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Increasing Both Quantity and
Quality of Rice Production
with Reduced Inputs:
The System of Rice Intensification
12th
Europ...
What is SRI?
Basically, SRI is a set of concepts/
principles/insights/practices that
introduce changes in the management o...
CUBA: rice plants of
same variety (VN 2084)
and same age (52 DAP)
CAMBODIA: Farmer in
Takeo Province: yield of
6.72 tons/ha > 2-3 t/ha
NEPAL:
Single rice
plant grown
with SRI
methods,
Morang
district
MALI: Farmer in the
Timbuktu region showing
the difference between
a ‘normal’ rice and
an SRI rice plant
2007: 1st year tr...
  SRI Control
Farmer
Practice
Yield t/ha* 9.1 5.49 4.86
Standard Error (SE) 0.24 0.27 0.18
SRI compared to
Control (%)
+ 6...
Indonesia:
Rice plants
same variety
and same age
in Lombok
Province
Indonesia: Results of on-farm
comparative evaluations of SRI
by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06
• No. of trials: 12,133 (over 9 ...
AFGHANISTAN: SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by
Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
SRI field in Baghlan Province, Afghanistan at 30 days
SRI rice plant @
72 days after
transplanting –
133 tillers
Yield was
calculated at
11.56 tons/ha
IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
SRI originated in Madagascar
Initially called le Systéme
de Riziculture Intensive
(in Latin America, SICA)
by Henri de Lau...
Fr. de Laulanié
making field visit
shortly before his
death in 1995
MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
Rice sector needs in 21st
century
(IRRI/DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004)
• Increased land productivity-- higher yield
• Highe...
SRI practices can meet all these needs:
• Higher yields by 50-100%, or more
• Water reduction of 25-50% (also rainfed)
• L...
Additional benefits of SRI practice:
• Time to maturity reduced by 1-2 weeks
• Milling outturn is higher by about 15%
• Ot...
Requirements/constraints for SRI:
For best results, need:
•Water control to apply small amounts
reliably; rainfed SRI now ...
SRI is Ideas/Insights, not Technology
1. Use young seedlings to preserve growth potential
-- however, direct seeding is be...
Two Paradigms for Agriculture:
• GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to:
(a) Change the genetic potential of plants, and
(b) Inc...
SRI
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
IH H FH MR WR YRStage
Organdryweight(g/hill)
CK
I H H FH MR WR YR
Yellow
leaf and
sheath
Pani...
China National Rice Research Institute
(CNRRI): factorial trials, 2004 & 2005
using two super-hybrid varieties --
seeking ...
Average super-rice YIELD (kg/ha) with new rice
management (SRI) vs.standard rice management
at different PLANT DENSITIES h...
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
0 100 200
N uptake (kg/ha)
Grainyield(kg/ha)
Grain yield SRI
(kg/ha)
Grainyield Co...
SRI LANKA: Rice paddies,with same soil, same variety,
same irrigation system and same drought, three weeks
after water was...
Journal of Sichuan Agricultural Science and Technology
(2009), Vol. 2, No. 23
“Introduction of Land-Cover Integrated Techn...
VIETNAM: Farmer in Dông Trù village – after typhoon
Reduction in Diseases and Pests
Vietnam National IPM Program evaluation
based on data from 8 provinces, 2005-06
Spring sea...
PeriodPeriod Mean max.Mean max.
temp.temp. 00
CC
Mean min.Mean min.
temp.temp. 00
CC
No. ofNo. of
sunshine hrssunshine hrs...
Measured Differences in Grain Quality
Conv. Methods SRI Methods
Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) Difference
Chalky...
Welcome to the world of Tilda
PROMOTION OF SRI
WITH BASMATI
RICE IN HARYANA
Powerpoint for 3rd
National SRI Symposium, Coi...
SRI: Increased farm
yield
• Higher tillering
• More filled grains
per panicle
• Better grain
weight
SRI: Improved Basmati
Quality
• Improved head rice recovery
• Reducing chalkiness
• Less green grains
• Fewer damaged &
di...
Haryana farmers’ views
• Bit complicatedBit complicated
• Not cheapNot cheap
• Labor-intensiveLabor-intensive
• Requires c...
System of Rice Intensification
(SRI)
1 KM Defence Road,
Bhobatian Chowk,
Raiwind Road, Lahore
Tel: +92 (042) 532 2205
Fax:...
Raised Bed Maker with
Fertilizer & Compost Applicator
Does 5 jobs in one go:
• Opens furrows
• Makes raised bed
• Shapes/c...
