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The System of Rice
Intensification (SRI):
A Win-Win Opportunity for
Indonesian Rice Production
SRI Workshop
Jakarta, Octob...
Rice sector in 21st
century needs:
acc. to IRRI/DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004
• Increased land productivity-- higher yield
...
SRI practices can meet all these needs:
• Higher yields by 50-100% -- or more
• Water reduction of 25-50% (also rainfed)
•...
SRI is many things
– SRI derives from a certain number
of INSIGHTS, based on experience
– SRI is a set of PRINCIPLES that
...
SRI is NOT A TECHNOLOGY
While SRI practices may look like a
PACKAGE or a RECIPE, they are really
more like a MENU
• Farmer...
SRI is NOT YET FINISHED
-- Since it was empirically developed, we
are continually improving our scientific
understanding o...
Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in
raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha.
His S...
What Is SRI? Six Basic Ideas
1. Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth
potential -- but DIRECT SEEDING is now...
Cuban farmer with two plants
of same variety (VN 2084)
and same age (52 DAP)
Additional benefits of SRI practice:
• Time to maturity reduced by 1-2 weeks,
less exposure to pests and diseases, and
to ...
Requirements/Constraints
1. Water control to apply small amounts of
water reliably; may need drainage facilities
2. Supply...
Status of SRI: As of 1999
Known and practiced only in Madagascar
Merits of SRI methods first seen
outside of Madagascar in China:
1999: Nanjing Agric. University
2000-01: China National H...
Prof. Yuan Long-Ping with SRI plot at Sanya station,
China National Hybrid Rice R&D Center, April 2001
CHINA: Farmers with SRI fields in Bu Tou village,
Jie Ton township (Tien Tai city), Zhejiang province, 2004
Nie Fu-qiu, Bu Tou village
• 2004: SRI highest yield in
Zhejiang province: 12 t/ha
• 2005: his SRI rice fields
were hit by...
SRI
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
IH H FH MR WR YRStage
Organdryweight(g/hill)
CK
I H H FH MR WR YR
Yellow
leaf and
sheath
Pani...
Factorial trials by CNRRI, 2004 and 2005
using two super-hybrid varieties --
seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields
St...
Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice
management (SRI) vs.standard rice management
at different plant densities ...
SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries
in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
Before 1999: Madagascar
1999-2000: ...
AFGHANISTAN: SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by
Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
SRI field at 30 days
SRI plant with 133 tillers @
72 days after transplanting
11.56 t/ha
IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
Two Paradigms for Agriculture:
• GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to:
* Change the genetic potential of plants, and
* Increas...
MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
CAMBODIA:
Rice plant grown
from single seed
in Takeo province
NEPAL:
Single rice
plant grown
with SRI
methods,
Morang
district
IRAN: SRI
roots and
normal
(flooded)
roots: note
difference in
color as well
as size
INDONESIA:
Rice plants of
same age and
same variety
in Lombok
province
Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of
on-farm comparative evaluations of
SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06
• No. of trials: 12...
INDONESIA: Rice plants in Nippon Koei office, Jakarta
Single-seed SRI rice plant
Variety: Ciherang
Fertile tillers: 223
Sampoerna CSR Program,
Malang, E. Java, 2009
SRI LANKA: same rice variety, same irrigation system &
same drought -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
Journal of Sichuan Agricultural Science and Technology
(2009), Vol. 2, No. 23
“Introduction of Land-Cover Integrated Techn...
VIETNAM:
Dông Trù village,
Hanoi province,
after typhoon
Irrigation
method
Seed-
ling age
Spacing
(cm2
)
Time to
flowering
Time to
maturity
Plant lodging percentage
Partial Comple...
Incidence of Diseases and Pests
Vietnam National IPM Program: average of
data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06:
Spring ...
Measured Differences in Grain Quality
Conv. Methods SRI Methods
Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) Difference
Chalky...
Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spaced
COSTA RICA: Mechanized version of SRI
-- 8 t/ha yield in f...
Fig 1 Trasplantadora motorizada
AP100 Yanmar
Mechanically transplanted SRI field in Costa Rica – 8 t/ha yield
Soil-aerating hand weeder in Sri Lanka costing <$10
Effect of Active Soil Aeration
412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal,
using SRI in monsoon season, 2005
SRI yield = 6.3 t/...
