1175 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Sistema Intensivo de Cultivo Arrocero (SICA)

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PowerPoint by Erika Styger, SRI-Rice, Cornell University, New York, presented at the First Workshop on the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Latin America at EARTH University in Costa Rica, Oct. 31-Nov. 1, 2011

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  • Vietnam: October 2011: Over 1 Mio farmers (70% women) applying SRI on > 185,000 hectares India: 2011: 250,000 farmers Cambodia : 2010: 130,000 farmers; yield increases between 30-150%, Ministry of Agriculture included SRI in national strategy in 2006, SRI Secretariat to coordinate and promote SRI
  • Picture sent by Prativa Sundaray, staff member with the NGO PRADAN which is introducing SRI in poor communities, especially tribal ones in Orissa, Jhakhand and West Bengal, even where there is no irrigation, adapting SRI concepts to rainfed conditions.
  • 1175 System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Sistema Intensivo de Cultivo Arrocero (SICA)

    1. 1. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Sistema Intensivo de Cultivo Arrocero (SICA) Erika Styger, SRI-Rice Cornell University, USA
    2. 2. What is SRI? <ul><li>The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For increasing the productivity of irrigated rice cultivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By changing the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients, while reducing external inputs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed in the 1980s in Madagascar by Father Henri de Laulanié </li></ul>Source page web: http://sririce.org SICA: Sistema Intensivo de Cultivo Arrocero
    3. 3. 6 Main Practices of SRI <ul><li>Single plant /hill </li></ul><ul><li>Transplant young seedlings (2 leaf stage) </li></ul><ul><li>Adopt wide spacing - planted in a grid </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum water application during vegetative growth </li></ul><ul><li>Assure soil aeration </li></ul><ul><li>Use organic amendments as base fertilization </li></ul>
    4. 4. Spread of SRI up to 1999 Madagascar
    5. 5. Before 1999: Madagascar 1999/2000: China, Indonesia 2000/01: Bangladesh, Cuba, Laos, Cambodia, Gambia, India, Nepal, Myanmar, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002/03: Benin, Guinea, Moz., Peru 2004/05: Senegal, Pakistan, Vietnam 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil, Mali 2008: Rwanda, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Japan 2009: Malaysia, Timor Leste 2010: Kenya, DPRK, Panama, Haiti 2011 : Korea, Taiwan 2011: Benefits of SRI management now validated in 44 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
    6. 6. Bhutan Cuba Afghanistan Mali Cambodia – Rainfed SRI CON 3.6 t/ha SRI 9.5 t/ha CON 6.5 t/ha SRI 9.5 t/ha CON 5.6 t/ha SRI 9.3 t/ha CON: 5.5 t/ha SRI 9.1 t/ha CON: 1.8 t/ha SRI 4.0 t/ha
    7. 7. SRI in Latin America <ul><li>Cuba 2000/2001 9.5 t/ha vs 6.5 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Peru 2002/2003 9-11t/ha vs 6.0 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil 2007 6.2 t/ha vs 5.7 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Colombia 2007 8.1 t/ha vs 6.9 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Costa Rica 2008 8-10t/ha vs 4.2 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Ecuador 2008 8.8 t/ha vs 3.8 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Panama 2008 5.2 t/ha vs 3.6 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Haiti 2011 8.8 t/ha vs 3.9 t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Dominican Republic 2011 – first crop planted </li></ul>
    8. 8. Additional Benefits of SRI <ul><li>Reduced inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds by 80-90% (6-10kg/ha vs 60 kg) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water by 30-50% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical inputs: significantly or eliminated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Costs (-20% to -40%) </li></ul><ul><li>Income increase >30-100% </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Raised beds, water 1-2x/day </li></ul><ul><li>Good soil texture and fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds not densely sown </li></ul><ul><li>Remove plants with soil to protect roots </li></ul>SRI Nursery conducive to fast plant development
    10. 10. Favor early, quick and healthy plant establishment <ul><li>Reduce seedling age : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two leaf stage (8-12 days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One leaf stage (4 days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct seeding (China, Cambodia, Cuba, Sri Lanka and India ) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Transplanting Careful and fast transplanting, shallow transplanting
    12. 12. Mechanization with SRI Transplanter for 1 seedling/hill (Tamil Nadu, India)
    13. 13. Application of Organic Material <ul><li>Is the base for sustainable soil management </li></ul><ul><li>Improves microbial life in the soil </li></ul><ul><li>Organic matter, aerated soil and application of the cono-weeder favors nutrient availability for the rice crop </li></ul>Manure / compost Crop residues Green manure ( Gliricidia sp )
