Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

0954 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Its Relevance to Smallholders Sustainable Agriculture

495 views

Published on

Presented by: Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD, Cornell University, USA

Presented at: Don Bosco Rural Training Center, Tetere, Solomon Islands

Presented on: November 10, 2009

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

0954 The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Its Relevance to Smallholders Sustainable Agriculture

  1. 1. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Its Relevance to Smallholders Sustainable Agriculture Don Bosco Rural Training Center Tetere, November 10, 2009 Prof. Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
  2. 2. Rice sector in 21st century needs: acc. to IRRI/DG, Intl. Year of Rice, 2004 • Increased land productivity-- higher yield • Higher water productivity -- crop per drop • Technology that is accessible for the poor • Technology that is environmentally friendly • Greater resistance to pests and diseases • Tolerance of abiotic stresses (climate change) • Better grain quality for consumers, and • Greater profitability for farmers
  3. 3. SRI practices help meet all these needs: • Higher yields by 50-100% -- or more • Water reduction of 25-50% (also rainfed) • Reduced for capital expenditure • Little or no need for agrochemical inputs • Induced pest and disease resistance • Tolerance for drought - little/no lodging • Better grain quality -- less chalkiness • Lower costs of production by 10-20% -- which leads to higher farmers’ income
  4. 4. SRI is application of Agroecology can summarized in statements: 1. Enhance the life in the soil (in soil systems), recognizing the precedence of soil biology which shapes soil’s chemistry and physics 2.Improve the growing environment (E) of crops in order to induce more productive phenotypes from any given crop genotype (G)
  5. 5. Agroecological principle #1: SUPPORT the recycling of biomass to optimize nutrient availability in the soil and balance nutrient flows in the soil and biosphere over time
  6. 6. Agroecological principle #2: PROVIDE the most favorable soil conditions which enhance soil structure and the functioning of soil systems, esp. by managing organic matter and by enhancing soil biotic activity
  7. 7. Agroecological principle #3: MINIMIZE losses of energy and other growth factors within plants’ microenvironments -- both above & below ground -- in ways that can maximize resource-use efficiency
  8. 8. Agroecological principle #4: DIVERSIFY the species and the genetic resources within agroecosystems, both over time and over space
  9. 9. Agroecological principle #5: ENHANCE beneficial biological interactions and synergies among all of the components of agrobiodiversity, thereby promoting key ecological processes and services (Reijntjes et al., 1992; Altieri 2002;)
  10. 10. SRI is many things: – SRI derives from a certain number of INSIGHTS, based on experience – SRI can be explained in terms of PRINCIPLES having scientific bases – SRI gets communicated to farmers in terms of specific PRACTICES that improve the growing environment for their rice plants - at same time, – SRI offers an alternative PARADIGM a different approach to agriculture - pointing toward post-modern agriculture
  11. 11. SRI is NOT A TECHNOLOGY While SRI practices look like a PACKAGE or even like a RECIPE, they are really to be understood more like a MENU • Farmers are encouraged to use as many of the practices as possible, as well as possible • There is considerable research evidence that each practice contributes to higher yield • There is also evidence of a certain synergy operating among the practices – so that the best results come from using them together
