Amod K. Thakur, Sreelata Rath, Ashwani Kumar
Influence of System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
practices on grain yield an...
Objective
To examine the extent to which
making certain changes in crop
management practices can alter
phenotypical charac...
Methodology
Location: Deras Research Farm, Orissa, India
Season: Dry (January-May) 2007 & 2008
Soil: Aeric Haplaquepts,...
Management
practices SRI TF
Seedling age,
days
12 21
Plant spacing
and density
20 x 20 cm
One seedling /hill
20 x10 cm
Thr...
Parameters studied
Root growth / Xylem exudation rate: Early-ripening stage
Number of leaves hill-1
/ Av. Leaf length and ...
Results
RootGrowth
SRI- better root development -
deeper roots, more dry weight, root
volume, root length and root length
density
...
RootActivity
Manage
ment
practice
Amount of
exudates per
hill (g hill-1
)
Amount of
exudates
per area
(g m-2
)
Rate per hi...
TilleringunderSRI
The number of tillers per hill significantly
increased (2.5 times, up to 34 tillers) in SRI than TF
SRI ...
Phyllochrons
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
7th
8th
9th
10th
11th
12th
New Tillers 1 0 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 12 20 31
Total tillers 1 1 1...
CropGrowthRate
The increase in CGR in SRI crops was mainly due to
maintenance of leaf area (lower leaf senescence) -
Lower...
Leafdevelopment
Management
practice
Leaf
number
(hill-1
)
Leaf
number
(m-2
)
Ave. leaf
length
(cm)
Ave. leaf
width
(cm)
LA...
Canopystructure
&Leafangle
SRI: Greater Canopy angle -
Open-type canopy structure
TF: Closed-canopy structure
SRI leaves –...
LightInterception
SRI: intercept more light without
shading
TF: In closed canopy lower leaves
experiences more shading.
0
...
Changes in leaf chlorophyll content at
different growth stages in SRI and TF
FL: Flowering stage; MR: Middle-ripening stag...
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
FL MR LR
Fv/Fm
Stages
Flag SRI
Flag TF
Fourth SRI
Fourth TF
% decrease
from FL-LR
SRI-Flag lea...
0.200
0.250
0.300
0.350
0.400
0.450
0.500
0.550
0.600
0.650
FL MR LR
ФPSII
Stages
Flag SRI
Flag TF
Fourth SRI
Fourth TF
% ...
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
FL MR LR
Pn(µmolm-2s-1)
Stages
Flag SRI Flag TF
Fourth SRI Fourth TF
% decrease
from FL-LR
SRI-Flag lea...
Yield&yield-contributing
Characteristics
SRI - Longer panicles, more
number of grains in spike (40%),
higher 1000-grain we...
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
Short Medium Long Extralong
Paniclenumber/m2
Categoryof panicles
SRI TP
Short: >10 cm - 17 cm...
Salient findings
Significant changes were observed in the
morphological and physiological characteristics
of SRI plants
• ...
These factors contributed to
 larger panicles (more spikelets per panicle),
 better grain setting (higher % of filled
gr...
Conclusion
Improvement in grain yield under SRI is
attributable to improved morphology and
physiological features of the r...
Thanks
Contact: amod_wtcer@yahoo.com
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1043 Influence of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) practices on grain yield and associated physiological changes in rice plants compared to conventional flooded rice

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Presenters: Amod K. Thakur, Sreelata Rath, Ashwani Kumar, Directorate of Water Management (ICAR) Bhubaneswar, Orissa -751023, India

Presented at: he 3rd International Rice Congress, Hanoi, Vietnam, November 8-12, 2010

Published in: Technology, Business
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1043 Influence of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) practices on grain yield and associated physiological changes in rice plants compared to conventional flooded rice

