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1509 - Identification of the Critical Factors of SRI for maximizing Boro rice yield in Bangladesh

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Title: Identification of the critical factors of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) for maximizing Boro rice yield in Bangladesh
Presenter: Md. Abu Bakar Siddique Sarker, Principle Scientific Officer, Agronomy Division, Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI)
Venue: The 17th Australian Agronomy Conference, Wrest Point Convention Centre in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Date: September 24, 2015

Published in: Technology
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1509 - Identification of the Critical Factors of SRI for maximizing Boro rice yield in Bangladesh

  1. 1. Identification of the critical factors ofIdentification of the critical factors of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) forSystem of Rice Intensification (SRI) for maximizing Boro rice yield in Bangladeshmaximizing Boro rice yield in Bangladesh Presented byPresented by Md. Abu Bakar Siddique SarkerMd. Abu Bakar Siddique Sarker Principal Scientific Officer, Agronomy DivisionPrincipal Scientific Officer, Agronomy Division Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI)Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI) Gazipur, BangladeshGazipur, Bangladesh
  2. 2. Significance of this research workSignificance of this research work • Rice is the staple food of Bangladeshi people. • Rice is currently cultivated on 10.61 million hectares, withRice is currently cultivated on 10.61 million hectares, with production of 34.4 million tons, and average yield of 4.73 t haproduction of 34.4 million tons, and average yield of 4.73 t ha -1-1 (BRRI, 2014).(BRRI, 2014). • This yield is well below that of other rice-growing countriesThis yield is well below that of other rice-growing countries such as China, Japan, Korea and Egypt, with yields of 6.8,such as China, Japan, Korea and Egypt, with yields of 6.8, 6.7, 7.5, and 10.10 t ha6.7, 7.5, and 10.10 t ha-1-1 , respectively (IRRI, 2015)., respectively (IRRI, 2015). • By 2025, the total rice area will probably be reduced by 5% or so, while the 21% additional more rice needed by then will have to be produced from less land (Bhuiyan et al., 2002). • Further, varietal gains in yield potential have been declining. • Higher rice production will thus have to be achieved mostly through improvements in agronomic management.
  3. 3. The System of Rice Intensification developed inThe System of Rice Intensification developed in MadagascarMadagascar is a set of specific crop managementis a set of specific crop management practices, some of them counter-intuitive, that arepractices, some of them counter-intuitive, that are based on certain principles whose applicationbased on certain principles whose application should be adapted to local conditionsshould be adapted to local conditions rather thanrather than simply adopted as a set package.simply adopted as a set package. –– SRI is thus more like aSRI is thus more like a menumenu than athan a reciperecipe forfor raising rice productivity.raising rice productivity. SRI has the potential to improve rice production without or with less dependence on: • New rice varieties, • Agrochemical inputs – fertilizers and biocides, or • Large amounts of irrigation water. It can contribute to a healthier natural environment, with better water quality and soil health WHAT IS SRI ?WHAT IS SRI ?
