyks            10 fdyks       # 15@fdyks            750             150
      Ckht mipkj                                                                 0               165
      Mh , ih           27 fdyks            27 fdyks       #   12@fdyks          324             324
      iksVk’k           27 fdyks            27 fdyks       #   6@fdyks           162             162
      ;qfj;k            55 fdyks            55 fdyks       #   6@fdyks           330             330
      oehZdEiksLV                           400 fdyks      #   4@fdyks           0               1600
      cqvkbZ            1 etnqj             1 etnqj ,oa    :100@etnqj            50              200
                                            elhu
      flapkbZ           5 flapkbZ           5 flapkbZ      # 200@flapkbZ    1000                 1000
      dksMkbZ
          +             0 etnwj fnol        2 etnwj fnol   # 120@etnwj fnol 0                    340
                                            ,oa elhu
      dqy uxn [kpZ                                                               2616            4271
      dqy mit ¼fDoaVy½                                                           8               18-21
      dqy vkenuh [kpZ dkVdj ¼#½                                                  6984            17581

• bl rjg ge ns[krs gSa fd ikjaifjd fof/k ls xsg¡w mitkus dk [kpZ 327 #i;s izfr fDoaVy gS tcfd Jh fof/k dk [kpZ
Jh fof/k ikyu djus ds fy, vko’;d ckrsa




 Jh fof/k fo’ks"k dj NksVs ,oa xjhc fdlkuksa ds fy, fy, T;knk mi;qDr gS D;ksafd os cgqr de tehu esa
[ksrh djrs gSa vkSj mUgs T;knk vukt dh t#jr gksrh gS A Jh fof/k viukdj os vius ifjokj dh t#jr
iqjh djus ds lkFk dqN cspdj vkenuh Hkh dj ldrs gSa A vius [ksrksa esa os [kqn Je djds [kpZ Hkh cpk
                                                ldrs gSa A
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SWI manual in Hindi - Bihar, India

  • 2. izLrkouk 2008 & 09 esa fo’o cSd ,oa fcgkj ljdkj }kjk laiksf"kr thfodk ifj;kstuk] iVuk ,oa vkRek ifj;kstuk] ukyUnk vUrxZr iznku ds ek/;e ls jch esa Jh fof/k xsg¡w ijh{k.k dh ;kstuk cukbZ A x;k ,oa ukyank ftyksa ds fofHkUu iz[k.Mks esa Jh fof/k /kku ds mit ls mRlkfgr fdlkuksa us Jh fof/k xsg¡w dks vius [ksrksa esa viuk;k A bl izf’k{k.k iqfLrdk esa bUgha fdlkuksa dss vuqHkoksa dk laf{kIr ladyu gS A Jh fof/k fo’ks"k dj NksVs ,oa xjhc fdlkuksa ds fy, fy, T;knk mi;qDr gS D;ksafd os cgqr de tehu esa