  12. 12. SRI is NOT YET FINISHED -- SRI was empirically developed, so we are continually improving our scientific understanding of SRI concepts/theory -- SRI being farmer-centered is always being modified, improved, extended • There are also now rainfed versions of SRI and zero-till, direct-seed, raised-bed forms • SRI ideas are extrapolated to other crops: wheat, sugar cane, millet, teff, beans, etc.
  13. 13. System of Finger Millet Intensification on left; regular management of improved variety and of traditional variety on right
  14. 14. Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha. In 2001, his SRI yield set provincial yield record: 16 t/ha
  15. 15. SRI was developed for smallholders in Madagascar - Fr. Henri de Laulanié came there from France in 1961 – had agricultural training - He started working with farmers to raise yield without dependence on external inputs - In 1983-84 season he learned effects of young seedlings - In late 1980s, when fertilizer subsidies were removed, he switched SRI to compost
  16. 16. Fr. de Laulanié making field visit
  17. 17. Status of SRI: As of 1999 Known and practiced only in Madagascar
  18. 18. SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America Before 1999: Madagascar 1999-2000: China, Indonesia 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba Cambodia, Gambia, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Peru 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, Pakistan, Vietnam 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Iran, Iraq, Zambia 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil 2008: Egypt, Rwanda, Ghana, Ecuador, Costa Rica 2009: Timor Leste, Malaysia Now in 2009, SRI benefits have been validated in 37 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
  19. 19. The Six Basic Ideas for SRI 1. Transplant young seedlings to preserve their growth potential -- but DIRECT SEEDING is now an option 2. Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly and shallow, not inverting root tips which halts growth 3. Give plants wider spacing -– one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve “edge effect” everywhere 4. Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded –- soil should be mostly aerobic -- not continuously saturated 5. Actively aerate the soil as much as possible 6. Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible First 3 practices stimulate plant growth, while the latter 3 practices enhance plants’ ROOTS and of soil BIOTA  better
  20. 20. Cuban farmer with two plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
  21. 21. Single-seed SRI rice plant Variety: Ciherang Fertile tillers: 223 Sampoerna CSR Program, Malang, E. Java, 2009
  22. 22. Additional benefits of SRI practice: • Time to maturity reduced by 1-2 weeks, less exposure to pests and diseases, and to adverse climate; can replant sooner • Higher milling outturn – about 15% •Human resource development for farmers through participatory approach – want farmers to become better managers of their resources, experimenting, evaluating… • Diversification and modernization of smallholder agriculture; can adapt to larger- scale production through mechanization
  23. 23. Requirements/Constraints 1. Water control to apply small amounts of water reliably; may need drainage facilities 2. Supply of biomass for making compost – but can use fertilizer if compost is insufficient 3. Crop protection may be necessary, although usually more resistance to pests & diseases 4. Mechanical weeder is desirable as this can aerate the soil at same time it controls weeds 5. Skill & motivation of farmers most important; need to learn new practices; once techniques are mastered, SRI can become labor-saving 6. Support of experts? have faced opposition
  24. 24. SRI 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 IH H FH MR WR YRStage Organdryweight(g/hill) CK I H H FH MR WR YR Yellow leaf and sheath Panicle Leaf Sheath Stem 47.9% 34.7% Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
