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1807 - Phenotypic Changes for Improving Crop Physiology under SRI

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Author: Amod Thakur
Title: Phenotypic Changes for Improving Crop Physiology under SRI
Presented at: The 5th International Rice Congress (SRI research side event)
Venue: Sands Expo and Convention Centre, Singapore
Date: October 16, 2018

Published in: Environment
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1807 - Phenotypic Changes for Improving Crop Physiology under SRI

  1. 1. Amod K. Thakur ICAR- Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneswar INDIA Phenotypic Changes for Improving Crop Physiology under SRI
  2. 2. What are phenotypic changes? How it affects crop physiology? and Why SRI gives more yield?
  3. 3. Uphoff et al. (2015) The Crop Journal 3: 174-189 SRI: Phenotype
  4. 4. SRI: Phenotype • Greater / robust root growth • Improved shoot growth (Plant height, tillering, tiller thickness) • Greater LAI (Greater leaf size and number) • Favourable canopy structure (Open with erect leaves) Thakur et al. (2010) Experimental Agriculture (Cambridge Univ Press) 46:77-98 Thakur et al. (2011) Paddy Water Environ (Springer) 9:13-24
  5. 5. Ciherang-223 tillers Indonesia Swarna-84 Panicles India Sri Lanka Malaysia Indonesia Cuba Bhutan Mali Vietnam Afghanistan
  6. 6. Punjab Tripura Odisha Nepal Cambodia
  7. 7. Uphoff et al. (2015) The Crop Journal 3: 174-189 Physiological Changes with SRI
  8. 8. Physiological Changes with SRI Higher root activity (Xylem exudation) Greater light interception by canopy Increased LER (SRI leaves elongated 6 cm/day, while leaves under conventional method elongated at a rate of 4.4 cm/day- 36% greater. Higher CGR More SLW (mg/cm2): 5.50 vs. 4.89 - 13% greater Higher levels of leaf chlorophyll Increasing fluorescence efficiency Photosynthetic rate of both flag and lower leaves Delayed senescence Thakur et al. (2010) Experimental Agriculture (Cambridge Univ Press) 46:77-98 Thakur et al. (2011) Paddy Water Environ (Springer) 9:13-24
  9. 9. LightInterception SRI plants: intercept more light without shading CMP plants: in closed canopy, lower leaves experiences more shading 0 20 40 60 80 100 12 25 30 40 50 60 70 LightInterception (%) Days after seed germination At PI stage: light interception in CMP canopies was only 78%, while in SRI canopies it reached 89% -- giving SRI plants a 15% advantage Thakur et al. (2010) Experimental Agriculture (Cambridge Univ Press) 46:77-98 Thakur et al. (2011) Paddy Water Environ (Springer) 9:13-24
  10. 10. Performance with SRI • Larger panicles (more spikelets per panicle) • Better grain setting (higher % of filled grains) • Heavier individual grains (higher 1000- grain weight), and consequently • Higher grain yield (30-49%) Thakur et al. (2010) Experimental Agriculture (Cambridge Univ Press) 46:77-98 Thakur et al. (2011) Paddy Water Environ (Springer) 9:13-24 0 20 40 60 80 100 Below15 15.1-16 16.1-17 17.1-18 18.1-19 19.1-20 20.1-21 21.1-22 22.1-23 23.1-24 24.1-25 25.1-26 Panicle length (cm) Numberofpanicles(m-2 ) CMP SRI
  11. 11. Cytokinins Delayed senescence Higher photosynthates towards roots Increased leaf N and chlorophyll contents, more RuBisCO Increased leaf number & leaf size Greater light interception Higher microbial activity Enhanced panicle length, more grain number & better grain filling Greater root growth and activity Increased effective tillers Open hill structure, more erect leaves Higher LAI Enhanced photosynthesis rate Higher nutrient uptake Higher grain yield SRI practices [single, young seedling, wide spacing, inter-cultivation, organic fertilization, AWD water management] Thakur et al. (2016)-Adv Agron. 135: 147-178
  12. 12. SRI practices need optimization under each and every situation- according to local / field conditions before adoption. Needs to understood PRINCIPLES (not PRACTICES) WHY ? And WHAT ??
  13. 13. Practices Found best Reference Optimized spacing under SRI 20 x 20 cm Thakur et al. (2010) J. Agron. Crop Sci. 196: 146- 159 Optimized water management 3-DAD Thakur et al. (2014) Paddy Water Environ 12: 424 Thakur et al. (2018) Agric. Water Manage. 206: 67-77 Optimized N-management 90 kg ha-1 Thakur et al. (2013) Plant and Soil 370:59-71 Farming System: Integrated SRI Rice + Horticulture + Aquaculture Thakur et al. (2015) Agric. Water Manage. 161: 65-76
  14. 14. SRI still has a long way to go… Much more remains to be studied, understood, adapted and innovated SRI

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