Precision Weeder in Operation
without a Tractor Operator
Crop condition 62 days after transplanting --
average no. of tillers per plant exceeds 90
VID00034-20090823-1733.3GP
METHANE
EMISSIONS
Research on greenhouse
gases (GHG) at Institut
Pertanian Bogor (IPB)
N2O
EMISSIONS
Research on greenhouse
gases (GHG) at Institut
Pertanian Bogor (IPB)
Yan, X., H. Akiyama, K. Yagi and H. Akomoto. ‘Global
estimations of the inventory and mitigation potential
of methane emis...
Status of SRI: As of 1999
Known and practiced only in Madagascar
Spread of SRI demonstrations and use in 10 years
Up to 1999 Madagascar
1999-2000 China, Indonesia
2000-01 Bangladesh, Camb...
THANK YOU
• Web page:
http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/
• Email: ciifad@cornell.edu or
ntu1@cornell.edu
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0956 Increasing Both Quantity and Quality of Rice Production with Reduced Inputs: The System of Rice Intensification

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Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

Presented at: 12th European Rice Millers Convention. Venice

Presented on: September 18, 2009

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0956 Increasing Both Quantity and Quality of Rice Production with Reduced Inputs: The System of Rice Intensification

  1. 1. Increasing Both Quantity and Quality of Rice Production with Reduced Inputs: The System of Rice Intensification 12th European Rice Millers Convention Venice – September 18, 2009 Norman Uphoff Cornell University
  2. 2. What is SRI? Basically, SRI is a set of concepts/ principles/insights/practices that introduce changes in the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients to: (a) produce larger, more effective ROOT SYSTEMS, and (b) enrich the LIFE IN THE SOIL to achieve more productive,healthier PHENOTYPES from any GENOTYPE
  3. 3. CUBA: rice plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
  4. 4. CAMBODIA: Farmer in Takeo Province: yield of 6.72 tons/ha > 2-3 t/ha
  5. 5. NEPAL: Single rice plant grown with SRI methods, Morang district
  6. 6. MALI: Farmer in the Timbuktu region showing the difference between a ‘normal’ rice and an SRI rice plant 2007: 1st year trials - SRI yield 8.98 t/ha, control yield 6.7 t/ha (best mgmt practices) 2008: trials expanded with 5 farmers in 12 villages doing on-farm comparison trials (N=60)
  7. 7.   SRI Control Farmer Practice Yield t/ha* 9.1 5.49 4.86 Standard Error (SE) 0.24 0.27 0.18 SRI compared to Control (%) + 66 100 -11 SRI compared to Farmer Practice (%) + 87 + 13 100 Number of Farmers 53 53 60 • * adjusted to 14% grain moisture content Rice grain yield for SRI plots, control plots, and farmer-practice plots, Goundam circle, Timbuktu region, 2008
  8. 8. Indonesia: Rice plants same variety and same age in Lombok Province
  9. 9. Indonesia: Results of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06 • No. of trials: 12,133 (over 9 seasons) • Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares • Ave. increase in yield: 3.3 t/ha (78%) • Reduction in water requirements: 40% • Reduction in fertilizer use: 50% • Reduction in costs of production: 20% (Sato and Uphoff, CAB Review, 2007)
  10. 10. AFGHANISTAN: SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
  11. 11. SRI field in Baghlan Province, Afghanistan at 30 days
  12. 12. SRI rice plant @ 72 days after transplanting – 133 tillers Yield was calculated at 11.56 tons/ha
  13. 13. IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
  14. 14. SRI originated in Madagascar Initially called le Systéme de Riziculture Intensive (in Latin America, SICA) by Henri de Laulanié, SJ, who, by 1984, assembled SRI’s counterintuitive practices after 2 decades of working with small, poor farmers to improve their production and incomes, without requiring any dependence on inputs
  15. 15. Fr. de Laulanié making field visit shortly before his death in 1995
  16. 16. MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
  17. 17. Rice sector needs in 21st century (IRRI/DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004) • Increased land productivity-- higher yield • Higher water productivity -- crop per drop • Technology that is accessible for the poor • Technology that is environmentally friendly • Greater resistance to pests and diseases • Tolerance of abiotic stresses (climate change) • Better grain quality for consumers, and • Greater profitability for farmers
  18. 18. SRI practices can meet all these needs: • Higher yields by 50-100%, or more • Water reduction of 25-50% (also rainfed) • Little need for capital expenditure • Little or no need for agrochemical inputs • Pest and disease resistance is induced • Drought tolerance; no lodging • Better grain quality, and • Lower costs of production by 10-20% → giving farmers higher income
