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1423 - System of Rice Intensification in China

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Presentation at the 4th International Rice Congress
Presenter: Zhoucen Feng
Title: System of Rice Intensification in China
Venue: Bangkok International Trade and Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Bangkok, Thailand
Date: October 31, 2014

Published in: Technology
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1423 - System of Rice Intensification in China

  1. 1. System of Rice Intensification in China: Research Dynamic and Innovative Adaptations Zhoucen Feng and Erika Styger SRI International Network and Resources Center (SRI-Rice) College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University Ithaca, NY, USA Presentation at the International Rice Congress (IRC), Bangkok, Thailand October 31, 2014
  2. 2. Objectives  Review of SRI research in China  Little is known to the rest of the world due to language barrier  What has been done?  Where has it been done?  Who has been doing it?  Research topics and findings  Adaptations
  3. 3. Research Method  CNKI (www.cnki.net)  China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database  Academic literature database  Search with key word “水稻强化栽培” (“System of Rice Intensification” in Chinese)  Read, categorize, and analyze articles found
  4. 4. A brief history of SRI in China  1999: First SRI trial at Nanjing Agricultural University  2001: Dr. Longping Yuan published a review paper on SRI  2002: First International SRI Conference in Sanya, Hainan  Collection of research publications by 2013  313 journal articles  13 dissertations  11 in conference proceedings
  5. 5. Large number of published SRI studies in academic journals By 2013:  313 journal articles  244 research articles  219 on field experiments  25 reviews  576 worldwide in total  69 technical recommendations  In 72 journals  Peak in 2005  Increasing ratio over time of technical recommendations to research work 2 7 24 38 44 38 27 20 13 11 6 6 8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Number of Journal Articles on SRI Published in China Research Articles Technical Recommendation
  6. 6. Evolution of SRI Article Content  Phase 1: Research  Studying the yield effects and influencing factors when applying SRI methods  Studying physiological processes associated with SRI and their influence on yield  Phase 2: Application  Delivering technical recommendations for specific farming conditions 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Number of Journal Articles on SRI in China Research Articles Technical Recommendation
  7. 7. Where has SRI been studied?  93 Experiment sites in all 19 rice- producing provinces  Trials concentrate in a few provinces  2 leading provinces: Zhejiang, Sichuan 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 4 4 6 7 9 10 11 11 14 44 89 Hubei Yunan Fujian Ningxia Xinjiang Hainan Henan Jiangsu Heilongjiang Shanghai Anhui Jiangxi Guangdong Chongqing Guangxi Hunan Guizhou Sichuan Zhejiang No. SRI Experiments by Province (2001-2013)
  8. 8. SRI Experiment Sites in China
  9. 9. Who has been studying SRI?  Institutions  Universities and research institutes  Department of Agriculture  Agricultural extension services  Seed companies  Inter-institutional collaborations
  10. 10. What are the research topics?  4 main topics  Planting density  Nutrient management  Seedling age  Variety testing  Others  Weed management, pest management, etc. 114 34 17 1 1 topic 2 topics 3 topics 4 topics Number of Main Topics Addressed per Experiment
  11. 11. Research topics and findings I  Planting Density  94 research articles  Planting pattern (triangular or square grids), inter-plant spacing (20~50cm), No. seedlings/hill (1~3)  Lower density improves photosynthesis and root activity  Balancing individual plant productivity with unit area productivity  Soil nutrient management  59 research articles  Types, combinations, application rates and timing of various chemical fertilizer and organic inputs  Focus on N management
  12. 12. Research topics and findings II  Variety testing for SRI  55 articles: variety comparison  26 articles: single variety tests  Focus on hybrid varieties  Seedling age  44 research articles  8 ~ 36 days or 2~8 leaf age  Younger is better  Fast establishment  Minor transplantation shock  More low-position tillers  Cold soil temperature can be a challenge
  13. 13. Evaluation Parameters of Experiments  Yield and Yield Components  Plant physiology and morphology  Response to Disease, Pests, and Lodging  Soil properties  Water usage  Economic cost and profits
  14. 14. Applications and Recommendations for SRI  115 articles on technical recommendations and practical instructions (esp after 2010)  Suitable varieties, seedling age, planting density, soil nutrient management, etc. for local climates and cropping systems  Specified and precise instruction of almost every step in rice production  Adaptations  Agricultural policy  SRI has been chosen as one of the “Major Agricultural Technologies to Promote of the year” by the department of agriculture in Zhejiang and Sichuan since 2010
  15. 15. Adaptation of SRI practices  Triangular SRI - 33 research articles  Designed for low light intensity condition in Sichuan Province  Higher planting density than regular SRI Double-Triangular SRI Triangular SRI Regular SRI Vs. plants/square: 9 12 4
  16. 16. Adaptation  Triangular SRI, compared to CK and/or SRI  Increase LAI, dry matter accumulation and translocation rate, root exudation rate, productive tillering  Increase panicle size, grain-filling ratio  Achieving balance between productivity per plant and productivity per unit area  “Major Agricultural Technology to Promote” by Sichuan Agriculture Department since 2009
  17. 17. Sites of Triangular SRI Experiments
  18. 18. Adaptations  No-till SRI  11 articles , various findings  Most see yield increase  Some combine with raised beds  Potential of soil conservation  Direct-seeding SRI  High yield  Potential of saving labor  Using mulch in SRI  Mulching with rice hull or plastic for weed control  SRI rice-duck system
  19. 19. Conclusions  SRI research in China  Long time, large number, various participants  Wide range, Sichuan and Zhejiang as leading provinces  Major focus: planting density, soil fertility, seedling age, variety testing  Depth in physiology and morphology  Many research results have been mainstreamed into technical recommendations for rice production  Generated various adaptations of SRI practices to local conditions, e.g. Triangular SRI

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