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Up-scaling of SRI in Tamilnadu, India
Results from a World Bank Project
Vibhu Nayar, IAS
Principal Secretary
Govt. of Tamilnadu
1
V. K. Ravichandran
Improved
productivity
29%
Less water
requirement
32%
Reduced cost
of cultivation
10-12%
Lower GHG
emission
-1.3 t CO2 eq
ha-1
More income
$ 340 ha-1
Benefits of
SRI
Details Conv SRI %
Yield (Kg / Ha) 5,400 7,150 32%
Grain revenue
@ $ 15.50 /100 Kg
840 1,112 32%
Straw revenue
@ $ 0.50 /100 Kg
50 65 30%
Total revenue
( $ / Ha)
890 1177 32%
Total expendi-
ture ( $ / Ha)
476 424 -11%
Net profit ($ / Ha) 414 754 82%
Cost-benefit ratio 1.87 2.78 49%
Conventional SRI
$ 476 $ 424
11% reduction
in expenditure/ha
Why SRI?
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
PY I PY II PY III PY IV PY V PY VI
SRI
Conventional
28.3%
33.3%
% increase in Yield
37.3% 32.4% 28.9% 26.8%
YieldinKg/ha
Project Years
SRI yield and area – TN-IAMWARM*
AreainHa
Project Years
Total SRI area in
IAMWARM : 288,639 Ha
* Irrigated Agriculture
Modernization and Water-
Bodies Restoration and
Management Project
6859
30837 34812
68820
70215
77096
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
90000
I II III IV V VI
SRI Area in Ha
Year Rice area
(in mill ha.)
Area under SRI
(in 000 ha.)
Productivity
(kg/ha)
Total
production
(in lakh MT)
Base year
(2002-03 to
2006-07)
1.754 - 2,667 47.36
2007-08 1.789 420 2,817 50.40
2008-09 1.932 538 2,682 51.83
2009-10 1.846 649 3,070 56.65
2010-11 1.906 850 3,039 57.92
2011-12 1.904 1,050 3,917 74.59
2012-13 * 1.493 685 2,712 40.50
2013-14 1.786 799 3,898 69.62
2014-15 1.830 948 4,325 79.49
2015-16 2.037 969 4,269 86.98
SRI Rice Area, Production and Productivity in Tamil Nadu
* Drought Year Source : Dept. of Statistics, Govt. Tamilnadu
Productivity increase through Alternate Wetting & Drying
 Irrigate to 2.5 cm depth
 Irrigate after formation of
hairline cracks - (up to panicle
initiation)
 After panicle initiation – irrigate
after disappearance of ponded
water
 Conventional method – 12,700
m3/ha
 SRI method – 8,700 m3/ha
 32% saving in irrigation
water
Water Productivity (litre/kg) Comparison of AWD vs. Control
SRI
Conventional
Better and more functional root systems
Non-lodging even during aberrant weather
 Root pruning leads to more
functional roots and increased
root volume
 Enhanced uptake of applied
nutrients favours increased
tillering
 Better anchorage – non-lodging
GHG IMPACT ASSESSMENT: IAMWARM (per year)
 Estimated annual climate change
mitigation benefit due to
IAMWARM: 449,984 tons Co2 eq
 Alternate wetting & drying with
SRI reduced GHG emissions by
391,000 tons Co2 eq
Components Without Project With Project Balance
Rice/SRI 14,299.90 6,483.88 - 7,816.03
Livestock 5,906.79 5,841.37 - 65.42
Annual Crops 349.21 -1193.92 - 1,543.14
Units: 000’s tons Co2 eq
 Farmers’ traditional mindset
 Lack of knowledge on SRI
 Need skill upgrading of labourers
 Lack of regulated irrigation
 Timely availability of implements
 Lack of information among the policy makers
Challenges in up-scaling
How to address these challenges?