Mechanical
Weedings
Farmers
(N)
Area
(ha)
Harvest
(kg)
Yield
(t/ha)
None 2 0.11 657 5.973
One 8 0.62 3,741 7.723
Two 27 3....
Mechanization
of weeding, i.e.,
soil aeration,
is also possible
PAKISTAN: Making raised beds for rice-growing
with adapted SRI methods on laser-leveled field
Mechanical transplanter for planting onto raised beds, made by machine
Mechanized/hand transplanting in Pakistan, into holes made by machine,
with water sprayed into hole after 10-day seedling ...
Mechanical weeder set for spacing 9x9 inch
(22.5x22.5 cm) – can give very good soil aeration
Pakistan: rice crop planted in dry soil with
SRI practices adapted to mechanization:
average number of tillers = 90 @ 71 d...
‘Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia,
from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and
Assessment of Benefits to Rice ...
Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three
symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid ...
Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings.
On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant i...
What is going on to
produce better phenotypes?
SRI plants have profuse ROOT
GROWTH with little or late senescence
– Contin...
System of Finger Millet Intensification
on left; regular management of improved
variety and of traditional variety on right
Sugar cane grown with SRI methods (left) in Andhra Pradesh
Reported yields of 125-235 t/ha compared with usual 65 t/ha
ICRISAT-WWF
Sugarcane Initiative:
at least 20% more
cane yield, with:
• 30% reduction in
water, and
• 25% reduction in
che...
Extensions of SRI to Other Crops:Extensions of SRI to Other Crops:
Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, IndiaUttarakhand / Hima...
SRI is pointing the way toward
a possible paradigm shift in
our agricultural sciences:
• Less ‘genocentric’ and more
profo...
Theory of Trophobiosis
(F. Chaboussou, Healthy Crops, 2004)
deserves more attention and empirical
evaluation than it has r...
Theory of ‘Trophobiosis’
Explains incidence of pest and disease
in terms of plants’ nutrition:
Nutrient imbalances and def...
THANK YOU
• Check out SRI website:
http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/
• Email: ciifad@cornell.edu
or ntu1@cornell.edu
0957 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI):  A Win-Win Opportunity for Indonesian Rice Production
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0957 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): A Win-Win Opportunity for Indonesian Rice Production

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

Presented at: SRI Workshop Jakarta, Indonesia

Presented on: October 9, 2009

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0957 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): A Win-Win Opportunity for Indonesian Rice Production

  1. 1. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI): A Win-Win Opportunity for Indonesian Rice Production SRI Workshop Jakarta, October 9, 2009 Prof. Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
  2. 2. Rice sector in 21st century needs: acc. to IRRI/DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004 • Increased land productivity-- higher yield • Higher water productivity -- crop per drop • Technology that is accessible for the poor • Technology that is environmentally friendly • Greater resistance to pests and diseases • Tolerance of abiotic stresses (climate change) • Better grain quality for consumers, and • Greater profitability for farmers
  3. 3. SRI practices can meet all these needs: • Higher yields by 50-100% -- or more • Water reduction of 25-50% (also rainfed) • Little need for capital expenditure • Little or no need for agrochemical inputs • Induced pest and disease resistance • Tolerance for drought; little/no lodging • Better grain quality (less chalkiness) • Lower costs of production by 10-20% which gives farmers higher income
  4. 4. SRI is many things – SRI derives from a certain number of INSIGHTS, based on experience – SRI is a set of PRINCIPLES that have sound scientific justifications – SRI gets communicated to farmers in terms of specific PRACTICES that improve the growing environment for their rice plants - at same time, – SRI is an alternative PARADIGM - a different approach to agriculture
  5. 5. SRI is NOT A TECHNOLOGY While SRI practices may look like a PACKAGE or a RECIPE, they are really more like a MENU • Farmers are encouraged to use as many of the practices as possible, as well as possible • There is considerable research evidence that each practice contributes to higher yield • There is also evidence that there exists some synergy among the practices – so the best results come from using them together
  6. 6. SRI is NOT YET FINISHED -- Since it was empirically developed, we are continually improving our scientific understanding of SRI concepts/theory -- Being farmer-centered, SRI is always being modified, improved, extended • There are also now rainfed versions of SRI • And zero-till, direct-seed, raised-bed forms • SRI ideas are extrapolated to other crops: wheat, sugar cane, millet, teff, beans, etc.
