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1802 - SRI Experiences in Myanmar -Thein Su

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Title: System of Rice Intensification (SRI) - Experiences in Myanmar
Presenter: Thein Su
Date: April 25, 2018
Venue: Department of Agriculture Research, Naypyidaw, Myanmar

Published in: Environment
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1802 - SRI Experiences in Myanmar -Thein Su

  1. 1. System of Rice Intensification-SRI Experiences in Myanmar စပါးအစြမ္းဖြင့္စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရး ျပည္တြင္းအေတြ႔အႀကံဳမ်ား Thein Su Retired Associate Professor Agriculture University
  2. 2. What is SRI? SRI is a management system for rice changing how plants, soil, water, sunlight and nutrients are handled ‐‐ to produce more productive, more robust plants from any given variety, i.e., to get better phenotypes from any particular genotype. စပါးအစြမ္းဖြင့္စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးဆိုတာ ဘာလဲ စပါးအစြမ္းဖြင့္စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးသည္ စပါးပင္ႀကီးထြားမႈပိုမိုေကာင္းမြန္လာၿပီး အထြက္ပိုလာေစရန္အတြက္ ေျမ၊ ေရ၊ အလင္းေရာင္၊ အာဟာရႏွင့္ အပင္ကို စီမံခန္႔ခြဲလုပ္ေဆာင္ေပးသည့္ စိုက္ပ်ိဳးေရးျဖစ္သည္။ မည္သည့္စပါးမ်ိဳးပင္ျဖစ္ေစ မူလဗီဇကိုျပဳျပင္ေျပာင္းလဲရန္မလိုဘဲ စပါးပင္၏ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ကို အေကာင္းဆံုးစီမံခန္႔ခြဲလုပ္ေဆာင္ေပးလိုက္ျခင္းျဖင့္ စပါးပင္၏သြင္ျပင္လကၡဏာရပ္ မ်ားပိုမိုေကာင္းလာကာ အထြက္မ်ားတိုးလာျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။
  3. 3. (SRI)
  4. 4. SRI in Myanmar 1983 – Developed in Madagascar by F. Laulanie 2001 – Introduced to Myanmar by Metta Foundation in Kachin and Northern Shan State 2005 – Estimated around 50,000 households began using SRI method in Kachin and Nothern Shan (Kabir and Uphoff, 2007). Metta has been still practicing SRI in their project villages 2005 onwards– Some DOA staff tried SRI practices by individual interests 2008 – U Thein Su tried adopting SRI in WA region, and then up to now 2011-12 – Dr. Aung Thu, Rector of Taungoo Univ. tried SRI 2016 – All Townships of DOA adopt SRI in possible areas by the guidance of Present Minister of MOALI
  5. 5. Global Spread of SRI • Before 1999 – Madagascar • 1999-2000 – China, Indonesia • 2000-01 – Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cuba, Laos, Gambia, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand • 2002-03 – Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Peru • 2004-05 – Senegal, Pakistan, Vietnam • 2006-07 – Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Iran, Iraq, Zambia; Afghanistan, Brazil, Mali • 2008 - Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Japan, Rwanda • 2009-10 – Malaysia, Timor Leste, DPRK, Haiti, Kenya, Panama • 2011-12 – Colombia, Korea, Taiwan, Tanzania; Burundi, Dominican Republic, Niger, Nigeria, Togo • 2013-14 – Cameroon, Liberia, Malawi, Congo DR, Ivory Coast, US By 2005, the”proof of concept” for SRI’s beneficial effects on rice production had been demonstrated in 22 countries that produce about 88% of the world’s rice. • By 2015, this percentage had reached about 98%.
  6. 6. Basic Practices of SRI 1. Raise seedlings in un-flooded nurseries (dry nursery bed) 2. Transplant seedlings at a very young age 3. Transplant seedlings quickly, carefully and shallow
  7. 7. 4. Transplant seedlings at wider distance 5. Transplant singly 6. Transplant seedlings in un-flooded plot Drawing of square grids by simple rake
  8. 8. 7. Do not continuously flood the soil 8. Weed control is preferably done with a simple mechanical hand weeder (Rotary Weeder). 9. Provide as much organic matter as possible to the soil
  9. 9. Difference s between conventional and SRI practices Conventional practice SRI seedling
  10. 10. Transplanting Conventional – on flooded field SRI – on un-flooded field
  11. 11. After transplant Conventional yellowing stage SRI looks not like a transplanted field
  12. 12. Most of the time ,floode the field in conventional practice Water management The field not flooded at all times in SRI