  • 3. Jh fof/k ls xsgw¡ dh [ksrh D;k gS ;g xsgw¡ dh [ksrh djus dk ,d rjhdk gS ftlesa /kku dh Jh fof/k ds fl)karksas dk ikyu dj ds vf/kd mit izkIr fd;k tkrk gS tSls % • de cht nj % flQZ 10 fdyksxzke izfr ,dM++ • Ckht mipkj ,oa la’kks/ku • IkkS/kksa ds chp vf/kd nqjh ¼8 baZp drkj ls drkj ,oa 8 baZp ikS/kk ls ikS/kk½ • 2 ls 3 ckj [kjirokj dh fudklh ,oa ohMj ls dksM+kbZ Qly dh ns[kHkky lkekU; xsgw¡ dh Qly dh gh rjg dh tkrh gS A bl rjg xsg¡w dh Qly dh vPNh rjg ns[kHkky djds x;k ,oa ukyank ftys ds fdlkuksa us vkSlr 14 fDoaVy izfr ,dM+ mit ik;h gS tks mudh igys dh mit ls yxHkx nqxquh gS A fiNys lky yxHkx 280 fdlkuksa us bl fof/k dks x;k ,oa ukyank ftys esa viuk;k gS A
  • 4. Ckht ,oa cht dk mipkj Ckht dk pquko % bl fof/k ds fy, fdlh [kkl cht dh t#jr ugha gS ] vkids bykds ds fy, tks mUur cht vuq’kaflr gS mlh dk iz;ksx djsa A vxj viuk cht iqjkuk gS rks u;k cht [kjhn ysa A Ckht dh ek=k % 10 fdyks izfr ,dM+ Ckht dk mipkj % 10 fdyks xsgw¡ ds cht ds mipkj ds fy, fuEufyf[kr lkeku dh t#jr gksxh  10 fdyks mUUkr fdLe ds xsgw¡ dk cht  xeZ¼lqlqe ;k xquxquk½ ikuh 20 yhVj  dsapqok [kkn ¼oehZdEiksLV½ 5 fdyks  xqM+ 4 fdyks  xkSeq= 4 yhVj xkSew= ,d vljnkj izd`frd [kkn gS ftlls  osfHkLVhu ¼dkcsZUMkfte½ QQwanhuk’kd 20 xzke vadqfjr gksrs chtksa dks rqjar iks"k.k feyrk gS cht mipkj djds cht }kjk vkus okys jksxksa ls Qly dks cpk;k tk ldrk gS
  • 5. cht dk mipkj dh fof/k  10 fdyks cht esa ls feêh] dadM+ ,oa [kjkc chtksa dks NkaV ysaA  20 yhVj ikuh ,d cZÙku esa xeZ djsa ¼60 fMxzh ls- ;kfu lqlqe gksus rd½  NkaVs gq, chtksa dks bl xeZ ikuh esa Mky nsa A  Ikkuh ds mij rSj jgs chtksa dks Nkudj gVk nsa A  vc bl ikuh esa 5 fdyks dsapqok [kkn] 4 fdyks xqM+ ,oa 4 yhVj xkSeq= feykdj 8 ?kaVs ds fy, NksM+ nsa A  8 ?kaVs ds ckn bl feJ.k dks ,d diM+s ls Nku ysa ftlls cht ,oa vU; feJ.k ?kksy ls vyx gks tk,] ?kksy ds ikuh dks Qsad nsaA  Ckht ,oa vU; feJ.k esa osfHkLVhu ¼dkcZUMkfte½ QQwanhuk’kd 20 xzke feykdj 12 ?kaVs ds fy, vadqfjr gksus ds fy, xhyk cksjs esa cka/kdj NksM+ nsa blh vadqfjr cht dks cksus ds fy, bLrseky fd;k tk,xkA bl rjg cht mipkj cht dh c<+us dh ’kfDr dks c<+krk gS vkSj os rsth ls c<+rs gSa bls izkbfeax (priming) Hkh dgrs gSa A
