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1447 Finger Millet for Nutrition, Health and Ecological Security: SFMI

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Presenter: K. N. Bhatt
Title: Finger Millet for Nutrition, Health and Ecological Security: SFMI
Date: June 5, 2015
Venue: Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
Sponsor: SRI-Rice

Published in: Technology

1447 Finger Millet for Nutrition, Health and Ecological Security: SFMI

  1. 1. Finger Millet for Nutrition, Health and Ecological Security: Increasing its Productivity through SFMI A Presentation Cornell Institute for Public Affairs , Cornell University, Ithaca, NY June 5, 2015 Dr. K. N. Bhatt G.B. Pant Social Science Institute University of Allahabad, Jhusi, Allahabad-211 019 (U.P., India) Email: knbhatt1@rediffmail.com, Fax: +915322569214,Mobile: +919454951081
  2. 2. Finger Millet for Nutrition, Health and Ecological Security: Increasing its Productivity through SFMI K.N. Bhatt* Presentation Focus Examine inter-linkages between incoming climate change and Sustainable Agriculture * G.B. Pant Social Science Institute, University of Allahabad, Jhusi, Allahabad- 211019 (U.P., India).
  3. 3.  Analyze Finger Millet (Ragi) as climate change compliant crop (CCCC) with ecological, food, biodiversity, nutrition, health securities  Explore feasibility of Finger Millet production with second SRI (SFMI), product diversification, markets, institutional alliances its impact on aspects of social and distributive justice,
  4. 4. Introduction Genetic resources key components of sustainability, resilience and adaptability in production systems CC new challenges for world’s genetic resources for food and agriculture 2050 Additional 3 billion people a 60 percent increase in global food production (FAO, 2015: vi, x) World’s crops production to be negatively affected by CC.
  5. 5.  About 0.7 degree Celsius warming projected to 1.1 to 6.4 Celsius increase by 2100 (WWIR, 2009:15).  Food grain output threatened by CC if av. temp. reach 2.0 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial level.  Land uses and food production systems highest greenhouse gas emitters  Land use change, sustainable agricultural practices, regenerating forests ways to cool planet
  6. 6. India in Context  12% to GDP contributed by Indian agriculture 2012-13  50% population dependent on agriculture.  India’s Gangotri Glacier supplies 70% water to Ganga retreating 35 meters yearly.  40% India’s cropland and 400 million people dependent for water on Ganga
  7. 7.  India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change, 2008 for mitigation and adaptation focuses on:  Solar Energy  Energy Efficiency  Sustainable Habitat  Water  Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystem  Green India  Sustainable Agriculture  Sustainable Knowledge
  8. 8. Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Climate friendly Food System 3,000 identified edible plant species only 10 annual cereal grains, legumes, oilseeds in 80% world crop land half of it covered by Wheat, Rice and Maize (WWIR, 2009: 37). World’s 925 m. people suffer chronic hunger; more than this overweight and obese, 1 b. face starvation; one-third global population suffer from micronutrient deficiencies (Frison et al., 2011: 240) Challenge: improving yields of major nutrients with climate friendly sustainable agriculture
  9. 9.  Climate friendly and climate resilient agriculture: “An agricultural landscape should simultaneously provide food and fiber, meet the needs of nature and biodiversity, and support viable livelihoods for people who live there… should actively absorb and store carbon in vegetation and soils, reduce emissions of methane from rice production, livestock, and burning, and reduce nitrous oxide emissions from inorganic fertilizers.” (WWIR, 2009, p. 33).