  13. 13. What will happen next If management practices are so ?
  14. 14. Transplanting Just transplanted 55 days after sowing 66 days after sowingAt near harvest Progress in Growth in Myay Bon
  15. 15. Progress in Growth in Shwebo SAI 115 DAS Counting effective tillers Just transplanted 33 DAS
  16. 16. From one young seedling (left) to nearly 100 tillers (right) in Shwebo SAI – 2017 rainy season
  17. 17. From one young seedling (left) to 223 tillers (right) in Indonesia, 2009
  18. 18. Field visit to Shwebo Pawsan paddy plots Plant with 110 effective tillers in Shwebo 110 Effective tillers 130 tillers in Thapeikkyin90 Effective tillers
  19. 19. Sr Township Variety Yield Basket/acre Yield Ton/hectare Season 1 ဖယ္ခံု စပ္မ်ိဳး ၉ှ၃ 195 10 2017, summer 2 နမ့္ခမ္း စပ္မ်ိဳး ၄ဿ၃ 164 8.5 2017, summer 3 ေျမပံု ဆင္းသုခ 160 8.2 2017 , rainy 4 ပုသိမ္ႀကီး ပုလဲသြယ္ 150 7.7 2017, summer 5 ေခ်ာင္းဦး ရက္ ၉ှ 146 7.5 2017, summer 6 မိုင္းဆတ္ ဆင္းေရႊှါ 143 7.4 2017, summer 7 ေရစႀကိဳ မေနာသုခ 132 6.8 2017, summer 8 အင္းေတာ္ ဆင္းဧကရီ ၃ 131 6.8 2017, summer 9 ဗန္းေမာ္ ဆင္းဧကရီ ၃ 130 6.7 2017, summer 10 ေျမာင္းျမ သီးထပ္ရင္ 127.5 6.6 2017, summer 11 ဘားအံ ဆင္းသုခ 126.5 6.5 2017, summer 12 မိုင္းဆတ္ ဆင္းဧကရီ ၃ 126 6.5 2017, summer Yield
  20. 20. Outstanding yields in other countries 1. Sri Lanka 329 b/a 17 t/h 2. India 310 b/a 16 t/h 3. China 203 b/a 10.5 t/h 4. Indonesia 184 b/a 9.5 t/h 5. Cambodia 115 b/a 8 t/h
  21. 21. According to Jaisingh Gnanadurai, joint director of agriculture in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, farmer S Sethumadhavan from Alanganallur has harvested a record yield of nearly 24 tones of paddy rice per hectare using the system of rice intensification method (SRI). (13.5.2014)
  22. 22. 2017-2018 Sown Acre and Yield In Myanmar 1. Total sown area acre 1371 2. Total harvested acre 1356 3. Yield (baskets) per acre 107.5
  23. 23. What Benefits Can Be Achieved with SRI? 1. Higher grain yields – 20‐50%, even >100% 2. Water savings – 30‐50% reductions in irrigation 3. Reduced costs of production – usually 10‐20% 4. Higher net farmer incomes – 50‐100% or more 5. Shorter crop duration – often 5‐1o days or more 6. Higher milling outturn by 10‐20%, due to fewer unfilled grains & less breakage during milling 7. Greater resistance to pests and diseases and more tolerance of climatic stresses HOW are these effects achieved? No ‘magic’ – good agronomic practices mobilizing existing potentials and interaction of ROOTS & SOIL BIOTA
  24. 24. In the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, a regular field in the foreground on left and an SRI field on the right after a storm had hit both of them (Dill et al. 2013).
  25. 25. Test plots at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in India after a storm passed over; the plot in foreground was conventionally cultivated, while the plot behind is SRI.
  26. 26. Kenya after a freak storm in November 2011; the rice on left grown with conventional cultivation practices was badly lodged; a nearby field cultivated with SRI methods, seen on right, sustained no damage.
  27. 27. Why SRI Is Climate‐Smart Agriculture • Reduced water requirements – higher crop water‐use efficiency benefits both natural ecosystems and people in competition with agriculture for scarce water supplies • Less use of inorganic fertilizer – reactive N is “the third major threat to our planet after biodiversity loss and climate change” ‐ already returns are greatly diminishing • Less reliance on agrochemicals for crop protection ‐ which enhances the quality of both soil and water • Buffering against the effects of climate change – drought, storms (resist lodging), cold temperatures • Some reduction in greenhouse gases (GHG) – (CH4) is reduced without producing offsetting (N2O) emissions; also some reductions made in ‘carbon footprint’ with less production, transportation and use of fertilizers
  28. 28. Three rows and five rows power weeder invented by DAR
  29. 29. Thank you For your kind attention

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