Nursery Technique - Community
Nurseries
Exposure visits to change mindset (FFS)
Train labourers Rural artisan training
Train farmers
Our approach to challenges
Grid planting skill upgrading
Trained Self-Help
Group members for
grid planting
Trained members in
field grid planting
• Tmt. Vijayalakshmi
• Conventional paddy
yield : 4688 kg/ha
• SRI yield : 7636 kg/ha
• Increase : 63%
Hon’ble Minister for
Agriculture, GoTN,
inspects tiller counts
in SRI field
Bureaucrats in
SRI harvest mela
Involving Policy Makers
Involving Policy Makers
Secretary to Hon’ble
Chief Minister, GoTN
SRI field visit by
members of
Legislative Assembly
Pongal Greeting : To all beneficiaries of TN IAMWARM Project
Pongal Greeting Card with SRI Message – Nudging
SRI – Monitoring & Enhancement
Evaluation by SRI Expert
Recommendations –
• Knowledge up-grading for
Extension Officials
• Skill up-grading for
farmers and labourers
• Location-specific use of
weeders
• Optimum application of
nitrogen fertilizer using
leaf colour chart
SRI Advertisement in Leading Dailies
IAMWARM on Wheels
Expand Demo to Impact areas through:
 Tillering & harvest melas
 SRI flag demarcation
 Community nurseries
 Popularizing cost-effective,
higher-tillering and increased
productivity of SRI
 Capacity-building not only to
farmers, but also to extension
staff (DOA)
Demo to Impact
Thursday, January 24, 2008
SRI Dissemination through Leading Dailies
What are the most important two points in
scaling-up strategy?
Suggested Strategies
• Awareness campaign and exposures visit with the
practicing farmers
• Laying of more demonstrations on FFS mode and being
flexible (seeing, practicing and experiencing for believing)
• Peer-to-peer learning use of ICT like digital technology
• Service-provider mechanisms for carrying out planting and
weeding
What role did the government play in scaling up?
Suggested Strategies (Tipping Point Strategy)
• Allocation of sufficient budget for the timely
availability of inputs
• Well-planned IEC activities (arranging awareness
campaign and exposure visits)
• Showcasing the obvious effects through Planting,
Tillering, Weeding, and Harvest Festivals
• Piloting and up-scaling mechanization for planting
and weeding by encouraging the service providers
Alternate
wetting & drying
Mechanical
weeding
Square planting
Young single
seedlings
Reduced
nursery area &
seed input
SRI
Components
1
2
34
5
Details
Expenditure
($ /Ha)
Conv. SRI
Nursery 46.80 15.10
Main field preparation 44.50 44.50
Manures & fertilizer 161.20 161.20
Transplanting 53.30 71.10
Weeding 71.10 33.70
Irrigation 6.60 5.30
Plant protection 14.60 14.60
Harvest 77.70 77.70
Total 476.20 423.50
SRI Cost of Cultivation
Back
1803 Up-scaling of SRI in Tamilnadu, India: Results from a World Bank Project

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1803 Up-scaling of SRI in Tamilnadu, India: Results from a World Bank Project

  • 1. Up-scaling of SRI in Tamilnadu, India Results from a World Bank Project Vibhu Nayar, IAS Principal Secretary Govt. of Tamilnadu 1 V. K. Ravichandran
  • 2. Improved productivity 29% Less water requirement 32% Reduced cost of cultivation 10-12% Lower GHG emission -1.3 t CO2 eq ha-1 More income $ 340 ha-1 Benefits of SRI Details Conv SRI % Yield (Kg / Ha) 5,400 7,150 32% Grain revenue @ $ 15.50 /100 Kg 840 1,112 32% Straw revenue @ $ 0.50 /100 Kg 50 65 30% Total revenue ( $ / Ha) 890 1177 32% Total expendi- ture ( $ / Ha) 476 424 -11% Net profit ($ / Ha) 414 754 82% Cost-benefit ratio 1.87 2.78 49% Conventional SRI $ 476 $ 424 11% reduction in expenditure/ha Why SRI?
