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1614 New Directions for the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Nepal: Mechanization and Biofertilizers

Presenter: Ram Bahadur Khadka
Title: New Directions for the System of Rice Intensification in Nepal: Mechanization and Biofertilizers
Date: December 9, 2016
Venue: Mann 102, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

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1614 New Directions for the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Nepal: Mechanization and Biofertilizers

  1. 1. Outline  Nepal : Overview  SRI in Nepal: Historical perspectives  New directions in SRI  Mechanization options in SRI  Problems  Ways forward
  2. 2. Nepal: Overview Area: 14.7 M ha (147,181 km2) -- 93rd in the world  Population: 26.6 M (2011)  Pop. growth: 1.4% (2011)  Density: 199/km2 -- 62nd Mountains: 3000-8,848 masl, 35% of area, 2% arable Hills: 800-2,400 masl, 43% of area, only 10% arable Terai: 60-300 masl, 23% of area, 50% arable Seasons: Spring (March-May), Summer (June-August), Autumn (Sept.-Nov.), Winter ( Dec-Feb). Rice seasons : Main (rainy), boro (winter) and early (spring)
  3. 3. 1999 • First SRI trial (NARC-Cornell University) 2001 • Trials on variety, spacing, water management (CIMMYT- NWRP, Appropriate Tech. Asia(ATA) 2002 • FFS set up in the Sunsari-Morang Irrig Project, yield: 8 t/ha • SRI-Nepal Discussion Group formed 2005 • SRI project won 2nd place in the World Bank’s Nepal Development Marketplace competition • National SRI workshop in Kathmandu (ICIMOD hosted) 2008 • SRI had started in more than 20 districts by GOs/NGOs (reaching 2500 farmers) • Success at 2500 m altitude in southern Humla (ATA) 2010 • EU-funded Food Facility project launched in 10 districts- 100s of SRI FFSs developed, trials and demon in FFSs 2012-16 • NARC started systematic research, GON has launched mega rice project-SRI an important element • SRI reached more than 50 districts (out of 75)
  4. 4. New Directions
  5. 5. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Organic SRI SRI Conventional Wet DSR Dry DSR 6.6 4.98 3.52 Yield(mt/ha) Pr (f)>= 0.003, LSD =1.39 Yield affected by cultivation methods Khadka, unpublished, 2014
  6. 6. Performance of FAR landraces in SRI  Landraces have 3-4 fold higher price in market, due to their premium quality  Well-adapted to conditions  Problems: low yield, high disease, unresponsive with fertilizer, lodging Khadka, et. al. 2014
  7. 7. Scale value 0= no lodging, 5 =100 % lodging 1= no disease 9 - highest disease LSD=0.92**LSD=0.62** SRI: Biotic and Abiotic stresses
  8. 8. Performance of drought-tolerant rice varieties under SRI management 6.54 7.59 7.87 6.31 6.07 5.96 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 Sukh-3 Radha-4 Sukha-5 Sukha-4 Sukha-1 Sukha-6 Grain weight (mt/ha) Straw yeild (mt/ha) Unpublished Khadka et. al. 2015. Yield(mt/ha)
  9. 9. Modern varieties with SRI
  10. 10. Org. SRI- Tricho Role of Trichoderma used with methods of cultivation 4.27 5.48 Con.
  11. 11. Interaction between variety and Trichoderma applications
  12. 12. Ratooning in SRI: New intervention 3.92 3.25 2.50
  13. 13. Integration of SRI in Seed System  As SRI increase the seed efficiency by more than 80% (means 4-6 Kg seed is sufficient for 1 ha in SRI while it required 50-60 Kg in conventional)  The seed flow is very slow from research to farmers field (takes around 5-6 years after varietal recommendation) due to scarcity of nucleus seed Nucleus Res. St. (1 yr) Breeder ( Res. St. 1 yr) Foundation (Res. St./seed producers) Certified (seed producer/F armers) Fig: Seed flow System from Research to Farmer’s field
  14. 14. Mechanization Options in SRI  Crop establishment  Weeding
  15. 15. Crop Establishment Planting in grid is always a challenge in SRI Earlier, rope was used for marking Wooden rake was then used: not suitable Drum seeder is promising Roller type marker Rice crank transplanter is recent introduction
  16. 16. Development of mechanical weeder for SRI in Nepal  Initially wooden ‘rakes’ with iron pins were used as weeders for SRI (cost as little as 25 cents)  Locally-fabricated rotary weeder was developed by NARC  USHA weeder (India) was introduced for SRI promotion in Nepal
  17. 17. Effect of different methods of weeding for SRI Methods of weed control Yield advantage cf. herbicides Rotary weeder (ha) 21% Hand weeding (ha) 1.65% Herbicides 0% Methods of weed control Time saving cf. hand weeding Rotary weeder (ha) 73% Hand weeding (ha) 0 Herbicides 92%
  18. 18. Problems  Monsoon-dependent rice farming is the norm  Lack of assured sources of irrigation water during crop establishment and weeding  Lack of extra-early rice varieties for spring-season rice farming  Low priority in research and extension is given to SRI  Lack of sufficient technical know-how to provide to farmers  Provision of simple weeding machines/tools is needed  Organic matter levels in the soil are decreasing
  19. 19. Way Forward  Demarcate most suitable areas for SRI  Rigorous training is needed  Mechanization for crop establishment and weeding  Focus on seed/seedling priming with Trichoderma and effective modes of application  Organic production of premium- quality rice landraces with SRI  Increase soil organic matter -- green manuring, legume incorporation, etc.  Document the role of SRI in climate-change resiliency
  20. 20. Summary 1. Integration of SRI with drought tolerance rice varieties and beneficial microbes could be successfully utilized to address the emerging challenge of climate change in rice production system 2. The productivity of high value rice landraces can be significantly increased by SRI, which can have the great contribution in reducing poverty in remote part of the country 3. Ratooning in SRI can help to increase the cropping intensity by enhancing area of spring season rice 4. Increase of soil organic matter is most essential in SRI 5. Large plot demonstrations of SRI with Trichoderma integration, use of roller type markers and motorized SRI weeder in rice super zones would be helpful to increase the national rice productivity by acceleration of SRI adoption in
  21. 21. Thank You