  1. 1. Amod K. Thakur, Sreelata Rath, Ashwani Kumar Influence of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) practices on grain yield and associated physiological changes in rice plants compared to conventional flooded rice Directorate of Water Management (ICAR) Bhubaneswar, Orissa -751023, India
  2. 2. Objective To examine the extent to which making certain changes in crop management practices can alter phenotypical characteristics and induce physiological changes in rice plants. How SRI practices affect rice plants’ morphology, their physiology, and their implications on crop performance? DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  3. 3. Methodology Location: Deras Research Farm, Orissa, India Season: Dry (January-May) 2007 & 2008 Soil: Aeric Haplaquepts, sandy clay-loam in texture, pH 5.5. Design: RCBD - five replicates Plot sizes: 20 × 10 m2 Variety: Surendra Crop management systems: System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Traditional flooding (TF) with standard management practices DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  4. 4. Management practices SRI TF Seedling age, days 12 21 Plant spacing and density 20 x 20 cm One seedling /hill 20 x10 cm Three seedlings /hill Weed control Three, Cono- weeder; 10, 20 and 30 DAT Manual, 10, 20 and 30 DAT Water management AWD after 3 DAD during vegetative stage Flooding with 5-6 cm depth of water during the vegetative stage. Nutrient management Organic manure @ 5 t ha-1 Chemical fertilizers: 80 kg N ha-1 , 40 kg P2 O5 ha-1 , 40 kg K2 O ha-1 DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  5. 5. Parameters studied Root growth / Xylem exudation rate: Early-ripening stage Number of leaves hill-1 / Av. Leaf length and width / Leaf angle / Leaf area index (LAI) / Specific leaf weight (SLW) / Canopy angle: Flowering stage Light interception by the canopy / Crop growth rate (CGR): Vegetative stage Chlorophyll content / Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm and ΦPS II) / Photosynthesis rate - flag leaf and fourth leaf (from top): Flowering, Middle-ripening and Late-ripening stages Tilering/ Harvest Index / Grain yield and yield-components DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  6. 6. Results
  7. 7. RootGrowth SRI- better root development - deeper roots, more dry weight, root volume, root length and root length density Parameters SRI TF LSD0.50 Root depth, cm 33.5 20.6 3.5 Root dry weight, g hill-1 12.3 5.8 1.3 Root dry weight, g m-2 306.9 291.8 NS Root volume, ml hill-1 53.6 19.1 4.9 Root volume, ml m-2 1340.0 955.0 180.1 Root length, cm hill-1 9402.5 4111.9 712.4 Root length density, cm cm-3 2.7 1.2 0.2 DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  8. 8. RootActivity Manage ment practice Amount of exudates per hill (g hill-1 ) Amount of exudates per area (g m-2 ) Rate per hill (g hill-1 h-1 ) Rate per area (g m-2 h-1 ) SRI 7.61 190.25 0.32 7.93 TF 2.46 122.95 0.10 5.12 LSD.05 1.45 39.72 0.06 1.66 Amount of exudates- 209% greater in SRI hills Rate - 3 times faster in SRI hills Thakur et al. (2010): Expl. Agric. 46: 77-98 DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  9. 9. TilleringunderSRI The number of tillers per hill significantly increased (2.5 times, up to 34 tillers) in SRI than TF SRI plants were able to complete more number of phyllochrons (10th Phyllochron in SRI and 8th phyllochron in TF) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 12 21 30 40 50 60 70 Tillernumber/hill Days after seed germination DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India Thakur et al. (2010): Expl. Agric. 46: 77-98
  10. 10. Phyllochrons 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th New Tillers 1 0 0 1 1 2 3 5 8 12 20 31 Total tillers 1 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 33 53 84 Comparison between numbers of phyllochrons completed under SRI and TF Manag ement practic e 12 DAG 30 DAG 40 DAG 50 DAG 60 DAG 70 DAG SRI Transplanted < 4th phyllochron 6th Phyllochron 7– 8th phyllochron 8-9th phyllochron 9th phyllochron 10th Phyllochron TF In Nursery Transplantin g shock 6th Phyllochron 7th phyllochron 8th phyllochron 8th Phyllochron DAG: Days after germination