  7. 7. Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha. His SRI yield in 2001 set provincial yield record: 16 t/ha
  8. 8. What Is SRI? Six Basic Ideas 1. Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth potential -- but DIRECT SEEDING is now an option 2. Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly and shallow, not inverting root tips which halts growth 3. Give plants wider spacing -– one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve “edge effect” everywhere 4. Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded –- soil should be mostly aerobic -- not continuously saturated 5. Actively aerate the soil as much as possible 6. Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible First 3 practices stimulate plant growth, while the latter 3 practices enhance the growth and health of plants’ ROOTS and of soil
  9. 9. Cuban farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
  10. 10. Additional benefits of SRI practice: • Time to maturity reduced by 1-2 weeks, less exposure to pests and diseases, and to adverse climate; can replant sooner •Human resource development for farmers through participatory approach – want farmers to become better managers of their resources, experimenting, evaluating… • Diversification and modernization of smallholder agriculture; can adapt to larger- scale production through mechanization
  11. 11. Requirements/Constraints 1. Water control to apply small amounts of water reliably; may need drainage facilities 2. Supply of biomass for making compost – can use fertilizer as alternative 3. Crop protection may be necessary, although usually more resistance to pests & diseases 4. Mechanical weeder is desirable as this can aerate the soil at same time it controls weeds 5. Skill & motivation of farmers most important; need to learn new practices; SRI can become labor-saving once techniques are mastered 6. Support of experts? have faced opposition
  12. 12. Status of SRI: As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
  13. 13. Merits of SRI methods first seen outside of Madagascar in China: 1999: Nanjing Agric. University 2000-01: China National Hybrid Rice R&D Center at Sanya 2001: China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI) in Hangzhou, and Sichuan Acad.of Agricultural Sciences Then Indonesia (AARD-Sukamandi) & Philippines (CDSMC) in 2000-01
  14. 14. Prof. Yuan Long-Ping with SRI plot at Sanya station, China National Hybrid Rice R&D Center, April 2001
  15. 15. CHINA: Farmers with SRI fields in Bu Tou village, Jie Ton township (Tien Tai city), Zhejiang province, 2004
  16. 16. Nie Fu-qiu, Bu Tou village • 2004: SRI highest yield in Zhejiang province: 12 t/ha • 2005: his SRI rice fields were hit by three typhoons – even so, he was able to harvest 11.15 tons/ha -- while other farmers’ fields were badly affected by the storm damage • 2008: Nie used chemical fertilizer, and crop lodged
  17. 17. SRI 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 IH H FH MR WR YRStage Organdryweight(g/hill) CK I H H FH MR WR YR Yellow leaf and sheath Panicle Leaf Sheath Stem 47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
  18. 18. Factorial trials by CNRRI, 2004 and 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields Standard Rice Mgmt • 30-day seedlings • 20x20 cm spacing • Continuous flooding • Fertilization: – 100% chemical New Rice Mgmt (SRI) • 20-day seedlings • 30x30 cm spacing • Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) • Fertilization: – 50% chemical, – 50% organic
  19. 19. Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice management (SRI) vs.standard rice management at different plant densities ha-1 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 150,000 180,000 210,000 NRM SRM
  20. 20. SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America Before 1999: Madagascar 1999-2000: China, Indonesia 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba Cambodia, Gambia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Peru 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, Pakistan, Vietnam 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil 2008: Egypt, Rwanda, Congo, Ecuador, Costa Rica 2009: Timor Leste, Malaysia Now in 2009, SRI benefits have been validated in 37 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
  21. 21. AFGHANISTAN: SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
  22. 22. SRI field at 30 days
  23. 23. SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
  24. 24. IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
