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1446 System of Rice Intensification Introduction in Taiwan

Presentation by Chun-E Kan
Title: System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Introduction in Taiwan: Results of Trials, Adapting to Existing Farming Systems and Local Conditions, and Making Links with the Private Sector
Venue: Cornell University
Date: April 16, 2015
Organized by: SRI-Rice, Cornell Univesity

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1446 System of Rice Intensification Introduction in Taiwan

  1. 1. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Introduction in Taiwan Results of Trials, Adapting to Existing Farming Systems and Local Conditions, and Making Links with the Private Sector Chun-E Kan April 16, 2015 Cornell University
  2. 2. Irrigation System Development in Taiwan 1. Before 1945, the irrigation management in Central/Southern Taiwan was gravity irrigation, which was mainly utilized for paddy rice irrigation and a small portion of the sugarcane irrigation. 2. 1950s, the Sino-American Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction (JCRR) operated to: • Upgrade irrigation systems (canal lining) • Develop water resources (dam construction) • Land consolidation • Upland crops cultivation and irrigation
  3. 3. Irrigation System Development in Taiwan 3. After WWII, due to the food shortage in Japan, Taiwan started to export rice to Japan in exchange of chemical fertilizer. • Therefore, the use of chemical fertilizer has dominated the agriculture sector in Taiwan since then. Organic cultivation is now less than 10% in Taiwan. 4. In 1990s, Taiwan started collaboration with the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) with the assistance of Dr. Levine and Dr. Barker. This project is currently conducted by Dr. Matsuno and Dr. Hung-Hao Chang. 5. In 2010, Dr. Yamaji from Japan (J-SRI) introduced SRI technologies to Taiwan to initiate the research and collaboration.
  4. 4. Challenges of SRI in Taiwan 1. In the past 4 years, the international SRI application has been modified and adapted in different areas of Taiwan. It has been established as a stable and high-yield production system. 2. Due to the high agri-labor costs, rice production in Taiwan, Japan and Korea is generally no longer as competitive as from other developing countries within the WTO framework of the international free market trading. • Therefore, several different approaches to lower the production cost have been incorporated, including increasing the plot size of paddy field and thereby raising the efficiency of agri-machinery. 3. Apple snails are the biggest pest problem which needs to be solved in the process of adapting SRI applications in Taiwan
  5. 5. Future prospects of SRI in Taiwan Strategy is to connect smallholder producers with the customers more directly through an environmentally conscious value-chain for utilizing SRI rice in Taiwan. • Within the 4 years of first SRI trials and promotion, the brand of ‘SRI-Rice’has been built up to represent high yield, good quality, safe food with eco-friendly farming system in Taiwan. • A set of SOP for SRI-Rice adapted in Taiwan’s smallholder producers is currently being established by the Taiwan SRI group with the help of Dr. Uphoff and Dr. Yamaji, for the promotion of eco-farming in paddy fields. • Higher rice price (NT$26/kg; US$0.38/lb, compared to average rice price NT$ 16-18/kg) is being offered to SRI-Rice producers by private medical equipment company (Caremed Supply Inc.). • In the initial stage, the SRI-Rice will be supplied to the staff of the private company as customers. • In the next stage, the SRI-Rice will be supplied using the partnership of the medical equipment company in the supply chain. • In the final stage, SRI-Rice is expected to be obtainable in the Taiwan rice market. All in all, sustainable agriculture can sustain itself and only can flourish with the prospect of a mature SRI-Rice market consisting of a balanced supply and demand relationship.
  6. 6. Introduction • Monsoon variability, agricultural mechanization, enlargement of plot size, and agricultural subsidies policy have been shaping producer and government decisions in recent decades. 1) Mechanization : Government subsidies and other incentives were a big factor. 2) Enlargement of plot size: Grouping together to facilitate industrialized agriculture. 3) Most of field management is accomplished by current agri-machinery groups. • Results 1) Eroding the character of the rural landscape and the loss of many wildlife habitats. 2) High use of agrochemical inputs, with resulting soil system deterioration 3) Less profits from agricultural activity are directly affecting farmers’ incomes. 4) The quality of rice milling is uncontrolled. 5) Lower productivity and efficiency of resource inputs in farm management. 6) Resistance to environment-friendly practices such as SRI among farmers
  7. 7. Introduction • The benefits of SRI practices have been seen now in over 50 countries. Taiwan is counted as the 45th country. Main advantages are seen as: 1) Yield increases. 2) Savings in irrigation water. 3) Seed reduction. • Use of SRI practices can be appreciated as an environment-friendly option for rice farmers, enabling them to avoid undesirable and irreversible chemical impacts on the agro-environment which are resulting from current practices. • Through the application and adaptation of SRI concepts and methods, it is expected that farmers can become not only food producers, but also upholders of environmental quality.
