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1828 - Upscaling Agroecological Innovations - SRI and SCI in India


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Author: B.C. Barah
Title: Upscaling Agroecological Innovations for Sustainable Food and LIvelihood Security - Special Focus on SRI and SCI in India
Event: SRI-LMB Regional Workshop
Date: November 1-2, 2018
Venue: Novotel Sukhumvit Hotel, Bangkok. Thailand

Published in: Environment
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1828 - Upscaling Agroecological Innovations - SRI and SCI in India

  1. 1. Upscaling Strategy of Agro- Ecological Innovations for Sustainable Food and Livelihood Security and Policy (special focus on SRI/SCI experiences in India) B C Barah NCS India 23-11-2018 [1]
  2. 2. Motivation: Stagnating yields under conventional practices 23-11-2018 2 Yield stagnating worldwide, while decelerating in India. ?? 1.34% In1990s 1.83% In1990s 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 Growth of Productivity of rice & wheat 1980s to 2000s Yield 1980s Yield 1990s Yield 2000s The Modern technology is not responding satisfactory- Yield growth rapidly decelerated. • Need easily acceptable alternative practice?? Ref: A Kassam 2018
  3. 3. Need easily acceptable alternative practices (such as SCI) ?? SRI at Farmer field Yield stagnating worldwide, while decelerating in India. ?? SWI in IARI
  4. 4. Making significant difference in smallholder farming for sustainable household food & Livelihood security – Science of SRI : Identify factors enablingfor full expression of the genetic potential of the rice plant : Conservation of natural resources : Reduction in cost of cultivation : Soil health and nutrient mining Practices of SRI : Quantified Tangible benefits of SRI : Adoption and adaptation of SRI practices : Efficiency and efficacy of input use and resource saving (seed, water, fertilizer, labour & organic supplementation Policy on SRI : Upscaling SRI and household food security : Input-output delivery system and knowledge empowerment : Innovation in Institutional Architecture for wider impact and sustainability : Agricultural diversification, income generation for livelihood security  Low external inputs (seed, fertilizers, water, labor) to making it within reach of resource poor families. Thus SRI is a cost-effective CROP ECONOMY  HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY: SRI enhance availability of home-grown food grains to small and marginal farmers  An inclusive system and Sustainable method (Conserving precious soil, water and environment carrying capacity for future generations) To Address issues of FOOD INSECURITY through appropriate Technologies: SRI-as an inclusive socio-economic entity SRI /SCI leads Heralding a Change: 23-11-2018 4
  5. 5. Strategy: Focus on Small Holders <2ha • Rice is an important food consumed by nearly 90% population, grown in approx 45 million ha. More than 60% area rainfed • Indian agri is structurally a small holder agriculture (100 million S&M Farmers, 85% ) whose household food security is critical • Innovative Strategies required to deal with it – Capacity strengthening and knowledge delivery mechanism 23-11-2018 5 THEY (smallholders) CAN AND WILL PERFORM, BECAUSE THOSE WHO HAVE NOTHING, NEVER GIVE UP SEEKING NEWER WAYS TO BUILD UP BETTER LIFE
  6. 6. System of Crop IntensificationSWI SCI in IARI field
  7. 7. 23-11-2018 7 Mustard in Odisha Mustard in Panna MP SWI in Uttar Khand System of Crop Intensification SMI in Bihar
  8. 8. Drivers of Food & Livelihood Security: Multi-pronged approach 1) Production increase Innovations: Area growth, Yield growth, crop diversification, reduce post harvest losses 2) Resource Conservation: Water: conjunctive uses, water use efficiency and water saving tech 3) Cost Reduction Possibilities: Smart Nutrient Mgt (Imbalance NPK ratio & Micro nutrient deficiency, + ve impact of SHC, Low Input Agri (High & rising input costs, biofertilisers, Paramparagat Kheti Saardhak Yojana), Farming systems approach (Enterprises run in isolation & biomass wastage, FS approach combining silvi/horticulture) 4) Professionalization & Diversification: Diversifying Agril, Skilling in Agriculture, skilling for NFS, Vocational courses School syllabus –electives + practical training and linking farmers to markets 1) Focus on Rainfed Areas: 1) Strategies: Bridge yield gaps, Adoption of Appropriate Technology, Watershed approach – Farm Ponds + microirrigation, Integrate Livestock & Non-Farm income/employment, Crop & asset insurance 2) Source: doubling farm income, NABARD 2016 23-11-2018 8
  9. 9. SRI – Other Crops in Bihar CROP Year 2012-13 Year 2013-14 Year 2014-15 No. Of Families Area In Acre Acreage/F armer No. Of Families Area In Acre In Acreage/F armer No. Of Families Area In Acre Acreage/Far mer SRI-Wheat 7,368 782.98 0.11 5268 709.80 0.13 8013 1214.6 0.15 SRI-Rapeseed 3,205 336.21 0.10 1559 172.53 0.11 1651 182.09 0.11 SRI-Vegetables 586 35 0.06 2212 137.45 0.06 5518 467.34 0.08 SRI SugarcaneSRI-Brinjal