  4. 4. • The technique is now being studied and evaluated in many South and Southeast Asian countries by – Scientists, – Extension workers, and – Rice growers. • SRI is gaining acceptance and use in all of the rice-growing countries of Asia, where 90% of the world's rice is grown. – Its methods are being promoted by governments in China, India, Indonesia, Cambodia and Vietnam, which together grow 2/3 of the world’s rice. • Results from many countries of the world give evidence of quite positive results from SRI methods (http://sri.cals.cornell.edu ). – The benefits of SRI management have been seen to date in 55 countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
  5. 5. • SRI methodology in Bangladesh has beenSRI methodology in Bangladesh has been reported to have a high production potential inreported to have a high production potential in thethe BoroBoro season in comparison with currentlyseason in comparison with currently recommended practices, farmer practices, therecommended practices, farmer practices, the seedling-throwing method, and use of a drumseedling-throwing method, and use of a drum seeder in light-textured soils (Sarkerseeder in light-textured soils (Sarker et al.et al. 2007).2007). • Some GOs and NGOs in Bangladesh haveSome GOs and NGOs in Bangladesh have initiated SRI method on a limited scale ininitiated SRI method on a limited scale in farmer’s fields, and these trials have showedfarmer’s fields, and these trials have showed promising results.promising results. • It is seen that SRI can be a low-input, low-costIt is seen that SRI can be a low-input, low-cost and high-productivity technology for theand high-productivity technology for the resource-poor farmers.resource-poor farmers. • The new techniques of SRI are expected toThe new techniques of SRI are expected to change traditional management practices bychange traditional management practices by
  6. 6. The basic elements of SRI are:The basic elements of SRI are: 1. Start by transplanting younger seedlings (< 15 d), quickly and carefully, only 1-2 cm deep into soil that is muddy but not flooded; 2. Transplant the seedlings far apart, one per hill,Transplant the seedlings far apart, one per hill, and in a square pattern to facilitate weeding,and in a square pattern to facilitate weeding, reducing plant population mreducing plant population m-2-2 by 80-90%;by 80-90%; 3.3. Keep the soil well-drained, not always flooded,Keep the soil well-drained, not always flooded, maintaining mostly aerobic soil conditions;maintaining mostly aerobic soil conditions; 4.4. Control weed growth with a mechanical weederControl weed growth with a mechanical weeder that aerates the soil, using early and often; andthat aerates the soil, using early and often; and 5.5. Improve soil structure and functioning byImprove soil structure and functioning by building up soil organic matter with compost orbuilding up soil organic matter with compost or other OM.other OM. These practices together promote larger, healthier andThese practices together promote larger, healthier and longer-lived root systems and more abundant, diverselonger-lived root systems and more abundant, diverse communities of beneficial soil organisms that providecommunities of beneficial soil organisms that provide services and protection.services and protection. THE CRITICAL FACTORS OF SRITHE CRITICAL FACTORS OF SRI
  7. 7.  Find out the bestFind out the best crop establishment timecrop establishment time andand seedlingseedling ageage for effective tiller production and crop performancefor effective tiller production and crop performance in thein the BoroBoro season with SRI techniques;season with SRI techniques;  FFind out the bestind out the best water management practiceswater management practices for cropfor crop performance with SRI techniques;performance with SRI techniques;  Find out the bestFind out the best integrated use of manure and fertilizerintegrated use of manure and fertilizer for crop performance with SRI techniques;for crop performance with SRI techniques;  Find out the effect ofFind out the effect of soil-stirring practicessoil-stirring practices for best cropfor best crop performance under SRI management;performance under SRI management;  Investigate the effects ofInvestigate the effects of spacingspacing andand seedling-raisingseedling-raising methodmethod for higher performance of Boro rice under SRI;for higher performance of Boro rice under SRI;  Find out and recommend theFind out and recommend the best combinationbest combination of criticalof critical factors for yield maximization offactors for yield maximization of BoroBoro crop undercrop under SRI.SRI. The study was undertaken with following objectives:The study was undertaken with following objectives:
  8. 8. The research was carried out at the Bangladesh RiceThe research was carried out at the Bangladesh Rice Research Institute research farm at Gazipur, whichResearch Institute research farm at Gazipur, which is:is: – Located between 23Located between 23°° 59'23'' N latitude and59'23'' N latitude and 9090°° 24'19'' E longitude24'19'' E longitude – Mean elevation is 49 ft above sea levelMean elevation is 49 ft above sea level – Agro-ecological region is Madhupur TractAgro-ecological region is Madhupur Tract – Mean annual precipitation is 2039 mmMean annual precipitation is 2039 mm – Mean annual temperature is 25.7Mean annual temperature is 25.7°° C, with aC, with a mean maximum temperature of 30.4mean maximum temperature of 30.4°° C, and aC, and a mean minimum temperature of 21.1mean minimum temperature of 21.1°° CC – Day length ranging from 10.7 to 13.7 hours.Day length ranging from 10.7 to 13.7 hours. Location of the experimentsLocation of the experiments
  9. 9. • Ten experiments were conducted over four years’Ten experiments were conducted over four years’ time to fulfill the above objectives.time to fulfill the above objectives. • Experiments 1, 2, 3 and 4 were conducted in theExperiments 1, 2, 3 and 4 were conducted in the 11stst year (year (BoroBoro 2007-2008) and were repeated the2007-2008) and were repeated the next year (next year (BoroBoro 2008-09) as experiments 5, 6, 72008-09) as experiments 5, 6, 7 and 8 for confirmation of the 1and 8 for confirmation of the 1stst year results.year results. • Based on evaluation of the 1Based on evaluation of the 1stst and 2and 2ndnd year results,year results, experiment 9 was designed for the 3experiment 9 was designed for the 3rdrd year (year (BoroBoro 2009-10) in which the best practice performances2009-10) in which the best practice performances were further evaluated against each other.were further evaluated against each other. • Then in the 4Then in the 4thth year (2010-11), experiment 10 wasyear (2010-11), experiment 10 was undertaken for a controlled comparison, testingundertaken for a controlled comparison, testing the SRI practices that had shown themselves to bethe SRI practices that had shown themselves to be the best in previous trials against the ricethe best in previous trials against the rice production system currently being recommendedproduction system currently being recommended forfor BoroBoro season by BRRI.season by BRRI. Methodology followed
  10. 10. • Results of Experiments 1 and 5Results of Experiments 1 and 5 : Grain yield under SRI at early: Grain yield under SRI at early transplantation (November 15) and late transplantation (aftertransplantation (November 15) and late transplantation (after January 15) did not perform so well, whereas transplantingJanuary 15) did not perform so well, whereas transplanting between November 30 to December 15 produced higher yield.between November 30 to December 15 produced higher yield. • When germinated seed was transplanted, grain yield wasWhen germinated seed was transplanted, grain yield was lower, while it was increased from us of 8-day and 12-day oldlower, while it was increased from us of 8-day and 12-day old seedlings. No yield increase was seen with 16-day oldseedlings. No yield increase was seen with 16-day old seedlings.seedlings. Conclusion:Conclusion: Transplanting under SRI should be done betweenTransplanting under SRI should be done between December 01 to December 15 and with 12-day old seedlings.December 01 to December 15 and with 12-day old seedlings.
  11. 11. Pictures of different stages of 1st experimentPictures of different stages of 1st experiment Active tillering stageActive tillering stage Panicle-initiating stagePanicle-initiating stage Grain-filling stageGrain-filling stage Ripening stageRipening stage
  12. 12. Factor A: Water managementFactor A: Water management Factor B: Soil stirringFactor B: Soil stirring II11 = Conventional flooding= Conventional flooding SS11 = 1 stirring at 20 DAT= 1 stirring at 20 DAT II22 = Shallow AWD irrigation at 3 days= Shallow AWD irrigation at 3 days SS22 = 2 stirrings at 20 and 35 DAT= 2 stirrings at 20 and 35 DAT II33 = Shallow AWD irrigation at 5 days= Shallow AWD irrigation at 5 days SS33 = 3 stirrings at 20, 35 and 45 DAT= 3 stirrings at 20, 35 and 45 DAT II44 = Shallow AWD irrigation at 7 days= Shallow AWD irrigation at 7 days SS44 = Weekly stirrings after 15 DAT= Weekly stirrings after 15 DAT II55, I, I66 = Deeper irrigation when water table goes below 15 or 25 cm (measured by pipe)= Deeper irrigation when water table goes below 15 or 25 cm (measured by pipe) Results of Experiments 2 and 6Results of Experiments 2 and 6 :: Higher grain yield was achieved under Irrigation IHigher grain yield was achieved under Irrigation I 22 (water at 3-day(water at 3-day intervals) compared to other tested water managementintervals) compared to other tested water management practices. Similarly stirring Spractices. Similarly stirring S33 (three stirrings) gave(three stirrings) gave
  13. 13. Results of Experiments 3 and 7Results of Experiments 3 and 7 :: Higher grain yield was obtained with fertilizer/manure managementHigher grain yield was obtained with fertilizer/manure management treatments Ntreatments N66 and Nand N77 (100% rec. inorganic + 5 or 10 t ha(100% rec. inorganic + 5 or 10 t ha -1-1 manure).manure). Stirring SStirring S22 (stirrings at(stirrings at 15, 30 and 45 DAT)15, 30 and 45 DAT) gave the best graingave the best grain yield.yield. To achieve maximum grain yield under SRI, fertilizer and manureTo achieve maximum grain yield under SRI, fertilizer and manure management either Nmanagement either N66 or Nor N77 may used with Stirring Smay used with Stirring S22 management.management.