  • 6. [ksr dh rS;kjh [ksr dh rS;kjh lkekU; xsgw¡ dh [ksrh dh rjg gh djrs gSaA xkscj [kkn 20 fDoaVy ;k dsapqok [kkn 4 fDoaVy izfr ,dM+ esa iz;ksx djuk pkfg,A dEiksLV [kkn dh mfpr ek=k ds fcuk flQZ jklk;fud [kkn dk iz;ksx djrs jgus ls [ksr dh mit {kerk ?kVrh tkrh gS A vxj [ksr esa Ik;kZIr ueh ugh gS rks cqokb ds igys ,d ckj iysok djuk pkfg, A vafre tqrkbZ ds igys 27 fdyks Mh , ih vkSj 13-5 fdyks iksVk’k [kkn izfr ,dM+ [ksr esa NhaVdj vPNh rjg gy ls feêh esa feyk nsa
  • 7. Jh fof/k ls xsgw¡ dh cqvkbZ cqvkbZ ds le; [ksr esa vadqj.k ds fy, Ik;kZIr ueh gksuk pkfg, D;ksafd vadqfjr cht yxk, tk jgs gSa ] vxj Ik;kZIr ueh ugh gksxh rks vadqj lw[k tk;saxsaA Ckhtksa dks drkj esa 8 bZap dh nqjh esa yxk;k tkrk gSA blds fy, ,d irys dqnkyh ls 8 bZap dh nwjh ij 1 ls 1-5 bZap xgjh ukyh cukrs gSa vkSj blesa 8 b±p dh nwjh ij 2 cht Mkyrs gSa vkSj mlds ckn feêh ls <d nsrs gSaA ,d lIrkg ds ckn ftl txg cht ugha vadqjrs gSa ogk¡ u;k cht yxk nsrs gSaA
  • 8. [ksrksa dh ns[kHkky cqvkbZ ds 15 fnuksa ds ckn ,d flapkbZ nsuk t#jh gS D;ksafd blds ckn ls ikS/kksa esa ubZ tM+sa vkuh ’kq# gksrh gS A vxj tehu esa ueh u gks rks ikS/kk ubZ tM+sa ugh cuk,xk vkSj c<+okj #d tk,xhA flapkbZ ds ckn 40 fdyks ;qfj;k ,oa 4 fDoaVy oehZdEiksLV dks feykdj NhaV nsa A flapkbZ ds 2 & 3 fnu ckn irys dqnky ;k ohMj ls feêh dks <hyk djsa [kkFk gh [kj irokj Hkh fudky nsaA ;g djuk vfr vko’;d gSa ugh rks flapkbZ vkSj [kkn nsus ds ckn [ksr esa [kj irokj Hkj tk;saxsaA bl rjg dksM+kbZ djus ls xsgw¡ ds ikS/ks dh tM+ks dks yack gksus esa enn feyrh gS vkSj os feêh ls T;knk iks"k.k ,oa ueh izkIr djrs gSA
  • 9. [ksr dh ns[kHkky cqvkbZ ds 25 fnu ds ckn cqvkbZ ds 25 fnuksa ds ckn nwljh flapkbZ nsuk pkfg,] D;ksafd blds ckn ls ikS/kksa esa u, dYys rsth ls vkus ’kq# gksrs gS vkSj u, dYys cukus ds fy, ikS/kksa dks vf/kd ueh ,oa iks"k.k dh t#jr gksxhA flapkbZ ds 2&3 fnu ckn irys dqnky ;k ohMj ls feêh dks <hyk djsa lkFk gh [kj irokj Hkh fudky nsa A ;g djuk vfrvko’;d gSa ugh rks flapkbZ nsus ds ckn [ksr esa [kj irokj Hkj tk;saxsaA lkekU; fof/k ls mxk;k x;k 25 fnu dk xsagw dk ikS/kk
  • 10. [ksr dh ns[kHkky cqvkbZ ds 40 fnu cqvkbZ ds 35 ls 40 fnuksa ds ckn flapkbZ ds ckn rhljh nsuk pkfg,] blds ckn ls ikS/ks rsth ls cM+s gksrs gS lkFk gh u, dYys Hkh vkrs jgrs gSa A blds fy, ikS/kksa dks vf/kd ueh ,oa iks"k.k dh t#jr gksxh A blfy, flapkbZ ds rqjar ckn 15 fdyks ;qfj;k ,oa 13 fdyks iksVk’k [kkn izfr ,dM+ tehu ds fglkc ls fNM+dko djsa A flapkbZ ds 2 & 3 fnu ckn irys dqnky ;k ohMj ls feêh dks <hyk djsa [kkFk gh [kj irokj Hkh fudky nsa A blls feêh <hyh gksxh] tM+ksa dks gok feysxh vkSj ikS/ks rsth ls c<+saxsa A lkekU; fof/k ls mxk;k x;k 40 fnu dk xsgw dk ikS/kk a