  25. 25. Two Paradigms for Agriculture: • GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to: * Change the genetic potential of plants, and * Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides • SRI (AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients: * To promote the growth of root systems, and * To increase the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits The goal is to produce better PHENOTYPES
  26. 26. MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
  27. 27. CAMBODIA: Rice plant grown from single seed in Takeo province
  28. 28. NEPAL: Single rice plant grown with SRI methods, Morang district
  29. 29. IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size
  30. 30. INDONESIA: Rice plants of same age and same variety in Lombok province
  31. 31. Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06 • No. of trials: 12,133 • Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares • Ave. increase in yield: 3.3 t/ha (78%) • Reduction in water requirements: 40% • Reduction in fertilizer use: 50% • Reduction in costs of production: 20% Note: In Bali (DS 2006) 24 farmers on 42 ha: SRI + Longping hybrids → 13.3 vs. 8.4 t/ha
  32. 32. INDONESIA: Rice plants in Nippon Koei office, Jakarta
  33. 33. Single-seed SRI rice plant Variety: Ciherang Fertile tillers: 223 Sampoerna CSR Program, Malang, E. Java, 2009
  34. 34. SRI LANKA: same rice variety, same irrigation system & same drought -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
  35. 35. Journal of Sichuan Agricultural Science and Technology (2009), Vol. 2, No. 23 “Introduction of Land-Cover Integrated Technologies with Water Saving and High Yield” -- Lv Shihua et al. • Yield in normal year is 150-200 kg/mu (2.25-3.0 t/ha); yield in drought year is 200 kg/mu (3.0 t/ha) or even more • Net income in normal year is increased by new methods from profit of 100 ¥/mu to 600-800 ¥/mu (i.e., from profit of $220/ha to >$1,500/ha) • Net income in drought year with new methods goes from loss of 200-300 ¥/mu to 300-500 ¥/mu profit (from a loss of $550/ha to a profit of $880/ha)
  36. 36. VIETNAM: Dông Trù village, Hanoi province, after typhoon
  37. 37. Irrigation method Seed- ling age Spacing (cm2 ) Time to flowering Time to maturity Plant lodging percentage Partial Complete Total Inter- mittent irrigation (AWDI) 14 30x30 75 118 6.67 0 6.67 30x18 74.67 118.67 40.00 6.67 46.67 21 30x30 72.67 117.67 26.67 20 46.67 30x18 74.33 117 13.33 13.33 26.67 Ordinary irrigation (contin- uous flooding) 14 30x30 73.33 122 16.67 33.33 50.00 30x18 72 121 26.67 53.33 80.00 21 30x30 72 120.67 20 76.67 96.67 30x18 72.67 121 13.33 80 93.33 Time to flowering, maturity, and plant lodging percentage as affected by AWDI and ordinary irrigation practice combined with different age of seedlings and spacing in Chiba, 2008 (Chapagain and Yamaji, 2009)
  38. 38. Incidence of Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06: Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder * 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper * 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7% * Insects/m2
  39. 39. Measured Differences in Grain Quality Conv. Methods SRI Methods Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) Difference Chalky kernels (%) 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 -30.7% General chalkiness (%) 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 -65.7% Milled rice outturn (%) 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 +16.1% Head milled rice (%) 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 +17.5% Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Haerbin, 8/2004
  40. 40. Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spaced COSTA RICA: Mechanized version of SRI -- 8 t/ha yield in first season
  41. 41. Fig 1 Trasplantadora motorizada AP100 Yanmar
  42. 42. Mechanically transplanted SRI field in Costa Rica – 8 t/ha yield
  43. 43. Soil-aerating hand weeder in Sri Lanka costing <$10
  44. 44. Effect of Active Soil Aeration 412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005 SRI yield = 6.3 t/ha vs. control = 3.1 t/ha • Data show how WEEDINGS can raise yield No. of No. of Average Range weedings farmers yield of yields 1 32 5.16 (3.6-7.6) 2 366 5.87 (3.5-11.0) 3 14 7.87 (5.85-10.4)
  45. 45. Mechanical Weedings Farmers (N) Area (ha) Harvest (kg) Yield (t/ha) None 2 0.11 657 5.973 One 8 0.62 3,741 7.723 Two 27 3.54 26,102 7.373 Three 24 5.21 47,516 9.120 Four 15 5.92 69,693 11.772 Impact of Weedings on Yield with SRI Methods Ambatovaky, Madagascar, 1997-98
  46. 46. Mechanization of weeding, i.e., soil aeration, is also possible
  47. 47. PAKISTAN: Making raised beds for rice-growing with adapted SRI methods on laser-leveled field
  48. 48. Mechanical transplanter for planting onto raised beds, made by machine
  49. 49. Mechanized/hand transplanting in Pakistan, into holes made by machine, with water sprayed into hole after 10-day seedling is dropped into it.