  14. 14. Results of Experiments 4 and 8: Higher grain yield was observed in spacings S5 (30 x25 cm) and S6 (30x30 cm) together with seedling-raising methods M2 and M3 (10d seedlings raised in compost or normal-soil nursery beds).
  15. 15. Pictures of different stages of experiments 4 and 8 Seedling-raising methodsSeedling-raising methods Maximum tillering stageMaximum tillering stage Maturity stageMaturity stage
  16. 16. Experiment 9 On the basis of 1On the basis of 1stst and 2and 2ndnd year information, experiment 9 evaluated:year information, experiment 9 evaluated: Factor A: Spacing (2 treatments)Factor A: Spacing (2 treatments) SS11 = 25 x 15 cm= 25 x 15 cm SS22 = 30 x 30 cm= 30 x 30 cm Factor B: Water management methods (2 treatments)Factor B: Water management methods (2 treatments) II11 = 5-7 cm depth of water was added to field, followed by further= 5-7 cm depth of water was added to field, followed by further irrigation at 3 days after disappearance. This was continued fromirrigation at 3 days after disappearance. This was continued from 15 DAT to PI stage, then 5-7 cm standing water was kept up to15 DAT to PI stage, then 5-7 cm standing water was kept up to hard dough stagehard dough stage II22 = 2-3 cm depth of water was added to field during irrigation just for= 2-3 cm depth of water was added to field during irrigation just for soaking the soil; then further irrigation was added at 3 days aftersoaking the soil; then further irrigation was added at 3 days after disappearing. This was continued from 15 DAT to PI stage; thendisappearing. This was continued from 15 DAT to PI stage; then 5-7 cm standing water was kept up to hard dough stage5-7 cm standing water was kept up to hard dough stage Factor C: Fertilizer and manure management (2 treatments)Factor C: Fertilizer and manure management (2 treatments) NN11 = 100% of the recommended inorganic fertilizer= 100% of the recommended inorganic fertilizer NN22 = 10 t/ha of manure + 100% of the recommended inorganic= 10 t/ha of manure + 100% of the recommended inorganic fertilizerfertilizer Factor D: Soil stirring (2 treatments)Factor D: Soil stirring (2 treatments) M1 = No soil stirringM1 = No soil stirring M2 = Stirring at 15 DAT, 30 DAT, and 45 DATM2 = Stirring at 15 DAT, 30 DAT, and 45 DAT
  17. 17. SpacingSpacing (S)(S) SeedlingSeedling (M)(M) IrrigationIrrigation (I)(I) Nutrients (N)Nutrients (N) MeanMean DifferenceDifference NN11 NN22 SS11 MM11 II11 9.83 a9.83 a 8.57 b8.57 b 9.209.20 1.25 **1.25 ** SS11 MM11 II22 8.65 b8.65 b 7.65 c7.65 c 8.158.15 1.00 **1.00 ** SS11 MM22 II11 9.65 a9.65 a 8.62 b8.62 b 9.149.14 1.03**1.03** SS11 MM22 II22 8.78 b8.78 b 7.29 c7.29 c 8.048.04 1.50**1.50** SS22 MM11 II11 9.62 a9.62 a 8.38 b8.38 b 9.009.00 1.24**1.24** SS22 MM11 II22 9.48 a9.48 a 8.86 b8.86 b 8.978.97 1.02**1.02** SS22 MM22 II11 9.58 a9.58 a 8.66 b8.66 b 9.129.12 0.91**0.91** SS22 MM22 II22 8.79 b8.79 b 7.16 c7.16 c 7.987.98 1.63**1.63** Interaction effects of selected factors of SRI practice on the grain yield (t ha-1 ) of BRRI dhan29 in Boro season, 2009-10 ** 1% significance Conclusion:Conclusion: Highest yield performance was obtained byHighest yield performance was obtained by combination ofcombination of S1 M1 N1 I1S1 M1 N1 I1 treatmentstreatments (9.83 t/ha)(9.83 t/ha) followed byfollowed by S1S1 M2 N1 I1M2 N1 I1 (9.65 t/ha),(9.65 t/ha), thenthen S2 M1 N1 I1S2 M1 N1 I1 (9.62 t/ha)(9.62 t/ha)