  10. 10. National Consortium of SRI/SCI (NCS), India: Mission & Funding Date of Formation: In existence since 2006, which coincides with holding of the 1st National Conference on SRI and the World Rice Congress (in the presence of participants of nine countries: Dr. Norman Uphoff move the idea (NCS) Composition/Membership: Informal coalition of Practitioners, Research Scientists, Policy Makers, Resource Institutions and Social Workers across pan India. Members have voluntarily come together to advance the Science, Practice and Policy measures of SRI Mission Statement: Ensuring Sustainable Income and Food Security for Farmers, especially the Vulnerable Sections through Accelerated Adoption of Science-led System of Crop Intensification while Achieving Increased Productivity and Resource Conservation Financial Support: SDTT, NABARD, WWF, WU, HIVOS, ICCO, OXFAM and RRAN
  11. 11. NCS – Significant Achievements 1) Formation of state wide networks 1) Banglar SRI, AP SRI Consortium, Orissa learning alliance 2) On station scientific validation of SWI helped in mainstreaming R&D system 3) Inclusion of SCI in National & State level programs 4) National Food Security Mission (NFSM) 5) National & State Rural Livelihood Missions 6) Policy Dialogue:: A special group for 12th Five Year Plan in India, GoI to suggest Innovation Institutional Architecture for Up scaling SRI, 7) Research i. Evaluating Performance of indigenous paddy varieties ii. Quantification of disadoption of SRI iii. Understanding State Led SRI Scale up processes
  12. 12. Activities of NCS (Policy dialogue)  Policy dialogues - Involved in various policy consultations, to update the stakeholders on the activities • A National Conference on Policy Consultation on SRI in India involving the, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India, ICAR, NAC, Govt. of India, NAAS and civil Society organizations for developing Upscaling strategy for SRI/SCI.  The RRA network’s (Revitalizing Rainfed Agriculture) help NCS strengthening effort to connect the stakeholders and expand the consortium  Policy Conferences 23-11-2018 12
  13. 13. Activities ….cont. 3. Issues of Governance and Upscaling of SRI: Understanding the State led SRI Scaleup processes – Bihar, Jharkhand, Odihsa, Chhattisgarh and Tripura. 4. Compare performance of indigenous paddy varieties under SRI and Traditional practice (in 6 states in India, namely Chhattisgarh, Odisha, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Meghalaya and Tamil Nadu) 5. Study disadoption of SRI and identify the cause and effect relationship. a) Assess performance of SRI in rainfed area and its Impact on household food security; b) Understanding analyze the perceptions and preference of the practice and c) derive policy imperatives 23-11-2018 13
  14. 14. Conference, workshop, consultations 23-11-2018 14 Policy Dialogues
  15. 15. Innovative Governance structure (Human Capital Dev.) Capacity Building for Rural Development Preparing Village Resource Persons (A critical and basic requirement )  Motivational and Capacity Building Training  Technical Skills development  Learning by doing  Repeated Engagement and long-term partnerships Villagers/women CIGs/VO for training in 3-4 phases including 23-11-2018 15
  16. 16. Governance for SRI Reaching out Exploiting full genetic potential Intensive Care of plant, soil Knowledge delivery •Synergistic effect: young seedling, transplanting single seedling, wide space, AWD, weeding •Understanding root system, Microbiology •Climate resilience •Inter culture operation •Better crop management •Use of local resource • Capacity Development • Institutional alliance Benefitsharingmechanism 16
  17. 17. NCS: over the Years Activities (Policy, Up scaling) Year Activities 2006 - 2008 National SRI Symposium • Hyderabad (November, 2006) • Agartala (October, 2007) • Coimbatore (December, 2008) 2009 • Meeting at ICRISAT • Consultations with Planning Commission • Dialogue with NFSM 2010 • SRI expert review team’s presentation to NABARD • SRI meetings in West Bengal, Odisha, Chhattisgarh • Visit to Madagascar • Policy dialogue: Inclusion of SRI under NFSM • NRMC holds national conference on SRI • National SRI & SWI workshops • AP SRI Consortium formed 2011-13 • SCI workshop in Bihar • Round Table on SRI at IARI • Participation in different Planning Commission Working Groups • SWI trials at IARI • National consultation on SRI (NCS- NAAS collaboration) • Publications – Journals, Articles & Papers 2014-17 • Inclusion of SRI in Livelihood Missions • Policy consultations with MoA & ICAR • International Conference on SRI as a socio-technical movement in India” • Synthesizing experiences from different states • Piloting of SCI in rainfed regions 2018-20 • Scientific validation of SCI in other crops • Review of SRI component in ongoing government programs • National Workshops