  • 11. Jh fof/k ls mxk;k x;k Xksg¡w dh Qly esa vxyh xsgw¡ flapkbZ 60] 80 ,oa 100 fnuksa ds varj ij dh tkrh gS A ;g le; feêh ds izdkj ,oa ekSle ij fuHkZj djrk gS A lkekU; fof/k ls mxk;k /;ku nsus dh ckr ;g x;k xsgw¡ gS fd Qwy vkus ds le; ,oa nkuk esa nw/k Hkjus ds le; ikuh dh deh ugha gksuh pkfg, ugha rks mit esa dkQh deh gksrh gS A Qwy vkuk ,oa nkuk esa nw/k Hkjus dk le; ,d egzRoiw.Zk voLFkk gS bl le; ikuh dh deh fcYdqy ugha gksuh pkfg, A
  • 12. Jh fof/k ls xsgq¡ dh mit 2009&10 esa x;k ,oa ukyank ftys ds 15808 fdlkuksa us Jh fof/k ls xsagw dh [ksrh dh bu fdlkuksa dh vkSlr mit 18-21 fDoaVy izfr ,dM+ gqbZ] tcfd ikjaifjd fof?k ls bUgh fdlkuksa dks 8 fDoaVy izfr ,dM+ dh vkSlr mit izkIr gqbZA Jh fof/k ls izkIr vf/kdre mit 41 fDoaVy izfr ,dM+ gqbZ tcfd ijaijkxr fof/k ls vf/kdre mit 11 fDoaVy izfr ,dM+ Fkh A ;s vkadM+s lcwr gSa fd Jh fof/k xsgw¡ dh [ksrh ds fy, Hkh ,d mUur i)fr gSA
  • 13. Ikzekf.kr fd;k tkrk gS fd Jherh ekyrh nsoh ifr Jh f’ko ckyd fcUn xk¡o djheiqj] iz[kaM] jktxhj ftyk ukyUnk us vius [ksr esa thfodk ifj;kstuk]iVuk ,oa vkRek] ukyank varxZr iznku] x;k dh ns[kjs[k esa Jh fof/k ls jch 2008 esa PBW 343 fdLe dh xsg¡q dh [ksrh djds 7-96 Vu izfr gsDVs;j dh mit izkIr dh A Jh nsoukFk izlkn MkW0 ,e- lh- fnokdj duh; IkkS/kk laj{k.k inkf/kdkjh funs’kd] pkoy fodkl funs’kky; Ukkyank d`f"k ea=ky;] Hkkjr ljdkj iVuk
  • 14. Ikzekf.kr fd;k tkrk gS fd Jherh nq[kuh nsoh ifr Jh fcgkjh ikloku xk¡o ’ks[kokjk] iz[kaM cks/kx;k] ftyk x;k us vius [ksr esa ftfodk ifj;kstuk]iVuk varxZr iznku] x;k dh ns[kjs[k esa Jh fof/k ls jch 2008 esa PBW 343 fdLe dh xsagq dh [ksrh djds 5-43 Vu izfr gsDVs;j dh mit izkIr dh A ykyth izlkn pkS/kjh ifj;kstuk funs’kd] vkRek] x;k
  • 15. Ikzekf.kr fd;k tkrk gS fd Jherh ekyk nsoh ifr Jh t;jke ikloku xkao ’ks[kokjk] iz[kaM cks/kx;k] ftyk x;k us vius [ksr esa ftfodk ifj;kstuk]iVuk varxZr iznku] x;k dh ns[kjs[k esa Jh fof/k ls jch 2008 esa PBW 343 fdLe dh xsagq dh [ksrh djds 6-92 Vu izfr gsDVs;j dh mit izkIr dh A MkW0 vkj0 ih- ’kekZ Jh lquhy dqekj fo"k; oLrq fo’ks"kK funs’kd] d`f"k foKku dsUnz ftyk xzkeh.k fodkl vfHkdj.k ekuiqj] x;k x;k