  10. 10. Minor Millets: Future of Farming and Food  Minor millets grown for food and fodder  Two types of millets  Major millets (sorghum/Jowar, pearl or Spiked millet/ Bajra)  Minor millets (finger millet, proso millet, little millet, foxtail or Italian millet, barnyard millet, kodo millet
  11. 11. Minor Millets: Different Names Language Finger/ Birdsfood/ Coracana/ African Millet German/ Italian/ Foxtail Millet Kodo/ Ditch Millet Barnyard/ Japanese Millet Little Millet Common/ broomcorn/ Hog/ Hershey/ Porso millet Bangali Marwa Kaun Kodo Shama Sama Cheena Gujrati Nagi/Bavto Kang Kodra - Gajro Cheno Hindi Ragi/ Marwah Kakun Kodon Sanwa Kutki/ Shava Cheena/Barri Kannada Ragi Navane Harka Oodalu Sama/Save Baragu Marathi Nagli/ Nachni Kang/Rala Kodra - Sava/Halvi Vari Oriya Mandika Kanghu/Kora Kodua Khira Suan China Punjabi Mandhuka Kangni Kodra Swank Swank Cheena Tamil Keppal/ Ragi Tenai Varadu Kathiraivolly Samai Pani Varagu Telugu Ragi Chodi Korra Arikelu/ Arika Kodisama Samalu Variga Source: Millet Network of India (MINI), Deccan Development Society (DDS), Food First Information and Action Network (FIAN): Millets: Future of Foods and Farming, p. 2.
  12. 12. Finger Millet  Sixth most important grain in the world  8% planted area (4 m. ha.) and 11% production (4.5 m. metric t./annum) of all millets globally (Oduori and Kanyenji, 2007:10; Okwadi, 2007: 102)  Finger Millet Climate change compliant crop (CCCC) can withstand 3 challenges  Warming stress  Water stress  Nutrition stress
  13. 13.  Grown from sea level to 8,000 feet above sea level  India’s Commission of Agricultural Cost and Prices, 2010 on Finger Millet (Ragi): “Ragi is a very hardy crop as well as a grain of great nutritive value. Ragi is grown in most of the states under dry land conditions, mainly by small and marginal farmers. Once harvested, the seeds keep extremely well and are seldom attacked by insects/pests. The long storage capacity makes Ragi an important crop in risk avoidance strategies for poorer farming communities. This crop has the potential to improve nutrition, boost food security and foster rural development… The Commission recommends that in order to ensure food security, coarse cereals should be included as a component of ongoing National Food Security Mission.” pp. 173-74
  14. 14.  Finger Millet: a miracle Grain of rain-fed areas  India’s 200 m. htr (62% geographical area) in rain-fed agriculture category in several agro-ecological zones (12th plan approach paper, 2011, p. 96).  56% cropped area rain-fed agriculture, 45% cereals grown under rainfed conditions (12th plan approach paper, 2011, p. 96).  50% to 75% of total rural household income contributed by livestock in drylands and mountain ecosystems (12th plan approach paper, 2011, p. 97).
  15. 15.  Holistic Farming System: Several mixed crops with finger millet varieties of both pulses and oilseeds  Very little water required  Sugarcane - 2000-2200 mm rainfall  Banana - 2000-2200 mm rainfall  Rice - 1200-1300 mm rainfall  Ragi - 350- 400 mm rainfall (MINI, DDS, FIAN: p.4)
  16. 16.  No irrigation only 20% rainfall compared to sugarcane and banana  Adaptable to wide range of ecological conditions: grows even in saline soil  Productivity level:  1-2 t./h.  2-3.5 t./h. hybrid varieties  90 – 100 days crop (VPKAS, 2007)
  17. 17.  Only farmyard manures & bio-fertilizers required  Pest-free crop  No storage pests as well (23 Years old seeds as Example)  No pesticides required  India’s huge fertilizers and pesticides subsidies benefit only 20% rich farmers will be reduced
