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1514 - The Concept of the TIRR Package

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Author: Tareke Berhe
Title: The Concept of the TIRR Package
Date: 2014
Subject: TIRR, which is based on the System of Tef Intensification

Published in: Technology
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1514 - The Concept of the TIRR Package

  1. 1. Tareke Berhe Tareke.Berhe@ata.gov.et
  2. 2. FACT 1: PLANTS ARE LIVING THINGS  They Feed  They Drink  They Breathe  They Respond To Stimuli – They React
  3. 3. FACT 2: PLANTS RESPOND TO:  Heat & Cold  Light  Plant Food in the Soil  Available Moisture in the Soil  Available Space for Each Plant
  4. 4. FACT 3: PLANTS RESPOND BY PRODUCING BIOMASS KNOWN AS YIELD • Yield = G x E + (G x E) Where: G = Genotype – inherited potential E = Environment – favorable conditions • Yield = G x E + (G x E) + Management Where: Management = Intensification -- giving individual plants more ample food, water, light and space to grow
  5. 5. FACT 4: ENVIRONMENT & MANAGEMENT MATTER  In the efforts to increase the productivity of food crops, size, number & time make a difference: 1. No. of Plants/Unit Area Matter 2. Size of Grain-Producing Heads Matter 3. When and What Management Operations are Conducted Matter
  6. 6. EXAMPLE - MAIZE GRAIN YIELDS PLANT POPULATION per hectare 100 150 200 20,000 2 TONS 3 TONS 4 TONS 40,000 4 TONS 6 TONS 8 TONS 60,000 6 TONS 9 TONS 12 TONS Grain Weight/Cob ( grams)
  7. 7. TRANSPLANTING 15-DAY-OLD TEF SEEDLINGS, DEBRE ZEIT 2009 – FIRST TRIALS
  8. 8. 10 DAYS AFTER TRANSPLANTING
  9. 9. 4 WEEKS AFTER TRANSPLANTING
  10. 10. 8 WEEKS AFTER TRANSPLANTING : INCREASED LEAF SIZE AND COLOR = HIGH BIOMASS PRODUCTION
  11. 11. TEF HEADS HEAVY WITH SEED
  12. 12. HIGH GRAIN & STRAW YIELDS, 2009 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 2000 2927 3540 4250 4526 6260 6631 Fig 1. Yield (kg/ha) for variety Dz-01-974 at 20x15 cm spacing & different fertilizer types 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 9000 12621 14865 17507 18395 23598 25832 Fig 1. Straw yield (kg/ha) for variety Dz-01-974 at 20x15 cm spacing & different fertilizer treatments
  13. 13. ROW PLANTING TO REPLACE TRANSPLANTING, MAINTAINING WIDE SPACING BUT REDUCING LABOR
  14. 14. TEF PACKAGE AVERAGE YIELDS BY REGION AND BY PLANTING METHOD, 2012 Average yield increase of ~70% over the national average (167,000 Farmers) Average yield by planting method Quintals/hectare • Data were collected from ~15,800 validating farmers (and some control farmer groups) to determine the results of new tef technologies • For the 15,790 farmers, average yields for row planting + transplanting increased ~70% from national average (21.7 versus 12.6 qtls/ha) • As the chart shows, there is still much work to be done to properly manage transplanting to realize potential yield gains Source: 2012 Data from Regional, Zonal and Woreda administration staff (collected Feb-April 2013) 17 12 16 21222122 18 20 2323 Amhara SNNPOromia Tigray N/A Broadcasting Row planting Transplanting
  15. 15. AVERAGE GRAIN YIELD BY PLANTING METHOD, 2012, WITH DIFFERENT SEEDING RATES (30 to 0.4 kg/ha) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 30 BC 5 BC 5 Row 0.4 TP GRAIN YIELD (tn)
  16. 16. THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES HAVE IMPRESSIVE RESULTS 2012 MAXIMUM YIELDS OBTAINED BY PLANTING METHOD Yield by technology use* Quintals per hectare 60 50 Transplanting + Fertilizer blends 35-66 Transplanting Row planting National average 12-15 Traditional on-farm production methods (e.g., broadcasting, 30 kg/ha seed rate) New row planting technology with reduced seed rate (5-10 kg/ha) New transplanting technology Transplanting technology combined with fertilizers with micronutrients * Yields are average yield for National Average and maximum yield for Row planting, Transplanting, and Fertilizer blends Source: Field visits, Sasakawa Global research, ATA Tef Program team analysis
  17. 17. DISTRIBUTION OF YIELD INCREASES BY PERCENT, 2012 Source: 2012 Data from Regional, Zonal and Woreda administration staff (collected Feb-April 2013) Distribution of Validating Farmers’ Yields Frequency of yield band (as % of total data set) 4 7 6 8 10 8 13 11 7 Over 200% 150 - 200% 125 - 150% 100 - 125% 80 - 100% 60 - 80%40 - 60%20 - 40%10 - 20%Less than 10% 27 ~30% of farmers saw a 20 – 80% yield increase Farmers who broadcast, used high seed rates, or experienced challenges with new technologies ~25% of farmers saw a 100 – 200% yield increase
  18. 18. STI HAS SHOWED THAT WITH PROPER MANAGEMENT, HIGH TEF YIELDS ARE POSSIBLE

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