Adapting Water Management Practice   to the Double Exposure of Climate       Change and Globalization:System of Rice Inten...
List of content• Introduction…………………………...…..…3• Methods and Materials………..................…14• Results and Discussions ……...
The food crisis resulting from the double exposureClimate change and economic globalization, occurring simultaneously, wil...
The food crisis resulting from the double exposure• The trend of agriculture activity is decreasing in most of the develop...
Decline of rice harvested area in Taiwan                           900000          rice area                              ...
Rice self-sufficiency rate in Taiwan                  Year                                             2000              2...
Rice yield in the world                               45                                                                  ...
Classification of rice environment                 Lowland rice (paddy rice)    Items                                     ...
Rice yield responses to water availability and soil condition                                                      In theo...
Different water management practices in growth periodFarmer and IATheorySaving laborLow yieldHigh yield High labor        ...
Two technologies of increasing rice production System of Rice Intensification      Deepwater Management Practice   Fr. Hen...
Benefits of SRI1. Increased yield (50-100% or more),2. Reduction in seed requirements (up to 90%)3. Water savings (50% or ...
Benefits of the Deepwater Management Practice1. For better rice yield:(1) Ineffective tillering can be controlled(2) Water...
Methods and Materials                                   ID                   High                          Low  IS        ...
Methods and Materials  •Management Practice                                   SRI Trials                     Conventional ...
Methods and Materials  •Water Management Practice‘Reasonable’ means farmer water     16mgmt practice based on experience
Results and Discussions               The deepwater management maybe                                         not be suitab...
Results and Discussions               The shallow intermittence maybe not                                         be suita...
Results and Discussions   •Yield attributes                            Deepwater            Farmer Water              Shal...
Results and Discussions•Plant characteristicsShallow    FP    Deepwater   Shallow     FP    Deepwater   Shallow       FP  ...
Results and Discussions•Plant characteristics    High D   Low D Single   High D   Low D   Single   High D    Low D   Singl...
Results and Discussions                  Leveling level isn’t enough                                            for the si...
Results and Discussions    •Production Costs               3                                          Single              ...
Results and Discussions     •Production Costs                3                                            Single       Low...
Results and Discussions                            •Productivity                   4.00                          single (I...
Conclusions and Suggestions    For rice yield       •Low density is better than others.       •Shallow intermittence is be...
Conclusions and Suggestions  •For SRI, the increase of yield is mainly achieved by  maintaining good redox of root zone.  ...
Conclusions and Suggestions   •The alternative practice of decreasing pesticide and   chemical fertilizer is still need to...
Conclusions and SuggestionsAt the present stage of SRI in TaiwanWe hope we can find a suitable water managementpractice to...
Thanks for your attention   30
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Adapting Water Management Practice to the Double Exposure of Climate Change and Globalization: System of Rice Intensification in Taiwan

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Presentation by Y.C. Chang at the PAWEES Conference in Taiwan, October 27, 2011
PowerPoint by R.S. Chen , K.H. Lin , Y.C. Cheng , J.I. Hu , Eiji Yamaji , Kunihiko Yoshino , Eikichi Shima , Hiroyuki Fujisaki , Masaya Ishikawa

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Adapting Water Management Practice to the Double Exposure of Climate Change and Globalization: System of Rice Intensification in Taiwan

  1. 1. Adapting Water Management Practice to the Double Exposure of Climate Change and Globalization:System of Rice Intensification in TaiwanY.C. Chang, R.S. Chen , K.H. Lin , Y.C. Cheng , J.I. Hu ,Eiji Yamaji , Kunihiko Yoshino , Eikichi Shima ,Hiroyuki Fujisaki , Masaya Ishikawa 1PAWEES Conference: 2011-10-27
  2. 2. List of content• Introduction…………………………...…..…3• Methods and Materials………..................…14• Results and Discussions ………………..….17• Conclusions and Suggestions………………25 2
  3. 3. The food crisis resulting from the double exposureClimate change and economic globalization, occurring simultaneously, willresult in new sets of winners and losers. • Climate change is a “risk multiplier”.Ex. • Yield becomes unstable result from rainfall and temperature variability•BRICs+G : Brazil, Russia, India, • High chemical material inputs result inChina, South Africa and Germany soil deterioration.•PIIGS : Portugal, Ireland, Italy, •Profitability is being squeezed by costsGreece and Spain •Small farmers leave agriculture • Food chain stores control the food market and decide where to buy and when & whom to sell . •The food crisis • More GMOs are created to fit the chemical 2010~2011. agro-environment. • If the risk of climate change happens to the winners, no one can buy cheap food from the 3 global market any more.