  19. 19. Additional benefits of SRI practice: • Time to maturity reduced by 1-2 weeks • Milling outturn is higher by about 15% • Other crops’ performance is also being improved by SRI concepts and practices, e.g., wheat, sugar cane, millet, teff, others • Human resource development for farmers through participatory approach • Diversification and modernization of smallholder agriculture; can adapt to larger- scale production through mechanization
  20. 20. Requirements/constraints for SRI: For best results, need: •Water control to apply small amounts reliably; rainfed SRI now being developed •More labor initially during learning phase; but SRI can become labor-saving; also, SRI practices can become mechanized •Skill and motivation of farmers is key! •Crop protection in some situations ? SRI is matter of degree more than kind -- its methods are applied in wide range of agroecologies
  21. 21. SRI is Ideas/Insights, not Technology 1. Use young seedlings to preserve growth potential -- however, direct seeding is becoming an option 2. Avoid trauma to the roots --transplant quickly, carefully, shallow; no inversion of root tips upward 3. Give plants wider spacing – one plant per hill, square pattern for better root/canopy growth 4. Soil is kept moist but unflooded – mostly aerobic, not continuously saturated (hypoxic) 5. Actively aerate the soil as much as possible 6. Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible Practices 1-3 support more PLANT growth; practices 4-6 enhance the growth and health of ROOTS and soil BIOTA
  22. 22. Two Paradigms for Agriculture: • GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to: (a) Change the genetic potential of plants, and (b) Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and biocides • SRI (AGROECOLOGY) changes instead the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients: (a) Promote the growth of root systems, and (b) Increase the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits The goal is to produce better PHENOTYPES
  23. 23. SRI 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 IH H FH MR WR YRStage Organdryweight(g/hill) CK I H H FH MR WR YR Yellow leaf and sheath Panicle Leaf Sheath Stem 47.9% 34.7% “Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field” Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
  24. 24. China National Rice Research Institute (CNRRI): factorial trials, 2004 & 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields Standard Rice Mgmt • 30-day seedlings • 20x20 cm spacing • Continuous flooding • Fertilization: – 100% chemical New Rice Mgmt (~SRI) • 20-day seedlings • 30x30 cm spacing • Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) • Fertilization: – 50% chemical, – 50% organic
  25. 25. Average super-rice YIELD (kg/ha) with new rice management (SRI) vs.standard rice management at different PLANT DENSITIES ha-1 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 150,000 180,000 210,000 NRM SRM
  26. 26. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 0 100 200 N uptake (kg/ha) Grainyield(kg/ha) Grain yield SRI (kg/ha) Grainyield Conv (kg/ha) Poly.:Grain yield SRI (kg/ha) Poly.: Grain yield Conv. (kg/ha) Rice grain yield response to N uptake Regression relationship between N uptake and grain yield for SRI and conventional methods using QUEFTS model (Barison, 2002) – same for P and K
  27. 27. SRI LANKA: Rice paddies,with same soil, same variety, same irrigation system and same drought, three weeks after water was stopped: conventional (left), SRI (right)
  28. 28. Journal of Sichuan Agricultural Science and Technology (2009), Vol. 2, No. 23 “Introduction of Land-Cover Integrated Technologies with Water Saving and High Yield” -- Lv S.H., Zeng X.Z., Ren G.H., Zhang F.S. Yield increase in normal year is 150-200 kg/mu (2.25-3.0 t/ha); while in drought year, increase is 200 kg/mu or more (≥3.0 t/ha) • In a normal year, net income with the new methods can be increased from 100 ¥/mu to 600-800 ¥/mu, i.e., from $220/ha to >$1,500/ha, while • In drought year with the new methods, net income can go from a loss of 200-300 ¥/mu to a profit of 300-500 ¥/mu, i.e., from a loss of $550/ha to a profit of $880/ha
  29. 29. VIETNAM: Farmer in Dông Trù village – after typhoon
  30. 30. Reduction in Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program evaluation based on data from 8 provinces, 2005-06 Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder * 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper * 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7% * Insects/m2