  25. 25. Factorial trials by CNRRI, 2004 and 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields Standard Rice Mgmt • 30-day seedlings • 20x20 cm spacing • Continuous flooding • Fertilization: – 100% chemical New Rice Mgmt (SRI) • 20-day seedlings • 30x30 cm spacing • Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) • Fertilization: – 50% chemical, – 50% organic
  26. 26. Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice management (SRI) vs.standard rice management at different plant densities ha-1 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 150,000 180,000 210,000 NRM SRM
  27. 27. AFGHANISTAN: SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
  28. 28. SRI field at 30 days
  29. 29. SRI plant with 133 tillers @ 72 days after transplanting 11.56 t/ha
  30. 30. IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
  31. 31. Two Paradigms for Agriculture: • GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to: * Change the genetic potential of plants, and * Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides • SRI (AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients: * To promote the growth of root systems, and * To increase the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits The goal is to produce better PHENOTYPES
  32. 32. MADAGASCAR: Rice field grown with SRI methods
  33. 33. CAMBODIA: Rice plant grown from single seed in Takeo province
  34. 34. NEPAL: Single rice plant grown with SRI methods, Morang district
  35. 35. IRAN: SRI roots and normal (flooded) roots: note difference in color as well as size
  36. 36. INDONESIA: Rice plants of same age and same variety in Lombok province
  37. 37. Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI by Nippon Koei team, 2002-06 • No. of trials: 12,133 • Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares • Ave. increase in yield: 3.3 t/ha (78%) • Reduction in water requirements: 40% • Reduction in fertilizer use: 50% • Reduction in costs of production: 20% Note: In Bali (DS 2006) 24 farmers on 42 ha: SRI + Longping hybrids → 13.3 vs. 8.4 t/ha
  38. 38. SRI LANKA: same rice variety, same irrigation system & same drought -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
  39. 39. VIETNAM: Dông Trù village, Hanoi province, after typhoon
  40. 40. Nie Fu-qiu, Bu Tou village, Zhejiang In 2004, SRI gave highest yield in province: 12 t/ha In 2005, his SRI rice fields were hit by three typhoons – yet he was still able to harvest 11.15 tons/ha -- while other farmers’ fields were badly affected by the storm damage In 2008, Nie used chemical fertilizer, and crop lodged
  41. 41. Irrigation method Seed- ling age Spacing (cm2 ) Time to flowering Time to maturity Plant lodging percentage Partial Complete Total Inter- mittent irrigation (AWDI) 14 30x30 75 118 6.67 0 6.67 30x18 74.67 118.67 40.00 6.67 46.67 21 30x30 72.67 117.67 26.67 20 46.67 30x18 74.33 117 13.33 13.33 26.67 Ordinary irrigation (continu- ous flooding) 14 30x30 73.33 122 16.67 33.33 50.00 30x18 72 121 26.67 53.33 80.00 21 30x30 72 120.67 20 76.67 96.67 30x18 72.67 121 13.33 80 93.33 Time to flowering, maturity, and plant lodging percentage as affected by AWDI and ordinary irrigation practice combined with different age of seedlings and spacing in Chiba, 2008 (Chapagain and Yamaji, 2009)
  42. 42. Incidence of Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06: Spring season Summer season SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence SRI Plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder * 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper * 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7% * Insects/m2
