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1049 SRI Findings in India

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Presented by: Dr Amod L. Thakur

Presented at: International Rice Congress. Pre-Congress SRI Day, November 8, 2010

Presented by: Dr Amod L. Thakur

Presented at: International Rice Congress. Pre-Congress SRI Day, November 8, 2010

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1049 SRI Findings in India

  1. 1. Dr. Amod K. Thakur Directorate of Water Management (ICAR) Bhubaneswar, Orissa, INDIA SRI Findings in India Pre-Congress ‘SRI DAY’ November 8, 2010
  2. 2. Objectives  Varietal performance  Impact of spacing  Effect of different N-level  Effect of water management practices  Comparative performance
  3. 3. Varietal performance Khandagiri (Short duration) Surendra (Medium duration) CRHR-7 (Hybrid) Lalat (Medium duration - popular variety) Savitri (Long duration) DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar
  4. 4. • All the varieties performed better under SRI management than with conventional transplanted management. • SRI showed 36-49% higher yield than TP • Short duration variety (Khandagiri): 36%, • Medium duration and hybrid varieties: 42-45 %, • Long duration: 49% more yield than TP SRI: Panicle length, grains per spike, and grain-ripening percent were the major factors responsible for higher yield than TP Salient Findings A. K. Thakur, Sreelata Rath and Ashwani Kumar (2010). Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science ((Taylor & Francis), DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar
  5. 5. Effect of spacing Grain Yield (t/ha) under different spacings in SRI and TP Khandagiri Surendra Savitri Treatment Yield (t/ha) % Change in yield Yield (t/ha) % Change in yield Yield (t/ha) % Change in yield 30 x 30cm 2.97c -1.65 2.94d -33.48 3.86d -19.79 25 x 25cm 3.42b 13.12 4.26bc -3.58 6.31a 31.16 20 x 20cm 4.44a 46.80 6.27a 41.89 6.06a 26.03 15 x 15cm 3.01c -0.39 4.21bc -4.71 4.40c -8.53 10 x 10cm 2.88c -4.80 4.16c -5.84 4.23c -12.10 TP (15x10 cm) 3.02c - 4.42b - 4.81b - Thakur, A. K.., S. K. Choudhari, R. Singh, and Ashwani Kumar. (2009). The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 79 (6):443-447. DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar
  6. 6. Optimum spacing: For short and medium duration varieties with SRI -- 20 cm x 20 cm For long duration varieties -- 25 cm x 25 cm Salient Findings DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar At wider spacing (more than 20 cm x 20 cm): Yield was reduced due to lesser panicle number/m2 At closer spacing (less than 20 cm x 20 cm) : Yield was reduced due to shorter panicles
  7. 7. • Performance of individual hills was significantly improved with wider spacing compared to closer-spaced hills. • In these trials, both SRI and TP gave their highest grain yield with spacing of 20x20 cm. However, SRI yielded 40% more than the recommended practice. Lowest yield was recorded at 30x30 cm spacing under both practices, due to less plant population (11/m2 ) despite improved hill performance. • Wide spacing beyond optimum plant density does not give higher grain yield on an area basis, and for achieving this, a combination of improved hills with optimum plant population must be worked out for SRI. A. K. Thakur, S. Rath, S. Roychowdhury & N. Uphoff (2010). Journal of Agronomy & Crop Science (Blackwell Verlag GmbH), 196:146–159. DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar Salient Findings
  8. 8. Effect of different N-levels The effects of different N application rates (0, 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha) were assessed with the different cultivation systems (SRI and TP). DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar Overall, grain yield with SRI practices was 49% N uptake, N use-efficiency, and partial factor productivity from applied N were all higher in SRI, which can be attributed to the greater root development under SRI. With SRI and TP management, one kg N produced 64 and 43 kg of rice grain, respectively. Higher N and chlorophyll content, reflecting delayed senescence, contributed to an extension of photosynthetic processes, which translated into increased grain yield under SRI. A.K. Thakur et al. (2010) Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science (under review)
  9. 9. Effect of different water levels DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar Highest grain yield at 1 DAD under both cultivation methods. As more water stress was imposed, the grain yield reduced in both methods, but the reduction in grain yield was found greater in conventional TP than SRI. This might be due to deeper and greater root growth under SRI, which enables the plant to extract water from deeper soil zone. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CF 1 DAD 3 DAD 5 DAD 7- DAD CF 1 DAD 3 DAD 5 DAD 7 DAD TP SRI Grainyield(t/ha) -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 CF 1 DAD 3 DAD 5 DAD 7- DAD CF 1 DAD 3 DAD 5 DAD 7 DAD TP SRI %changeoverCF
  10. 10. Comparison SRI vs. TP Thakur, A.K., N. Uphoff, and E. Antony. (2010). Experimental Agriculture (Cambridge University Press) 46 (1): 77–98. DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar
  11. 11. Root Growth & activity Tillering under SRI DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar Leaf development Canopy structure & Light Interception
  12. 12. Physiological Observations • SRI had higher chlorophyll content, maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm) and actual quantum yield (Φ PS-II) • Higher photosynthetic rate • Increasing crop growth rate (CGR) DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar
  13. 13. Yield and yield contributing characters SRI rice crop had: • More number of longer panicles, • More number of grains in spike, • Higher 1000-grain weight, and • More grain-ripening percent These were responsible for higher grain yield. DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar
  14. 14. Rice plant (cv. Ciherang) grown from a single seed using methods of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), in E. Java, Indonesia. Presented by farmers to N. Uphoff, 6 Oct 2009. The plant produced 223 fertile tillers, which means that it had reached into the 14th phyllochron of grpwth Future research needs  Reason for phenotypic alterations/tillering in SRI plants (physiological, biochemical, hormonal and genetic changes in plants responsible for this alteration)  Study grain-filling and source-sink relationships in rice grown through SRI methods  Effects of different components of SRI practice on plant growth and physiology DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar
  15. 15. Roots are the key to a second green revolution (Virginia Gewin (2010) An underground revolution. Nature, 466, 29 July 2010)  Changes in soil-root environment that occurs in SRI due to aerobic/semi-aerobic field conditions and the use of a mechanical weeder needs to be addressed for future research.  There is also a need to conduct study on nutrient uptake, its budgeting in SRI, and long-term effects on nutrient status of SRI field.  Initial findings have indicated that SRI is drought-tolerant, so proper experiments are required to assess this observation.  Root traits that are linked to shoot growth and dry matter production should be investigated systematically to understand better how the plasticity of roots could enhance grain yield within their dynamic soil environment. DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar
  16. 16. Dr. Amod K. Thakur amod_wtcer@yahoo.com SRI Research: Still has a long way to go… DirectorateofWaterManagement,BhubaneswarDirectorateofWaterManagement,Bhubaneswar

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