  • 3. 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 PY I PY II PY III PY IV PY V PY VI SRI Conventional 28.3% 33.3% % increase in Yield 37.3% 32.4% 28.9% 26.8% YieldinKg/ha Project Years SRI yield and area – TN-IAMWARM* AreainHa Project Years Total SRI area in IAMWARM : 288,639 Ha * Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water- Bodies Restoration and Management Project 6859 30837 34812 68820 70215 77096 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000 90000 I II III IV V VI SRI Area in Ha
  • 4. Year Rice area (in mill ha.) Area under SRI (in 000 ha.) Productivity (kg/ha) Total production (in lakh MT) Base year (2002-03 to 2006-07) 1.754 - 2,667 47.36 2007-08 1.789 420 2,817 50.40 2008-09 1.932 538 2,682 51.83 2009-10 1.846 649 3,070 56.65 2010-11 1.906 850 3,039 57.92 2011-12 1.904 1,050 3,917 74.59 2012-13 * 1.493 685 2,712 40.50 2013-14 1.786 799 3,898 69.62 2014-15 1.830 948 4,325 79.49 2015-16 2.037 969 4,269 86.98 SRI Rice Area, Production and Productivity in Tamil Nadu * Drought Year Source : Dept. of Statistics, Govt. Tamilnadu
  • 5. Productivity increase through Alternate Wetting & Drying  Irrigate to 2.5 cm depth  Irrigate after formation of hairline cracks - (up to panicle initiation)  After panicle initiation – irrigate after disappearance of ponded water  Conventional method – 12,700 m3/ha  SRI method – 8,700 m3/ha  32% saving in irrigation water
  • 6. Water Productivity (litre/kg) Comparison of AWD vs. Control
  • 7. SRI Conventional Better and more functional root systems Non-lodging even during aberrant weather  Root pruning leads to more functional roots and increased root volume  Enhanced uptake of applied nutrients favours increased tillering  Better anchorage – non-lodging
  • 8. GHG IMPACT ASSESSMENT: IAMWARM (per year)  Estimated annual climate change mitigation benefit due to IAMWARM: 449,984 tons Co2 eq  Alternate wetting & drying with SRI reduced GHG emissions by 391,000 tons Co2 eq Components Without Project With Project Balance Rice/SRI 14,299.90 6,483.88 - 7,816.03 Livestock 5,906.79 5,841.37 - 65.42 Annual Crops 349.21 -1193.92 - 1,543.14 Units: 000’s tons Co2 eq
  • 9.  Farmers’ traditional mindset  Lack of knowledge on SRI  Need skill upgrading of labourers  Lack of regulated irrigation  Timely availability of implements  Lack of information among the policy makers Challenges in up-scaling
  • 10. How to address these challenges?
  • 11. Nursery Technique - Community Nurseries
  • 12. Exposure visits to change mindset (FFS) Train labourers Rural artisan training Train farmers Our approach to challenges
  • 13. Grid planting skill upgrading Trained Self-Help Group members for grid planting Trained members in field grid planting
  • 14. • Tmt. Vijayalakshmi • Conventional paddy yield : 4688 kg/ha • SRI yield : 7636 kg/ha • Increase : 63% Hon’ble Minister for Agriculture, GoTN, inspects tiller counts in SRI field Bureaucrats in SRI harvest mela Involving Policy Makers
  • 15. Involving Policy Makers Secretary to Hon’ble Chief Minister, GoTN SRI field visit by members of Legislative Assembly
  • 16. Pongal Greeting : To all beneficiaries of TN IAMWARM Project Pongal Greeting Card with SRI Message – Nudging
  • 17. SRI – Monitoring & Enhancement Evaluation by SRI Expert Recommendations – • Knowledge up-grading for Extension Officials • Skill up-grading for farmers and labourers • Location-specific use of weeders • Optimum application of nitrogen fertilizer using leaf colour chart
  • 18. SRI Advertisement in Leading Dailies IAMWARM on Wheels Expand Demo to Impact areas through:  Tillering & harvest melas  SRI flag demarcation  Community nurseries  Popularizing cost-effective, higher-tillering and increased productivity of SRI  Capacity-building not only to farmers, but also to extension staff (DOA) Demo to Impact
  • 19. Thursday, January 24, 2008 SRI Dissemination through Leading Dailies
  • 20. What are the most important two points in scaling-up strategy? Suggested Strategies • Awareness campaign and exposures visit with the practicing farmers • Laying of more demonstrations on FFS mode and being flexible (seeing, practicing and experiencing for believing) • Peer-to-peer learning use of ICT like digital technology • Service-provider mechanisms for carrying out planting and weeding
  • 21. What role did the government play in scaling up? Suggested Strategies (Tipping Point Strategy) • Allocation of sufficient budget for the timely availability of inputs • Well-planned IEC activities (arranging awareness campaign and exposure visits) • Showcasing the obvious effects through Planting, Tillering, Weeding, and Harvest Festivals • Piloting and up-scaling mechanization for planting and weeding by encouraging the service providers
  • 22. Alternate wetting & drying Mechanical weeding Square planting Young single seedlings Reduced nursery area & seed input SRI Components 1 2 34 5
  • 23. Details Expenditure ($ /Ha) Conv. SRI Nursery 46.80 15.10 Main field preparation 44.50 44.50 Manures & fertilizer 161.20 161.20 Transplanting 53.30 71.10 Weeding 71.10 33.70 Irrigation 6.60 5.30 Plant protection 14.60 14.60 Harvest 77.70 77.70 Total 476.20 423.50 SRI Cost of Cultivation Back