    14. 14. SRI Irrigation <ul><li>During Vegetative period: Alternate Wetting and Drying </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce 1-2 cm of water – let plot dry until soil cracks – Introduce another thin layer a water etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Water productivity (grain yield (kg/ha)/ water consumed in m3/ha) </li></ul><ul><li>India: SRI: 0.53 kg rice produced/ m3 water, flooded: 0.27kg/m3 (Viyajakumar et al, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>The Gambia : SRI: 0.62 – flooded: 0.1 (Ceesay, 2006) </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Incorporates weeds into soil </li></ul><ul><li>Aerates soil - Stimulates root growth </li></ul><ul><li>Redistributes water across the plot </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical weeding more economical then hand weeding - </li></ul><ul><li>To replace herbicides – location specific analysis to be done </li></ul>Mechanical weeding
    16. 16. Motorized weeder
    17. 17. <ul><li>Roots are deeper, longer, double the volume and weight/ hill </li></ul>Non SRI - flooded SRI – non flooded Thakur, A.K et al (2011) Effects for rice plant morphology and physiology of water and associated mgt practices of SRI and their implications for crop performance, PAWE 9:13-24 Thiyagarajan et al. (2009) Principles and Practices of SRI in Tamil Nadu
    18. 18. Plant development I <ul><li>Higher tiller number per hill in SRI </li></ul>SRI Control
    19. 19. Faster growth - shorter crop cycle (10 days) Control SRI Plant development II SRI SRI Control Control
    20. 20. Adaptation to Climate Change <ul><li>Improved water use efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance to drought, strong winds </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter cropping cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul>India Mali Vietnam SRI non-SRI
    21. 21. Decreased use in pesticides <ul><ul><li>With larger spacing and line planting: air can circulate between rows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less humid micro environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction in fungal diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stronger plants (bigger roots, thicker stems) resist pest and diseases better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vietnam and Cambodia: reduction in pesticides </li></ul></ul>Sheath blight disease
    22. 22. Improved Soil Management <ul><li>Conservation agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal soil disturbance, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero tillage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanent soil cover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation and increased diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Permanent raised beds </li></ul>Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, yield of 13.4 t/ha SRI methods combine easily with new soil management approaches
    23. 23. <ul><li>Fully mechanized - minimum-till, permanent raised beds – organic fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>Yields: >10t/ha </li></ul><ul><li>Water productivity: 0.92 kg/m3 </li></ul>MSRI: Mechanized SRI Asif Sharif, FarmAll Technology Ltd, Pakistan
    24. 25. Mahto Oraon, Gumla district, Jharkhand state, India, with SRI plant having 65 tillers (Khandagiri, 110-day variety) RAINFED SRI: Adapting SRI principals to rainfed rice and other crops 50,000 farmers in Myanmar 130,000 farmers in Cambodia Central eastern States India
    25. 26. SRI principles for other crops System of Crop Intensification (SCI) <ul><li>Wheat (SWI) : since 2006 in India, Ethiopia and Mali </li></ul><ul><ul><li>India : Bihar: Yield: 3.6-4.5 t/ha vs 1.6t/ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>330,000 ha for 2012 (Jeevika, 2011) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mali : Timbuktu: SWI 5-5.5t/h vs. 2t/ha (Styger and Ibrahim, unpublished) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teff, Finger Millet, Mustard etc. </li></ul>Timbuktu, Mali SWI Traditional Bihar, India SWI TR
    26. 27. Sugarcane With SRI method Yields are by 20-50% improved 30% reduction in water use 25% reduction in chemical fertilizer Developed in India
    27. 28. Challenges and opportunities <ul><li>Change in labor allocation during cropping season </li></ul><ul><li>Water control is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation water distribution may change </li></ul><ul><li>Access to biomass </li></ul><ul><li>Land preparation (land leveling, switch to minimal tillage, conservation agriculture) </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate tools, Mechanization </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity: SRI is a methodology to be adapted to local conditions </li></ul>
    28. 29. Conclusions 1 st SRI Workshop in Latin America <ul><li>Technical documentation in Spanish language to be made available </li></ul><ul><li>Networking platform (google-group list-serve) to be activated </li></ul><ul><li>Inviting interested parties to become members of Network </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation, demonstration in La Flor to be expanded (Earth, INTA, private sector) </li></ul><ul><li>Project proposals to be developed and submitted at country and regional level </li></ul>
    29. 30. Muchas gracias! SRI farmers from the village of Donghoi, Timbuktu, Mali SRI-Rice : http://sririce.org Email : [email_address] , [email_address]

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