  4. 4. The food crisis resulting from the double exposure• The trend of agriculture activity is decreasing in most of the developedcountries. The export of agriculture products from developing andunderdeveloped countries will play an important role in the internationalfood market .• Those countries are asked to produce more food for the globalpopulation through using chemical material inputs instead of usingtraditional biodynamic methods.• From the global economic perspective, if we can support the system ofagriculture intensification in local areas by sharing the experience ofbiodynamic agriculture, then we can get a stable food supply from theinternational food market which can avoid the upcoming food crisis. 4
  5. 5. Decline of rice harvested area in Taiwan 900000 rice area 6000 Climate change 800000 rice yield 5000rice harvested area (ha) 700000 rice yield (kg/ha) 600000 4000 500000 Economic Globalization 3000 400000 300000 2000 200000 Urbanization 1000 100000 0 0 1900 1915 1930 1940 1946 1961 1973 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 End of WWII year WTO 5
  6. 6. Rice self-sufficiency rate in Taiwan Year 2000 2001 Before WTO Export (tons) 157076.9 196979.5 Import (tons) 7698.7 7403.4 Produce (tons) 1540122 1396274 Domestic consumption (tons) 1451495.75 1390091 Self-sufficiency rate (%) 106.1 100.4 Rice harvested area (ha) 339949 332183 After WTO Rice consumption (kg/year/person) 52.7 50.1 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 121883.7 69700.0 75700.1 40100.0 47300.0 53591.0 66100.0 8362.9 122571.7 173898.9 201941.1 83957.5 133450.4 161636.9 121970.8 103279.1 1460670 1338287 1164580 1187596 1261803 1098268 1178178 1276534 1332258 1329189 1322366 1329808 1315904 1304483 1315863 1317912 109.6 100.7 88.1 89.3 95.9 84.2 89.5 96.9 307037 272128 237351 269120 263194 260159 252321 255415 50.0 49.1 48.6 48.6 48.0 47.5 48.0 48.16 21.5 persons/ rice farmer = 26 persons/ rice farmer
  7. 7. Rice yield in the world 45 12 area harvested Rice Harvest Area (106 ha) 40 average country yield(1999-2009) 10 Average Yield (t/ha) 35 world average yield(for 158 million ha) 30 8 25 6 20 15 4 10 2 5 0 0 Viet Nam Philippines Cambodia Republic of Korea China EU Thailand India Malaysia Egypt Taiwan Australia Indonesia Japan USA Madagascar CountryAbout 74% of rice area is located in below-average areas. If they can increase their7yieldup to the world average, then the world’s rice production can increase about 17%.