  18. 18.  Boon to Agricultural Environment  Wheat: thermal sensitive crop may disappear with 2 degrees Celsius temperature rise, provide only food security  Rice: grown with standing water dangerous under climate change: water drenched rice fields emanate Methane – a GHG  Finger Millet multiple securities: food, fodder, health, nutrition, fibre, livelihood and ecological for agricultural security
  19. 19. Finger Millet Nutrition Contents  Finger Millet 3 to 5 times superior to rice and wheat in proteins, minerals and vitamins  17.8 times fibre than rice  34.4 times more calcium than rice  20 times more iron than rice  Beta Carotene abundant rice has zero
  20. 20. Nutrients Composition of Ragi, Rice and Wheat Contents Ragi Wheat Rice Protein (%) 9.27 11.80 6.80 Fat (%) 1.35 1.50 0.50 Fibre (%) 3.56 1.20 0.20 Mineral Salt (%) 2.11 1.50 0.60 Carbohydrate (%) 74.73 71.20 78.20 Energy (Kcal/ 100g) 348 346 345 Thiamine (Mg. per 100g.) 0.42 0.49 0.06 Riboflavin (Mg. per 100g.) 0.19 0.17 0.06 Niacin (Mg. per 100g.) 1.1 4.3 1.9 Zinc (Mg. per 100g.) 3.3 2.2 1.3 Chromium (Mg. per 100g.) 0.028 0.006 0.003 Manganese (Mg. per 100g.) 5.49 2.29 0.51 Magnesium (Mg. per 100g.) 137 132 64 Iron (Mg. per 100g.) 14.03 4.90 0.70 Calcium (Mg. per 100g.) 344 48 10 Potassium (Mg. per 100g.) 408 315 Source: Goplan, G, B.B. Ramshastri and S.C. Balasubrahmanium (1999): Nutritive Value of Indian Foods, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Cited in Srivastava, Sarita (2008): Mandua Ke Paushtik Byanjan, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, pantnagar, p.44
  21. 21. Finger Millet Health Solutions  High calcium rich for bone formation of children  Slimming Solution: Slow digestion  Diabetic Solution:  Thiamine, Riboflavin, Chromium, Potassium, Zinc, Magnesium, Manganese required in treatment of diabetic patients are relatively high in Finger Millet in natural form.
  22. 22.  Ragi Soup Known for its qualities as pain killer  Maintains body temperature in winters  Sudama’s wife says: “कोदो, सवाँ” जुरिरितो भरिरि पेट, तौ चाहतित ना “दिधि दूधि िमिठौती”। सीत िबितीत भरयो िसिसयातिहत, हतौं हतठती पै तुरम्हतें न हतठौती॥ (Narotam Das, 1605 AD, Sudama Charit)
  23. 23. Ragi Foods Variety  Sprouted, Sprouted Salad, roasted seeds, flour, Chapati, baby food, Halua, Barfi, Laddoo, Chikki, Cake, Cake- Rusk, Biscuits, Bread, Kachauri, Cheela, Bhelpuri, Bati, Poha, Namkeens, Sewai, Dosa, Idli.  Visuals follow: (Visuals Source: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar)
  24. 24. Ragi Foods Variety  Sprouted, Sprouted Salad, roasted seeds, flour, Chapati, baby food, Halua, Barfi, Laddoo, Chikki, Cake, Cake- Rusk, Biscuits, Bread, Kachauri, Cheela, Bhelpuri, Bati, Poha, Namkeens, Sewai, Dosa, Idli.  Visuals follow: (Visuals Source: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar)
  25. 25. Ragi Foods Variety  Sprouted, Sprouted Salad, roasted seeds, flour, Chapati, baby food, Halua, Barfi, Laddoo, Chikki, Cake, Cake- Rusk, Biscuits, Bread, Kachauri, Cheela, Bhelpuri, Bati, Poha, Namkeens, Sewai, Dosa, Idli.  Visuals follow: (Visuals Source: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar)
  26. 26. Ragi Foods Variety  Sprouted, Sprouted Salad, roasted seeds, flour, Chapati, baby food, Halua, Barfi, Laddoo, Chikki, Cake, Cake- Rusk, Biscuits, Bread, Kachauri, Cheela, Bhelpuri, Bati, Poha, Namkeens, Sewai, Dosa, Idli.  Visuals follow: (Visuals Source: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar)
  27. 27. Ragi Foods Variety  Sprouted, Sprouted Salad, roasted seeds, flour, Chapati, baby food, Halua, Barfi, Laddoo, Chikki, Cake, Cake- Rusk, Biscuits, Bread, Kachauri, Cheela, Bhelpuri, Bati, Poha, Namkeens, Sewai, Dosa, Idli.  Visuals follow: (Visuals Source: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar)