  18. 18. SRI- substantial coverage SRI map draft Aug 2010 ICRISAT SRI practiced by approx. three million farmers in about a million hectares partially or fully in India 23-11-2018 18
  19. 19. Books(5), pocket handbook (4), AEC materials, Multilingual farms’ Manual, Handbook on SRI and MNERGA, Research Papers (600), Policy Papers (4), Conference proc. 23-11-2018 19
  20. 20. A meta Analysis: Research Publications: Ref: Shambu P Overall > 38 % of all Journal articles from India China and India contribute over 63% of all papers China early lead until 2006 No journal articles from India until 2004 India dominates since 2007 (30 -60% overall) 2 1 3 3 19 24 22 28 20 26 41 41 56 64 84 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 5 6 14 24 25 16 32 41 0 1 2 2 18 18 12 13 7 4 8 5 6 5 7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 SRI RESEARCH JOURNAL ARTICLES 2000-13 Journal Articles World Journal Articles India Journal Articles China 23-11-2018 20
  21. 21. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 TotalPublications Year SRI Publications: India, China and World India China World NCS, India – Furthering SRI Research Enabling Leadership in SRI/SCI in the world
  22. 22. Monitoring/ Feedback Loop Capacity building support roleState level Resource Org (SRO; knowledge body) Master Trainers Grassroot Farmer Groups/FFS/SHG FARMERS CSO/ NGOsDOA/KVK CBOs Streams 1&2: Ministry (DAC, RD), NARS (KVK & SAU) Stream 3: Autonomous agencies SERP, BRLPS etc. Stream 4: NABARD through NGOs Stream 5: Corporate, NGOs (through donors) … Village Resource Persons National Consortium on SRI Dept of Ag (MoA), R&D Org., Universities, donors, innovation brokers, farmers etc Institutional Architecture forupscalinginnovation (suggested for SRI/SCI) Policy formulation FUND 23-11-2018 22
  23. 23. Appropriate Policy • Scientific Validation of SRI protocol • To include Recommendation (PoP) in agricultural plan • More experimentation in the NARS Production Technology • Capacity development • Institutional architecture • Mobilization of Local knowledge & Resources • Linking Mainstream R&D with policy Knowledge Delivery • Participatory Institution & Farmer Alliance • Benefit sharing • Farmers in decision making & planning Farmer Mobilization SWI perform 23
  24. 24. Challenges for upscaling policy • Re‐orienting farmers towards management and knowledge on rice agro‐ecology • Enhance investments for developing land and water resources in large scale • Establishing decentralised manufacturing of SRI implements and appropriate distribution system • Build up cadres/ Champion of SRI Resource Farmers • Mobilise organic matter and resources for improving soil productivity • Establish research back‐up and support system • Mainstream R&D, Policy regimes and Practicing Farmer Collaboration: eg. SWI farmers from Rajasthan, Uttarkhand and Bihar participated at On-station experiment23-11-2018 24
  25. 25. Asiawide Alliance of National Networks (AANN) Synergize Experiences, Expertise and Resources for Improving Food and Livelihood Security Benefits of AANN • Quality knowledge of agro-ecological innovations for climate smart sustainable production system • Vibrant MIS and Data base • Strengthen Research Capability and Capacity Building • Influence Policy makers • Facilitate Fund raising • Understanding of extension mechanism (moving from existing to innovative system) • Partnership and Peer Interaction Role of NCS, India • Knowledge transfer especially with respect to application of SRI on other crops • Facilitate Policy dialogue in other Asian countries • Design and Support Research studies for improving practices and evaluate inputs • Quality monitoring and evaluation of ongoing programs • A strong HRD program among stakeholders 23-11-2018 25
  26. 26. 23-11-2018 26
  27. 27. Proposed International Conference on the Agroecological Principles of System of Rice Intensification Spill over to Other Crops for Sustainable Food Production • Likely Collaboration: SRM Institute of Science and Technology (Deemed University), NCS, RRAN, NABARD, ICAR, Government departments, Universities, CSOs, International agencies • Objectives:  Assess the Research Experiences on the practice and knowledge of SRI/SCI  Impact of SRI/SCI on social and economic benefits  Global Initiatives on the spread of SRI/SCI and challenge faced in Large scale Adoption  Ecological and climate change  Future directions and road map for SRI/SCI on the adoption, research and scaling up • Participants: SCI Farmers, Researchers, Funding agencies, Policy makers, students and farmers • Venue: SRM Institute of Science and Technology (Deemed University), Kattankulathur 603-103 (near Chennai, India) – visit • Tentative Date: June/July 2019 AnAnnouncement 23-11-2018 27 Discussion points Bangkok meeting (1) Meeting possible funders for coverage of rainfed areas In India, promoting SCI through integrated farming systems approach (2) Support funding from OXFAM and others for proposed Int. conference (3) Discuss objective and activities of Asian SRI Alliance (with Abha and Lucy)