  43. 43. Theory of Trophobiosis (F. Chaboussou, Healthy Crops, 2004) deserves more attention and empirical evaluation than it has received to date Its propositions are well supported by published literature over last 50 years -- and by long-standing observations about adverse effects of nitrogenous fertilizers and chlorinated pesticides Theory does not support strictly ‘organic’ approach because nutrient amendments are approved where soil deficits exist
  44. 44. Theory of ‘Trophobiosis’ Explains incidence of pest and disease in terms of plants’ nutrition: Nutrient imbalances and deficiencies lead to excesses of free amino acids in the plants’ sap and cells, not yet synthesized into proteins – and more simple sugars in sap and cytoplasm not incorporated into polysaccharides This condition attracts and nourishes insects, bacteria, fungi, even viruses
  45. 45. PeriodPeriod Mean max.Mean max. temp.temp. 00 CC Mean min.Mean min. temp.temp. 00 CC No. ofNo. of sunshine hrssunshine hrs 1 – 151 – 15 NovNov 27.727.7 19.219.2 4.94.9 16–3016–30 NovNov 29.629.6 17.917.9 7.57.5 1 – 15 Dec1 – 15 Dec 29.129.1 14.614.6 8.68.6 16–31 Dec16–31 Dec 28.128.1 12.212.2++ 8.68.6 Resistance to cold temperatures: Meteorological and yield data from ANGRAU, A.P., India, 2006 SeasonSeason Normal (t/ha)Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha)SRI (t/ha) Kharif 2006Kharif 2006 0.21*0.21* 4.164.16 Rabi 2005-06Rabi 2005-06 2.252.25 3.473.47 * Low yield due to cold injury (see above) + Sudden drop in minimum temp. for 5 days (16–21 Dec. 9.2-9.9o C )
  46. 46. Measured Differences in Grain Quality Conv. Methods SRI Methods Characteristic (3 spacings) (3 spacings) Difference Chalky kernels (%) 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 - 30.7% General chalkiness (%) 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 - 65.7% Milled rice outturn (%) 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 +16.1% Head milled rice (%) 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 +17.5% Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Haerbin, 8/2004
  47. 47. How to “speed up the biological clock” (adapted from Nemoto et al. 1995) Shorter phyllochrons Longer phyllochrons • Higher temperatures > cold temperatures • Wider spacing > crowding of roots/canopy • More illumination > shading of plants • Ample nutrients in soil > nutrient deficits • Soil penetrability > compaction of soil • Sufficient moisture > drought conditions • Sufficient oxygen > hypoxic soil conditions
  48. 48. Root cross-sections of varieties: upland (left) and irrigated (right) ORSTOM research (Puard et al. 1989)
  49. 49. Current research in Indonesia at IPB: cross-sections of rice roots at 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks after planting – with conventional mgmt, SRI with fertilizer, and SRI with organic inputs
  50. 50. Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spacedSRI LANKA: Best use of transplanting methods
  51. 51. SRI LANKA: Soil-aerating hand weeder costs <$10
  52. 52. Effect of Active Soil Aeration 412 farmers in Morang district, Nepal, using SRI in monsoon season, 2005 SRI yield = 6.3 t/ha vs. control = 3.1 t/ha • Data show how WEEDINGS can raise yield No. of No. of Average Range weedings farmers yield of yields 1 32 5.16 (3.6-7.6) 2 366 5.87 (3.5-11.0) 3 14 7.87 (5.85-10.4)
  53. 53. Mechanical Weedings Farmers (N) Area (ha) Harvest (kg) Yield (t/ha) None 2 0.11 657 5.973 One 8 0.62 3,741 7.723 Two 27 3.54 26,102 7.373 Three 24 5.21 47,516 9.120 Four 15 5.92 69,693 11.772 Impact of Weedings on Yield with SRI Methods Ambatovaky, Madagascar, 1997-98
  54. 54. Mechanization of weeding, i.e., soil aeration, is also possible
  55. 55. Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations; yield in 2003-04 rabi season was 16.2 t/ha paddy (dry weight)