  28. 28. Ragi Foods Variety  Sprouted, Sprouted Salad, roasted seeds, flour, Chapati, baby food, Halua, Barfi, Laddoo, Chikki, Cake, Cake- Rusk, Biscuits, Bread, Kachauri, Cheela, Bhelpuri, Bati, Poha, Namkeens, Sewai, Dosa, Idli.  Visuals follow: (Visuals Source: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar)
  29. 29. Ragi Foods Variety  Sprouted, Sprouted Salad, roasted seeds, flour, Chapati, baby food, Halua, Barfi, Laddoo, Chikki, Cake, Cake-Rusk, Biscuits, Bread, Kachauri, Cheela, Bhelpuri, Bati, Poha, Namkeens, Sewai, Dosa, Idli.  Visuals follow: (Visuals Source: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar) Presentation on Ragi in College of Agri-Business Management, GBPUAT, Pantnagar, 20.10.2010
  30. 30. Ragi Foods Variety  Sprouted, Sprouted Salad, roasted seeds, flour, Chapati, baby food, Halua, Barfi, Laddoo, Chikki, Cake, Cake- Rusk, Biscuits, Bread, Kachauri, Cheela, Bhelpuri, Bati, Poha, Namkeens, Sewai, Dosa, Idli.  Visuals follow: (Visuals Source: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar)
  31. 31. Ragi Foods Variety  Sprouted, Sprouted Salad, roasted seeds, flour, Chapati, baby food, Halua, Barfi, Laddoo, Chikki, Cake, Cake- Rusk, Biscuits, Bread, Kachauri, Cheela, Bhelpuri, Bati, Poha, Namkeens, Sewai, Dosa, Idli.  Visuals follow: (Visuals Source: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar) VPKAS, ICAR, Almora, Hawalbagh Campus, Ragi Farm, 21.10.2010
  32. 32. Ragi Foods Variety  Sprouted, Sprouted Salad, roasted seeds, flour, Chapati, baby food, Halua, Barfi, Laddoo, Chikki, Cake, Cake- Rusk, Biscuits, Bread, Kachauri, Cheela, Bhelpuri, Bati, Poha, Namkeens, Sewai, Dosa, Idli.  Visuals follow: (Visuals Source: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar) Ragi, Displayed at VPKAS, Lab Hawalbagh Campus, Almora Ragi, from VPKAS, Hawalbagh , Almora, Farm, 21.10.2010
  33. 33. Ragi Foods Variety  Sprouted, Sprouted Salad, roasted seeds, flour, Chapati, baby food, Halua, Barfi, Laddoo, Chikki, Cake, Cake-Rusk, Biscuits, Bread, Kachauri, Cheela, Bhelpuri, Bati, Poha, Namkeens, Sewai, Dosa, Idli.  Visuals follow: (Visuals Source: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar) Ragi full Plants with Seeds and Stems, from VPKAS, Hawalbagh , Almora, Farm, 21.10.2010
  34. 34. Ragi Foods Variety  Sprouted, Sprouted Salad, roasted seeds, flour, Chapati, baby food, Halua, Barfi, Laddoo, Chikki, Cake, Cake-Rusk, Biscuits, Bread, Kachauri, Cheela, Bhelpuri, Bati, Poha, Namkeens, Sewai, Dosa, Idli.  Visuals follow: (Visuals Source: Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar) Presentation on Ragi in VPKAS, ICAR Lab, Hawalbagh Campus, Almora, 21.10.2010
  35. 35. Social and Distributive Justice  Finger Millet: Food security of poor  840 m. India’s population sustaining on less than Rs. 20 per capita/day consumption expenditure (National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector 2008)  540 m. rural  Indian Jajmani System of Inam Lands
  36. 36.  Inam lands mostly dry and least productive suitable only for millets production  White and bright green revolution crops replaced black  Millets production: direct benefits to poorest with highly positive forward and backward linkages for development of Indian economy
  37. 37. Depleting Finger Millet  Shrinking cultivation areas: declined 2.64% per annum 1986-87 – 2007-08 (CACP, 2010: 173)  Declining state support may disappear in next 50 years  Civilization and ecological disaster  India still largest producer and consumer  Skills for its production available in rural all India