  11. 11. CropGrowthRate The increase in CGR in SRI crops was mainly due to maintenance of leaf area (lower leaf senescence) - Lower rate of leaf senescence might be due to larger amounts of CYTOKININS (xylem exudates) are transported from roots. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-70 CGR(gm-2day-1) Period (Days after germination) DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  12. 12. Leafdevelopment Management practice Leaf number (hill-1 ) Leaf number (m-2 ) Ave. leaf length (cm) Ave. leaf width (cm) LAI SRI 79.8 1997.6 65.25 1.82 3.95 TF 35.6 1766.5 48.14 1.34 2.60 LSD.05 15.8 229.4 6.09 0.21 0.28 SRI hills - more than twice the number of leaves compared to TF hills SRI leaves- longer as well as wider than TF leaves DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  13. 13. Canopystructure &Leafangle SRI: Greater Canopy angle - Open-type canopy structure TF: Closed-canopy structure SRI leaves – more erect Thakur et al. (2010): Expl. Agric. 46: 77-98 DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  14. 14. LightInterception SRI: intercept more light without shading TF: In closed canopy lower leaves experiences more shading. 0 20 40 60 80 100 12 25 30 40 50 60 70 LightInterception(%) Days after seed germination At PI Stage- Light interception reached 89% in SRI plots, while it was only 78% in TF canopies, this giving SRI plants a 15% advantage. DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  15. 15. Changes in leaf chlorophyll content at different growth stages in SRI and TF FL: Flowering stage; MR: Middle-ripening stage; LR: Late-ripening stage 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 FL MR LR Chlorophyllcontent(mgg-1FW) Stages Flag SRI Flag TF Fourth SRI Fourth TF % decrease from FL-LR SRI-Flag leaf 35.93 TF- Flag leaf 48.94 SRI-4th leaf 39.44 TF- 4th leaf 56.14 DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  16. 16. 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 FL MR LR Fv/Fm Stages Flag SRI Flag TF Fourth SRI Fourth TF % decrease from FL-LR SRI-Flag leaf 22.77 TF- Flag leaf 31.81 SRI-4th leaf 27.55 TF- 4th leaf 31.88 Changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) at different growth stages in SRI and TF FL: Flowering stage; MR: Middle-ripening stage; LR: Late-ripening stage DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  17. 17. 0.200 0.250 0.300 0.350 0.400 0.450 0.500 0.550 0.600 0.650 FL MR LR ФPSII Stages Flag SRI Flag TF Fourth SRI Fourth TF % decrease from FL-LR SRI-Flag leaf 9.93 TF- Flag leaf 21.62 SRI-4th leaf 15.31 TF- 4th leaf 24.27 Changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (Φ PS II) at different growth stages in SRI and TF FL: Flowering stage; MR: Middle-ripening stage; LR: Late-ripening stage DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  18. 18. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 FL MR LR Pn(µmolm-2s-1) Stages Flag SRI Flag TF Fourth SRI Fourth TF % decrease from FL-LR SRI-Flag leaf 43.20 TF- Flag leaf 51.09 SRI-4th leaf 52.98 TF- 4th leaf 59.02 Changes in photosynthesis rate at different growth stages in SRI and TF FL: Flowering stage; MR: Middle-ripening stage; LR: Late-ripening stage DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  19. 19. Yield&yield-contributing Characteristics SRI - Longer panicles, more number of grains in spike (40%), higher 1000-grain weight and more grain ripening percent than the TF crop, responsible for higher grain yield (42%). Parameters SRI TF LSD0.50 Panicles / m2 439.5 355.2 61.6 Ave. Panicle length, cm 22.5 18.7 2.3 Spikelet / panicle 151.6 107.9 12.9 Filled spikelet, % 89.6 79.3 5.1 1000-grain weight, g 24.7 24.0 0.2 Grain yield, t/ha 6.41 4.50 0.23 HI 0.47 0.32 0.04 DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  20. 20. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Short Medium Long Extralong Paniclenumber/m2 Categoryof panicles SRI TP Short: >10 cm - 17 cm Medium: 17.1 cm - 20 cm Long: 20.1 cm - 24 cm Extra-long: 24.1 cm - <26 cm Distribution of panicles according to its length under SRI and TF DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  21. 21. Salient findings Significant changes were observed in the morphological and physiological characteristics of SRI plants • Greater root growth & activity • Improved shoot growth • Greater LAI • Favourable canopy structure • Higher levels of leaf chlorophyll • Increasing fluorescence efficiency • photosynthetic rate • Delayed senescence DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  22. 22. These factors contributed to  larger panicles (more spikelets per panicle),  better grain setting (higher % of filled grains)  heavier individual grains (higher 1000- grain weight),  higher grain yield DWM(ICAR),IndiaDWM(ICAR),India
  23. 23. Conclusion Improvement in grain yield under SRI is attributable to improved morphology and physiological features of the rice plant below and above ground (Better Root-shoot interaction). SRI methods narrow the gap between genetic potential and in-field yield achievements through management practices.
  24. 24. Thanks Contact: amod_wtcer@yahoo.com

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