  18. 18. Results of 9Results of 9thth experimentexperiment The highest grain yield (9.83 t haThe highest grain yield (9.83 t ha-1-1 ) was recorded when:) was recorded when:  12-day-old seedlings raised in compost bed (M12-day-old seedlings raised in compost bed (M11 )) werewere  Transplanted with 30 × 25-cm spacing (STransplanted with 30 × 25-cm spacing (S11 ),),  Maintaining 2-3 cm depth of irrigation from 15 DAT,Maintaining 2-3 cm depth of irrigation from 15 DAT, followed by further irrigations at 3-day intervals afterfollowed by further irrigations at 3-day intervals after disappearance during vegetative growth period (Idisappearance during vegetative growth period (I 11 ))  Application of 10 t haApplication of 10 t ha-1-1 of manure + 100% of theof manure + 100% of the
  19. 19. Experiment 10Experiment 10 This experiment was based on the best performancesThis experiment was based on the best performances for different SRI practices from the preceding 3 yearsfor different SRI practices from the preceding 3 years of evaluation (experiments 1 through 9), beingof evaluation (experiments 1 through 9), being designed as follows:designed as follows: MAIN PLOTS : Stirring (M) 2 x Irrigation (I) 2 = 4 levelsMAIN PLOTS : Stirring (M) 2 x Irrigation (I) 2 = 4 levels SUB-PLOTS: Spacing (S) 2 x Seedling Age (A) 2 = 4 levelsSUB-PLOTS: Spacing (S) 2 x Seedling Age (A) 2 = 4 levels SUB-SUB-PLOTS: Manure & Fertilizer (N) = 2 levelsSUB-SUB-PLOTS: Manure & Fertilizer (N) = 2 levels Treatments = 4 x 4 x 2 = 32 x 3 replications = 96 totalTreatments = 4 x 4 x 2 = 32 x 3 replications = 96 total
  20. 20. Results of Experiment 10Results of Experiment 10 ** = significant at 1% level, * = significant at 5% level, ns = not significant In a column under each A, means followed by a common letters are not significantly different at the 5% level by DMR Sub-plotsSub-plots (Spacing ×(Spacing × Seedling age)Seedling age) Main plotsMain plots (Irrigation ×(Irrigation × Stirring )Stirring ) Sub-sub plots (Nutrient management)Sub-sub plots (Nutrient management) NN11 NN22 DifferencesDifferences AA11 = M= M11 II11 5.27 c5.27 c 5.62 b5.62 b 6.04 ab6.04 ab 6.65 a6.65 a 6.00 b6.00 b 6.28 b6.28 b 6.82 a6.82 a 7.08 a7.08 a 5.54 c5.54 c 6.39 b6.39 b 6.25 bc6.25 bc 7.72 a7.72 a 5.87 c5.87 c 7.03 b7.03 b 5.85 b5.85 b 6.72 b6.72 b 6.74 b6.74 b 7.39 a7.39 a 6.57 c6.57 c 6.93 bc6.93 bc 7.65 ab7.65 ab 7.79 a7.79 a 6.26 c6.26 c 7.48 b7.48 b 7.83 b7.83 b 9.43 a9.43 a 6.62 c6.62 c 7.84 b7.84 b -0.58 *-0.58 * -0.81 *-0.81 * -0.70 *-0.70 * -0.74 *-0.74 * -0.57 *-0.57 * -0.65 *-0.65 * -0. 83 *-0. 83 * -0.71 *-0.71 * -0.72 *-0.72 * -1.08 **-1.08 ** -1.58 **-1.58 ** -1.71 **-1.71 ** -0. 75 *-0. 75 * -0.81 *-0.81 * BB11 = S= S11 AA11 BB22 = S= S11 AA22 BB33 = S= S22 AA11 BB44 = S= S22 AA22 MM11 II11 MM11 II11 MM11 II11 MM11 II11 AA22 = M= M11 II22 BB11 = S= S11 AA11 BB22 = S= S11 AA22 BB33 = S= S22 AA11 BB44 = S= S22 AA22 MM11 II22 MM11 II22 MM11 II22 MM11 II22 AA33 = M= M22 II11 BB11 = S= S11 AA11 BB22 = S= S11 AA22 BB33 = S= S22 AA11 BB44 = S= S22 AA22 MM22 II11 MM22 II11 MM22 II11 MM22 II11 AA44 = M= M22 II22 BB11 = S= S11 AA11 BB22 = S= S11 AA22 BB = S= S AA MM22 II22 MM22 II22 MM II