  38. 38. All India Trends in Area, Production and Yield of Ragi and Rice Particulars 1986-87 2007-08 Compound Growth Rate (1986-87 – 2007- 08) Ragi Rice Ragi Rice Ragi Rice Area ‘000 ha 2397 41154 1366 43796 -2.64 0.30 Production ‘000 tonnes 2586 60906 1983 93947 -1.26 2.09 Yield Kg./Ha 1078 1480 1437 2145 1.38 1.78 Source: CACP, 2010: p. 457
  39. 39. Increasing Finger Millet Productivity  SRI Principles applied to increase Finger Millet production: Second SRI  Applied in Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Uttarakhand in India and Tigray, Amhara, Oromia in Ethiopia (Reported in sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/aboutsri/othercrops/ fingermillet/accessed on 8.4.15)  3-4 times more production without new varieties with mostly organic inputs (Pradan and SDTT)
  40. 40. Finger Millet Cultivation Cost-benefit/acre (in INR) Components Traditional methods SRI methods Seeds and nursery preparation 150 127.50 Field preparation 1262 1460 Nutrient inputs 4205 7255 Irrigation costs 796 1592 Weed control 1980 1056 Crop protection costs 432 432 Harvesting costs 3564 3432 Total operational costs 12389 15355 Management costs (10% of total ) 1239 1535 Total cost of production 13628 16890 Value of production (INR 20/kg.) 8000 (400 kgx20 INR) 25000 (1250 kgx20 INR) Net profit -5628 8110 Production cost per kg of grain 34.07 13.51 Source: Cultivating Finger Millet with SRI Principles: A Training Manual, PRADAN, SDTT and SRI Consortium Chhattishgarh, India, sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/aboutsri/.../fingermillet/In_SFMI_Pradan.pdf
  41. 41. India’s 2011-12 budget: “While we ensure food for all, we must also promote balanced nutrition. Bajra, jowar, ragi and other millets are highly nutritious and are known to possess several medicinal properties. The availability and consumption of these Nutri-cereals is, however, low and has been steadily declining over recent years. A provision of Rs 300 crore is being made to promote higher production of these cereals, upgrade their processing technologies and create awareness regarding their health benefits. This initiative would provide market linked production support to ten lakh millet farmers in the arid and semi-arid regions of the country. The programme would be taken up in 1000 compact blocks covering about 25,000 villages. This will help improve nutritional security and increase feed and fodder supply for livestock.”
  42. 42. Source: Cultivating Finger Millet with SRI Principles: A Training Manual, PRADAV, SDTT and SRI Consortium Chhattishgarh, India, sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/aboutsri/.../fingermillet/In_SFMI_Pradan.pdf
  43. 43. Source: Cultivating Finger Millet with SRI Principles: A Training Manual, PRADAV, SDTT and SRI Consortium Chhattishgarh, India, sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/aboutsri/.../fingermillet/In_SFMI_Pradan.pdf
  44. 44. Crafting Markets for Ragi  Three Methods  Policy changes at Central and State Governments’  Finger Millet foods mix for Indian Defense Forces, Indian Railways, PSUs, Mid-Day Meal, Academic Institutions Hostels  Multiple sources awareness generation: breaking information asymmetry, example Lauki and Aloe- vera
  45. 45. Conclusion  Finger Millet a CCCC  Socio-ecological returns to farmers: CC, Bio-diversity, water conservation, organic food  High nutritive values with major and micro nutrients  All India crop: existing skills for more production
  46. 46.  Equity ensuring crop system  Increased production with Second SRI  Finger Millet foods in Indian defense forces, Railways, ICDS, Schools, Colleges and Hostels, baby foods, PSUs  Livestock feed for enhanced milk production  Intrinsically bio-diverse  People centered and people directed R&D on Ragi.