  8. 8. Classification of rice environment Lowland rice (paddy rice) Items Upland Flood-prone Irrigated Rainfed Asia, Africa, South andRegion East Asia World Southeast Asia Latin AmericaArea (ha) 79,000,000 54,000,000 14,000,000 11,000,000Percentage (%) 55 34 9 2Average yield Depending on 3-9 the rainfall 1.3 1.5(ton/ha) 8
  9. 9. Rice yield responses to water availability and soil condition In theory 9
  10. 10. Different water management practices in growth periodFarmer and IATheorySaving laborLow yieldHigh yield High labor 10 Rooting Tillering Panicle Formation Ripening
  11. 11. Two technologies of increasing rice production System of Rice Intensification Deepwater Management Practice Fr. Henri de Laulanie,S.J. Kiyochika S. 1983, Madagascar 1994, Japan Reasonable water management (Best management practice) Shallow water management Deepwater management Low density seedling High density seedling Normal densityPlowing the soil by weeder Weed control by deep during growth period ponding Chemical pesticides and fertilizer 11 Plant density vs. irrigation depth of intermittence
  12. 12. Benefits of SRI1. Increased yield (50-100% or more),2. Reduction in seed requirements (up to 90%)3. Water savings (50% or more).4. Many SRI users report a reduction in pests, diseases, grain shattering during milling, unfilled grains, and lodging.5. As a climate-smart agricultural methodology, additional environmental benefits stem from the reduction of agricultural chemicals, less water use, and lowering methane emissions that contribute to global warming.6. SRI does not require the use of new varieties or the application of chemical inputs, although farmers can opt to use them. A good example of "open-source agriculture" as SRI methods are adapted by the farmers to fit their needs.Environmentally-Friendly Rice Production 12
  13. 13. Benefits of the Deepwater Management Practice1. For better rice yield:(1) Ineffective tillering can be controlled(2) Water temperature can stabilize the growth environment(3) Plant stems can be protected from wind blowing(4) Weeds can be controlled(5) Green manure can be increased2. For management practices:(1) Labor for water management can be decreased(2) Labor for weed control can be decreased(3) Irrigation period can be extended during drought season3. For ecosystem:(1) Adjustment of microclimate(2) Supplement of groundwater(3) Diversity of aquatic ecosystem 13
  14. 14. Methods and Materials ID High Low IS Single Single Low High Single ConventionalHigh approach Low 14
  15. 15. Methods and Materials •Management Practice SRI Trials Conventional Trials Description SRI (single) DMP (low density) DMP (high density)Transplanting method Manual Mechanized MechanizedSeedlinga. Days after seeding (day) 10 12 12b. Number of leaves (no.) 2- 4 3- 5 3- 5c. Height of seedling (cm) 7- 11 8- 13 8- 13d. Depth of seedling (cm) 3.5 3.5 3.5Number of seedlings (no.) 1 3 5Spacinga. Row (cm) 25 30 30b. Line (cm) 25 24 18c. Density (no./m2) 16.00 41.67 92.59Weed frequency (times) 2~4 2~4 2~4Fertilizer chemical chemical chemicalWater management FP SII DII FP SII DII FP SII DII 15FP: Farmer WM practice; SII: Shallow intermittent irrigation; DII: Deepwater intermittent irrigation
  16. 16. Methods and Materials •Water Management Practice‘Reasonable’ means farmer water 16mgmt practice based on experience
  17. 17. Results and Discussions The deepwater management maybe not be suitable to deficit situation •Water budget Deepwater Farmer Water Shallow Item Intermittence Mgmt Practice Intermittence Growth period (days) 145 145 145 Field requirement (mm) 2471 1934 758 Runoff (mm) 0 0 0 Effective rainfall (mm) 95.2 95.2 95.2Irrigation water need (mm) 2376 1839 663Irrigation frequency (times) 24 27 14Low frequency means the labor can be decreased with shallow management. 17The question is: what caused this decrease in the same soil type?
  18. 18. Results and Discussions The shallow intermittence maybe not be suitable to rainy season •Water budget Deepwater Farmer Water Shallow Item Intermittence Mgmt Practice Intermittence Growth period (days) 110 110 119 Field requirement (mm) 1261 1055 587 Runoff (mm) 0 0 0 Effective rainfall (mm) 528 589 381Irrigation water need (mm) 733 466 206Irrigation frequency (times) 9 13 8Low frequency means the labor can be decreased with shallow management. 18The question is: what caused this decrease in the same soil type?