  21. 21. Conclusions:Conclusions: It was observed that wider spacing (SIt was observed that wider spacing (S 22 ), SRI), SRI irrigation methods (Iirrigation methods (I22 ), younger seedling age), younger seedling age (A(A22 ), three stirrings (M), three stirrings (M22 ), and 10 t ha), and 10 t ha-1-1 compost with recommended inorganiccompost with recommended inorganic fertilizers (Nfertilizers (N22 ) -- as interacting treatments --) -- as interacting treatments -- produced higher grain yield than presentlyproduced higher grain yield than presently recommended spacing (Srecommended spacing (S11 ), irrigation), irrigation method (Imethod (I22 ), seedling are (A), seedling are (A11 ) and no stirring) and no stirring (M(M11 ).). The highest grain yield (10.17 t haThe highest grain yield (10.17 t ha-1-1 ) was) was obtained from the treatment Sobtained from the treatment S22 AA22 MM22 II22 NN22
  22. 22. Conclusions and Recommendations: Based on the study, it may be concluded that integration of the best-performing SRI cultural factors may be recommended for maximization of Boro rice yield for a long- duration variety like BRRI Dhan29 in Bangladesh. The following best-performing SRI cultural factors are to be considered: 1.Transplanting should be done during the period from 30 November to 15 December. 2.Younger seedlings of 12-days age, preferably raised in compost bed, should be used for transplanting.
  23. 23. Conclusions and Recommendations: 3.Transplanting may be done with wider spacing of 30 cm × 25 cm than at present. 4.SRI irrigation management should be followed. 5.Soil stirrings at 15, 30 and 45 DAT may enhance the productivity of irrigated rice. 6.BRRI-recommended fertilizer applications are not enough for maximizing grain yield with SRI techniques. Integrated use of fertilizer plus manure at 10 t ha-1 using the recommended rate for inorganic fertilizers would enhance rice crop productivity in Boro season.
  24. 24. Future Research   However, further research should be conducted to address the following important issues: • Research shall be done with the selected SRI cultural factors for medium- and short-duration MVs and hybrid rice varieties in the Boro season to assess how to further optimize grain yield. • Research on selected SRI cultural factors on different problem soils, especially light- textured soils and saline soil, may be continued. • Research on determining cost-effectiveness for
  25. 25. Acknowledgements • Professor Dr. Najrul Islam • Professor Dr. M. A. Samad • BRRI Authority • Department of Agronomy, BAU, Mymenshing • Agronomy Division, BRRI, Gazipur

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