  56. 56. ‘Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology’ Rhizo- bium test strain Total plant root volume/ pot (cm3 ) Shoot dry weight/ pot (g) Net photo- synthetic rate (μmol-2 s-1 ) Water utilization efficiency Area (cm2 ) of flag leaf Grain yield/ pot (g) Ac-ORS571 210 ± 36A 63 ± 2A 16.42 ± 1.39A 3.62 ± 0.17BC 17.64 ± 4.94ABC 86 ± 5A SM-1021 180 ± 26A 67 ± 5A 14.99 ± 1.64B 4.02 ± 0.19AB 20.03 ± 3.92A 86 ± 4A SM-1002 168 ± 8AB 52 ± 4BC 13.70 ± 0.73B 4.15 ± 0.32A 19.58 ± 4.47AB 61 ± 4B R1-2370 175 ± 23A 61 ± 8AB 13.85 ± 0.38B 3.36 ± 0.41C 18.98 ± 4.49AB 64 ± 9B Mh-93 193 ± 16A 67 ± 4A 13.86 ± 0.76B 3.18 ± 0.25CD 16.79 ± 3.43BC 77 ± 5A Control 130 ± 10B 47 ± 6C 10.23 ± 1.03C 2.77 ± 0.69D 15.24 ± 4.0C 51 ± 4C Feng Chi et al.,Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278
  57. 57. Data are based on the average linear root and shoot growth of three symbiotic (dashed line) and three nonsymbiotic (solid line) plants. Arrows indicate the times when root hair development started. Ratio of root and shoot growth in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic rice plants (symbiotic plants inoculated with Fusarium culmorum) Russell J. Rodriguez et al., ‘Symbiotic regulation of plant growth, development and reproduction,’ Communicative and Integrative Biology, 2:3 (2009).
  58. 58. Growth of nonsymbiotic (on left) and symbiotic (on right) rice seedlings. On growth of endophyte (F. culmorum) and plant inoculation procedures, see Rodriguez et al., Communicative and Integrative Biology, 2:3 (2009).
  59. 59. Extensions of SRI to Other Crops:Extensions of SRI to Other Crops: Uttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, IndiaUttarakhand / Himachal Pradesh, India Crop No. of Farmers Area (ha) Grain Yield (t/ha) % Incr. 2006 Conv. SRI Rajma 5 0.4 1.4 2.0 43 Manduwa 5 0.4 1.8 2.4 33 Wheat Research Farm 5.0 1.6 2.2 38 2007 Rajma 113 2.26 1.8 3.0 67 Manduwa 43 0.8 1.5 2.4 60 Wheat (Irrig.) 25 0.23 2.2 4.3 95 Wheat (Unirrig.) 25 0.09 1.6 2.6 63 Rajma (kidney beans) Manduwa (millet)
  60. 60. Sugar cane grown with SRI methods (left) in Andhra Pradesh Reported yields of 125-235 t/ha compared with usual 65 t/ha
  61. 61. ICRISAT-WWF Sugarcane Initiative: at least 20% more cane yield, with: • 30% reduction in water, and • 25% reduction in chemical inputs ‘The inspiration for putting this package together is from the successful approach of SRI – System of Rice Intensification.’
  62. 62. HIGH-TILLERING TRAIT IN TEFF WHEN TRANSPLANTED WITH WIDER SPACING
  63. 63. 1ST S.T.I. TRIALS, 2008 Duplication of Earlier Findings VARIETYVARIETY SOWINGSOWING METHODMETHOD PELLETINGPELLETING YIELDYIELD (Kg/Ha)(Kg/Ha) Cross 37Cross 37 BroadcastBroadcast NoneNone 1,0141,014 BroadcastBroadcast YesYes 483483 20 cm x 20 cm20 cm x 20 cm NoneNone 3,3903,390 20 cm x 20 cm20 cm x 20 cm YesYes 5,1095,109 Cross 387Cross 387 BroadcastBroadcast NoneNone 1,1811,181 BroadcastBroadcast YesYes 1,0361,036 20 cm x 20 cm20 cm x 20 cm NoneNone 4,1424,142 20 cm x 20 cm20 cm x 20 cm YesYes 4,3854,385 YIFRU ( 1998 ) M. Sc. THESIS Reported yield of 4-5 tons/ha for non-lodged teff vs. 2-3 t/ha for lodged teff
  64. 64. 2ND S.T.I. TRIALS, 2009 COMPOUND FERTILIZER + SPACING Variety: DZ-01-974 (3 replications I-III) I II III TOTAL AVE. YIELD (kg/ha)* DAP + UREA 57 49.5 34.2 140.7 46.9 6,700 DAP + NP + Zn 56.6 53.8 60.6 171 57.0 8,143 DAP + NP + Cu 67.6 58.4 40.4 166.4 55.5 7,924 DAP + NP + Zn + Cu 76.2 50.9 53.3 180.4 60.1 8,591 SUKUBE SUKUBE (NPK + Cu, Zn, Mn) + UREA 68.6 61.8 54.1 184.5 61.5 8,786 CHECK: NO FERTILIZER 5.3 11.2 3.2 19.7 6.6 938 * YIELD LEVELS NEVER REPORTED BEFORE
  65. 65. SRI is pointing the way toward a possible paradigm shift to ‘post-modern agriculture’: • Less ‘genocentric’ and more profoundly ‘biocentric’ • Re-focus biotechnology and bioengineering to capitalize on biodiversity and ecological dynamics • Less chemical-dependent and more energy-efficient • More oriented to the health of people and of environment • Intensification of production --not continued extensification • Focus on factor productivity and on sustainability !
  66. 66. THANK YOU • Check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ • Email: ciifad@cornell.edu or ntu1@cornell.edu

×