  19. 19. Results and Discussions •Yield attributes Deepwater Farmer Water ShallowCharacter Intermittence Mgmt Practice IntermittenceSeedling hill-1 1 3 >5 1 3 >5 1 3 >5Weight of 1 liter 520 600 520 527 540 513 487 553 573No. of filled grainspanicle-1 123.3 78.5 84.2 124.7 90.9 95.4 120.3 130.2 92.51000 grain weight (g) 22.5 18.8 23.1 22.1 20.1 20.4 24.1 21.4 23.2No. of panicles hill-1 14.6 25 22.2 20 30.6 25 18.6 28.4 26.4Grain yield (kg ha-1) 4187 5663 4060 7827 6070 4230 4532 8446 5075The highest weight of 1 liter appeared in the low density in different water regimes.The highest number of filled grains per panicle generally appeared with single seedling.The highest 1000 grain weight also appeared with the single seedling.The highest number of panicles per hill appeared with low density in all water regimes.The highest grain yield almost appeared in the low density in different water regime.19
  20. 20. Results and Discussions•Plant characteristicsShallow FP Deepwater Shallow FP Deepwater Shallow FP Deepwater 5075 4230 4060 8446 6070 5663 4532 7827 4187 High density Low density Single plants 4455 ±544 6726 5515 ±2009 ±1503 20 The range of yield (70%)
  21. 21. Results and Discussions•Plant characteristics High D Low D Single High D Low D Single High D Low D Single 4230 6070 7827 5075 8446 4532 4060 5663 4187 FP Shallow Deepwater 6042 ±1799 6018 ±2121 4637 ±891 21 The range of yield (70%)
  22. 22. Results and Discussions Leveling level isn’t enough for the single one •Yield attributes Deepwater Farmer Water ShallowCharacter Intermittence Mgmt Practice IntermittenceSeedling hill-1 1 3 5 1 3 5 1 3 5Weight of 1 liter 520 600 520 527 540 513 487 553 573No. of filled grainspanicle-1 123.3 78.5 84.2 124.7 90.9 95.4 120.3 130.2 92.51000 grain weight (g) 22.5 18.8 23.1 22.1 20.1 20.4 24.1 21.4 23.2No. of panicles hill-1 14.6 25 22.2 20 30.6 25 18.6 28.4 26.4Grain yield (kg ha-1) 4187 5663 4060 7827 6070 4230 4532 8446 5075 DMP BMP SRI Second crop season First crop season 22
  23. 23. Results and Discussions •Production Costs 3 Single 2.5 Low density High density 2COST (t/ha) Single > High density > Low density 1.5 High density > Low density > Single 1 0.5 Single > High density = Low density 0 23 Materials Labor Account
  24. 24. Results and Discussions •Production Costs 3 Single Low density High density 2.5 2 Cost (t/ha) 1.5 Develop the single seedling of rice Encourage farmers to 1 transplanter use mechanized weeder 0.5Precision of land preparation 0 Preparation Transplanting Pesticide Fertilizer Harvest Total 24
  25. 25. Results and Discussions •Productivity 4.00 single (ID) low density (ID) high density (ID) single (RMP) low density (RMP) high density (RMP) single (IS) low density (IS) high density (IS) 3.50 3.00Productivity (%) 2.50 Shallow irrigation is better than other practices under all spacing Low density is better than others under intermittent irrigation 2.00 Single is better than others under farmer water management High density is worse than others under all water regimes 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 labor(ton/hr/person) captial(kg/kg) water(kg/ton) land(10 ton/ha) 25
  26. 26. Conclusions and Suggestions For rice yield •Low density is better than others. •Shallow intermittence is better than others. For production cost •Single is still higher than others at the present stage. For productivity •Low density with shallow intermittence is better than others. 26
  27. 27. Conclusions and Suggestions •For SRI, the increase of yield is mainly achieved by maintaining good redox of root zone. •For DMP, the increase of yield is mainly achieved by controlling the ineffective tillering. •For SRI , shallow water can reduce irrigation water by shallow intermittence which is suitable for the deficit situation •For DMP, deepwater can increase the effective rainfall and serves as a detention during rainy season. 27
  28. 28. Conclusions and Suggestions •The alternative practice of decreasing pesticide and chemical fertilizer is still need to be introduced. •The intermittent irrigation can reduce the inefficient application of pesticide and chemical fertilizer •In SRI, keeping wide seedling space is helpful for using the mechanized weeder. •In DMP, keeping high water level is helpful for weed control. •Low density is acceptable in present. 28
  29. 29. Conclusions and SuggestionsAt the present stage of SRI in TaiwanWe hope we can find a suitable water managementpractice to stimulate the potential of rice yieldthrough the health soil management which canreduce the application of pesticide and chemicalfertilizer with high water storage capacity andwater productivity. 29
  30. 30. Thanks for your attention 30

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