  50. 50. Mechanical weeder set for spacing 9x9 inch (22.5x22.5 cm) – can give very good soil aeration
  51. 51. Pakistan: rice crop planted in dry soil with SRI practices adapted to mechanization: average number of tillers = 90 @ 71 days
  52. 52. ‘Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology’ Rhizo- bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo- synthetic rate (μmol-2 s-1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36A 63 ± 2A 16.42 ± 1.39A 3.62 ± 0.17BC 17.64 ± 4.94ABC 86 ± 5A SM-1021 180 ± 26A 67 ± 5A 14.99 ± 1.64B 4.02 ± 0.19AB 20.03 ± 3.92A 86 ± 4A SM-1002 168 ± 8AB 52 ± 4BC 13.70 ± 0.73B 4.15 ± 0.32A 19.58 ± 4.47AB 61 ± 4B R1-2370 175 ± 23A 61 ± 8AB 13.85 ± 0.38B 3.36 ± 0.41C 18.98 ± 4.49AB 64 ± 9B Mh-93 193 ± 16A 67 ± 4A 13.86 ± 0.76B 3.18 ± 0.25CD 16.79 ± 3.43BC 77 ± 5A Control 130 ± 10B 47 ± 6C 10.23 ± 1.03C 2.77 ± 0.69D 15.24 ± 4.0C 51 ± 4C Feng Chi et al.,Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278
  53. 53. Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid line) plants. Arrows indicate the times when root hair development started. Ratio of root and shoot growth in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic rice plants (symbiotic plants inoculated with Fusarium culmorum) Russell J. Rodriguez et al., ‘Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction,’ Communicative and Integrative Biology, 2:3 (2009).
  54. 54. Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings. On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant inoculation procedures, see Rodriguez et al., Communicative and Integrative Biology, 2:3 (2009).
  55. 55. What is going on to produce better phenotypes? SRI plants have profuse ROOT GROWTH with little or late senescence – Continue taking up N until end of cycle – Roots are reaching lower horizons • More uptake of micronutrients (Cu, Zn …) • Also more uptake of silicon (Si)? – Interaction and interface with SOIL MICROORGANISMS – phytohormones?
  56. 56. System of Finger Millet Intensification on left; regular management of improved variety and of traditional variety on right
  57. 57. Sugar cane grown with SRI methods (left) in Andhra Pradesh Reported yields of 125-235 t/ha compared with usual 65 t/ha
  58. 58. ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative: at least 20% more cane yield, with: • 30% reduction in water, and • 25% reduction in chemical inputs ‘The inspiration for putting this package together is from the successful approach of SRI – System of Rice Intensification.’
  59. 59. Extensions of SRI to Other Crops:Extensions of SRI to Other Crops: Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, IndiaUttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, India Crop No. of Farmers Area (ha) Grain Yield (t/ha) % Incr. 2006 Conv. SRI Rajma 5 0.4 1.4 2.0 43 Manduwa 5 0.4 1.8 2.4 33 Wheat Research Farm 5.0 1.6 2.2 38 2007 Rajma 113 2.26 1.8 3.0 67 Manduwa 43 0.8 1.5 2.4 60 Wheat (Irrig.) 25 0.23 2.2 4.3 95 Wheat (Unirrig.) 25 0.09 1.6 2.6 63 Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet)
  60. 60. SRI is pointing the way toward a possible paradigm shift in our agricultural sciences: • Less ‘genocentric’ and more profoundly ‘biocentric’? • Re-focus biotechnology and bioengineering to capitalize on biodiversity and ecological dynamics? • Less chemical-dependent? • More energy-efficient? • More oriented to health of humans and the environment? •Intensification of production > continued extensification? • Focus on factor productivity and sustainability?
  61. 61. Theory of Trophobiosis (F. Chaboussou, Healthy Crops, 2004) deserves more attention and empirical evaluation than it has received to date Its propositions are well supported by published literature over last 50 years -- and by long-standing observations about adverse effects of nitrogenous fertilizers and chlorinated pesticides Theory does not support strictly ‘organic’ approach because nutrient amendments are recommended if soil deficits exist
  62. 62. Theory of ‘Trophobiosis’ Explains incidence of pest and disease in terms of plants’ nutrition: Nutrient imbalances and deficiencies lead to excesses of free amino acids in the plants’ sap and cells, not yet synthesized into proteins – and more simple sugars in sap and cytoplasm not incorporated into polysaccharides This condition attracts and nourishes insects, bacteria, fungi, even viruses
  63. 63. THANK YOU • Check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ • Email: ciifad@cornell.edu or ntu1@cornell.edu

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