  • 16. Jh fof/k ls [ksrh djus ij vf/kd mit D;kas gksrh gS Økmu tM+sa Lksfeuy tM+sa bls le>us ds fy, gesa igys xsgw¡ ds ikS/ks dh tM+ks dks tkuuk gksxk • vadqj.k ds ckn xsg¡w ds ikS/ks esa lsfeuy tM+sa fudyrh gSa tks ikuh ,oa Hkkstu dh ryk’k esa feêh esa uhps dh vksj rsth ls c<+rh gSa] vxj feêh l[r gS rks os T;knk uhps rd ugha tk ikrh gSa • 20 fnu ds ckn feêh dh lrg ds Bhd uhps Økmu tM+sa fudyrh gSa tks ikuh ,oa Hkkstu dh ryk’k esa pkjksa rjQ QSyrh gSa A vxj feêh l[r gS rks os T;knk QSsy ugha ldrh gSa vkSj uUgs ikS/ks dks Ik;kZIr Hkkstu ,oa ikuh ugha feyrk gS A tM+ks ij Lk[r feêh ds izHkko dks cksalkbZ IkzHkko (Bonsai Effect*) dgrs gSa A • dHkh dHkh feêh ds uhps fifFk;e QQan w (Pithium)ds vkdze.k ls Hkh tM+sa [kjkc gks tkrh gSa * http://www.soil.ncsu.edu/lockers/Gruver_J/PDF%20files/soil%20conditions%20and%20plant%20growth.pdf *Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 14(6) 643 - 656 Full text doi:10.1071/PP9870643 © CSIRO 1987
  • 17. Ikjaijkxr fof/k Jh fof/k Jh fof/k esa feêh dks ckj&ckj <hyk djus ls tM+sa T;knk c<+rh gSa vkSj ikS/ks dks ’kq# ls gh Ik;kZIr iks"k.k ,oa ueh izkIr gksrh gS lkFk gh [kjirokj Hkh de gks tkrs gSa cht mipkj ds dkj.k TkM+ esa yxus okys jksx dh jksdFkke gks tkrh gSA xkSeq= uotkr ikS/ks ds fy, izkd`frd [kkn dk dke djrk gSA 8 bZap dh nwjh ij cksus ls izR;sd ikS/ks ds fy, Ik;kZIr txg feyrh gS ftlls muesa vkil esa iks"k.k]ueh ,oa izdk’k ds fy, izfr;ksfxrk ugha gksrh gS A
  • 18. Jh fof/k ls [ksrh djus ij fdruk [kpZ vkrk gS ,d ,dM+ tehu esa Jh fof/k ,oa ijaijkxr fof/k ds [kpZ dh rqyuk bl rjg gS % fooj.k Ekk=k nj [kpZ ¼#½ Ikjaijkxr fof/k Jh fof/k Ikjaijkxr fof/k Jh fof/k Ckht 50 fdyks 10 fdyks # 15@fdyks 750 150 Ckht mipkj 0 165 Mh , ih 27 fdyks 27 fdyks # 12@fdyks 324 324 iksVk’k 27 fdyks 27 fdyks # 6@fdyks 162 162 ;qfj;k 55 fdyks 55 fdyks # 6@fdyks 330 330 oehZdEiksLV 400 fdyks # 4@fdyks 0 1600 cqvkbZ 1 etnqj 1 etnqj ,oa :100@etnqj 50 200 elhu flapkbZ 5 flapkbZ 5 flapkbZ # 200@flapkbZ 1000 1000 dksMkbZ + 0 etnwj fnol 2 etnwj fnol # 120@etnwj fnol 0 340 ,oa elhu dqy uxn [kpZ 2616 4271 dqy mit ¼fDoaVy½ 8 18-21 dqy vkenuh [kpZ dkVdj ¼#½ 6984 17581 • bl rjg ge ns[krs gSa fd ikjaifjd fof/k ls xsg¡w mitkus dk [kpZ 327 #i;s izfr fDoaVy gS tcfd Jh fof/k dk [kpZ
  • 19. Jh fof/k ikyu djus ds fy, vko’;d ckrsa Jh fof/k fo’ks"k dj NksVs ,oa xjhc fdlkuksa ds fy, fy, T;knk mi;qDr gS D;ksafd os cgqr de tehu esa [ksrh djrs gSa vkSj mUgs T;knk vukt dh t#jr gksrh gS A Jh fof/k viukdj os vius ifjokj dh t#jr iqjh djus ds lkFk dqN cspdj vkenuh Hkh dj ldrs gSa A vius [ksrksa esa os [kqn Je djds [kpZ Hkh cpk ldrs gSa A