  47. 47. References Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP) (2010): Reports of the CACP for the Crops Sown During 2009-10 Season, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi. Department of Foods and Nutrition, College of Home Sciences, GBPUAT, Pantnagar FAO (2015): Climate Change Coping with the Roles of Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, The United Nations, Rome. Frison, Emile A., Jeremy Cherfas and Toby Hodgkin (2011), “Agricultural Biodiversity is Essential for a Sustainable Improvement in Food and Nutrition Security”, Sustainability, 3, 238- 253. Flavin, Christopher and Robert Engelman (2009): The Perfect Storm in State of the World 2009: Confronting Climate Change, Worldwatch Institute, Earthscan, London, Pp. 5-12. Goplan, G, B.B. Ramshastri and S.C. Balasubrahmanium (1999): Nutritive Value of Indian Foods, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, Cited in Srivastava, Sarita (2008): Mandua Ke Paushtik Byanjan, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, p.44 Hare, W.L. (2009): A Safe Landing for the Climate in State of the World 2009: Confronting Climate Change, Worldwatch Institute, Earthscan, London, Pp. 13-29. Millet Network of India (MINI), Deccan Development Society (DDS), Food First Information and Action Network (FIAN): Millets: Future of Foods and Farming. Narotam Das (1605 ): Sudama Charit. National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector (NCEUS) (2008), “A Special Programme for Marginal and Small Farmers”, Report, New Delhi, Government of India,
  48. 48. Oduori, Chrispus and B Kanyenji (2007) “Finger Millet in Kenya: Importance, Advances in R&D, Challenges and Opportunities for Improved Production and Profitability” in MA Mgonja, JM Lenné, E Manyasa and S Sreenivasaprasad (Eds), Finger Millet Blast Management in East Africa: Creating Opportunities for Improving Production and Utilization of Finger Millet, ICRISAT, Proceedings of the First International Finger Millet Stakeholder Workshop, Projects R8030 & R8445 UK Department for International Development–Crop Protection Programme, September 13-14, 2005 at Nairobi, ICRISAT, Kenya, SAARI, Uganda and Warwick, HRI, UK, pp. 10-22. Okwadi, Julius (2007) “Importance and Characteristics of Finger Millet Processing in Uganda” in MA Mgonja, JM Lenné, E Manyasa and S Sreenivasaprasad (Eds), Finger Millet Blast Management in East Africa: Creating Opportunities for Improving Production and Utilization of Finger Millet, ICRISAT, Proceedings of the First International Finger Millet Stakeholder Workshop, Projects R8030 & R8445 UK Department for International Development–Crop Protection Programme, September 13-14, 2005 at Nairobi, ICRISAT, Kenya, SAARI, Uganda and Warwick, HRI, UK, pp. 102-111. Pachauri, R.K. (2009): Foreword in State of the World: Confronting Climate Change 2009, Worldwatch Institute, Earthscan, London, Pp. xvi-xviii. Scherr, Sara J. and Sajal Sthapit (2009): Farming and Land Use to Cool the Planet in State of the World 2009: Confronting Climate Change, Worldwatch Institute, Earthscan, London, Pp. 30-49. Vivekanand Parvateeya Krishi Anusandhan Sansthan (VPKAS) (2007): Mandua (Ragi) Kee Vaigyanik Kheti, ICAR, Almora, Worldwatch Institute (2009): State of the World 2009: Confronting Climate Change, London Earthscan
  49. 49. Thank You

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