  8. 8. Constraints and challenges to paddy farming toward environment-friendly production in Taiwan 2.1 Variability of monsoon climate change JapanKorea D.P.R. Korea Taiwan, ROC Hong kong Philippines Pacific Ocean China Tropic of cancer East longitude 1210 North latitude 240 Figure 1: Location of Taiwan Island
  9. 9. What is SRI? • System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a rice cultivation method found and developed in Madagascar in the early 1980s by a French priest Fr. Henri de Laulanié, S.J. • SRI was introduced outside of Madagascar starting in the late 1990s by Norman Uphoff of Cornell University • SRI is now practiced in >50 countries all over the world (Uphoff, 2009)
  10. 10. SRI in Asia • India 770 (thousand hectares) • China 210 • Viet Nam 69 • Cambodia 60 • Indonesia 16 • Laos 4 (Shimazaki, 2010 ) • Taiwan increasing ! • Korea increasing ? • Japan very few
  11. 11. Some Variations of SRI • Madagascar  Prof. Uphoff   Indonesia ( 4 or 5 principles)  Lao  Japan  Taiwan  Cambodia ( 12 targets ) from both  Viet Nam History & Site-Specific Science/Technique
  12. 12. Constraints and challenges to paddy farming toward environment-friendly production in Taiwan 2.1 Variability of monsoon climate change Figure 2: Double cropping patterns adopted in Taiwan
  13. 13. Constraints and challenges to paddy farming toward environment-friendly production in Taiwan 2.2 Simplification of monoculture and industrial farming development Table 1: Rice production costs for different plot sizes (US$/ton) Plot size 1st Crop 2nd Crop < 0.50 ha 548 749 0.50~0.75 ha 560 733 0.75~1.00 ha 537 737 1.00~1.50 ha 576 718 > 1.50 ha 535 666
  14. 14. Constraints and challenges to paddy farming toward environment-friendly production in Taiwan 2.2 Simplification of monoculture and industrial farming development End of WWII 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1900 1915 1930 1940 1946 1961 1973 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009 riceyield(ton/ha) riceharvestedarea(10kha) year rice area rice yield WTO Urbanization Figure 3: Rice yield and harvested area in Taiwan
  15. 15. Constraints and challenges to paddy farming toward environment-friendly production in Taiwan 2.3 Over-application of chemical inputs under agriculture subsidy policy squeezes profits for farmers Table 2 Farmer income compared with average national income (US$/person) Total income Agric. Income (%) Non-agric. Income (%) 2008 15973(19.4) 8245 1769(21) 6476(79) 2009 15708(19.7) 7991 1667(21) 6323(79) 2010 17397(21) 8282 1705(21) 6576(79) 2011 17497(20.2) 8670 1707(20) 6962(80) 2012 17667(18.9) 9349 2026(21) 7322(79) National (%)Year Farmer
  16. 16. 16Overflow Intake Sub-tertiary and Quaternary system Drainage system Land consolidation Different from Japan •No pipeline on farm •No sub-drainage under the ground •Small size of plots (0.25 ha) •Farmer can plant the crop individuality 1. Cultivation efficiency is not good due to small and irregular lots. 2. No upland crops could be planted during rice cultivation period. 3. Difficulty in saving manpower through mechanism. Before 1. Fine quality crops could be produced from each lot due to good conditions of irrigation and drainage 2. Selection of planting crop as well as irrigation- and-drainage practice are independent for each field lot After
  17. 17. 17 Field lot Bunds between lots in blocks are removed, and crop production is shared according to farmer’s area. 1.Big machinery can be applied to reduce cost. 2.The resources can be efficiently used Enlargement of the paddy field size 1.The area of each block reaches 6 ha., which is the standard in Western countries, and is favored in competitiveness. 2.The irrigation canal system and water management remain unchanged. 3.Water distribution in tertiary blocks is simplified, and the operation cost is reduced. Approximately 6 ha.
  18. 18. A conceptual framework of eco-friendly paddy farming collaboration based on modified SRI techniques Farmers Agri. Machinery Group Wholesaler/Retailer Consumers Mill Nursery center Paddy field Modified SRI Technique Food Safety and traceability Limited three generations seed
  19. 19. Conclusions • Results from trials of SRI methods in Taiwan have indicated ways to adapt SRI ideas to conditions prevailing in Taiwan. • Compared to the original SRI practices, modified SRI techniques take account of the systemic requirements of industrialized farming operations, which may more easily be practiced in group activities. • This has given rise to a conceptual framework for eco-friendly paddy farming collaboration based on modified SRI techniques. 1) Farmers are encouraged to change their field management from conventional practices to SRI, with economic benefits under contract farming. 2) Independent corporations can help farmers to organize co-operative group farming and to improve food safety through the integration of inspection service and having food traceability, projecting the SRI-Rice brand as an image of safe food and environmental friendliness. 3) As for consumers, they can get safe food at a reasonable price from SRI-Rice brand.