  31. 31. PeriodPeriod Mean max.Mean max. temp.temp. 00 CC Mean min.Mean min. temp.temp. 00 CC No. ofNo. of sunshine hrssunshine hrs 1 – 151 – 15 NovNov 27.727.7 19.219.2 4.94.9 16–3016–30 NovNov 29.629.6 17.917.9 7.57.5 1 – 15 Dec1 – 15 Dec 29.129.1 14.614.6 8.68.6 16–31 Dec16–31 Dec 28.128.1 12.212.2** 8.68.6 Meteorological and yield data from ANGRAU IPM evaluation, Andhra Pradesh, India, 2006 SeasonSeason Normal (t/ha)Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha)SRI (t/ha) Rabi 2005-06Rabi 2005-06 2.252.25 3.473.47 Kharif 2006Kharif 2006 0.21*0.21* 4.164.16 * Low yield was due to cold injury (see above) *Sudden drop in min. temp. during 16–21 Dec.: 9.2-9.8o C for 5 days
  32. 32. Measured Differences in Grain Quality Conv. Methods SRI Methods Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) Difference Chalky kernels (%) 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 -30.7% General chalkiness (%) 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 -65.7% Milled rice outturn (%) 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 +16.1% Head milled rice (%) 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 +17.5% Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Haerbin, 8/2004
  33. 33. Welcome to the world of Tilda PROMOTION OF SRI WITH BASMATI RICE IN HARYANA Powerpoint for 3rd National SRI Symposium, Coimbatore, India, 12/08
  34. 34. SRI: Increased farm yield • Higher tillering • More filled grains per panicle • Better grain weight
  35. 35. SRI: Improved Basmati Quality • Improved head rice recovery • Reducing chalkiness • Less green grains • Fewer damaged & discolored grains • Reduced immature grains • Better shining
  36. 36. Haryana farmers’ views • Bit complicatedBit complicated • Not cheapNot cheap • Labor-intensiveLabor-intensive • Requires continuous attentionRequires continuous attention • Need strong extension & trainingNeed strong extension & training SRI has tremendous potential for small farmersSRI has tremendous potential for small farmers Constraints on SRI
  37. 37. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) 1 KM Defence Road, Bhobatian Chowk, Raiwind Road, Lahore Tel: +92 (042) 532 2205 Fax: +92 (042) 532 1509 info@farmalltechnology.com www.farmalltechnology.com Solutions Provider in Farm Sector
  38. 38. Raised Bed Maker with Fertilizer & Compost Applicator Does 5 jobs in one go: • Opens furrows • Makes raised bed • Shapes/compacts bed • Applies fertilizer in the root zone • Applies compost in a band where the plant is going to be transplanted Recommended dose of compost is 4 tons per acre. However, with this machine doing precision placement in a band, compost application can be only 200-400 kg.
  39. 39. Precision Weeder in Operation without a Tractor Operator
  40. 40. Crop condition 62 days after transplanting -- average no. of tillers per plant exceeds 90 VID00034-20090823-1733.3GP
  41. 41. METHANE EMISSIONS Research on greenhouse gases (GHG) at Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB)
  42. 42. N2O EMISSIONS Research on greenhouse gases (GHG) at Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB)
  43. 43. Yan, X., H. Akiyama, K. Yagi and H. Akomoto. ‘Global estimations of the inventory and mitigation potential of methane emissions from rice cultivation conducted using the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines.’ Global Biochemical Cycles, (2009) “We estimated that if all of the continuously flooded rice fields were drained at least once during the growing season, the CH4 emissions would be reduced by 4.1 Tg a-1 . Furthermore, we estimated that applying rice straw off-season wherever and whenever possible would result in a further reduction in emissions of 4.1 Tg a-1 globally. … if both of these mitigation options were adopted, the global CH4 emission from rice paddies could be reduced by 7.6 Tg a-1. Although draining continuously flooded rice fields may lead to an increase in nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, the global warming potential resulting from this increase is negligible when compared to the reduction in global warming potential that would result from the CH4 reduction associated with draining the fields.”
  44. 44. Status of SRI: As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
  45. 45. Spread of SRI demonstrations and use in 10 years Up to 1999 Madagascar 1999-2000 China, Indonesia 2000-01 Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cuba, India, Laos, Nepal, Myanmar, Philippines, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03 Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Peru 2004-05 Senegal, Mali, Pakistan, Vietnam 2006 Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007 Afghanistan 2008 Brazil, Egypt, Rwanda, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Timor Leste 2009 Ghana . . .
  46. 46. THANK YOU • Web page: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ • Email: ciifad@cornell.edu or ntu1@cornell.edu

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